61 Records out of 22207 Records

Ethnicity and Kenya's transition to democracy, 1990 to 2007

Author: Imbenzi, Alexander Muteshi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Democracy/Political power/Minority and ethnic groups ;

Abstract:

This study examines the influence of ethnicity in the democratic transition in Kenya between 1990 - 2007. The study specifically responds to two core tasks using the Relative Group Worth Approach. Firstly, it examines and attempts an explanation on the centrality of ethnic instrumentalization and mobilization in Kenya Secondly, it analyses the impact of ethic instrumentalization and mobilization on the democratic process in Kenya. The study argues that the sluggish pace of Kenya's transition to democracy is a function of instrumentalization of ethnicity by political entrepreneurs to the extent that they derive values by polarizing identities. The study recommends that the requisite institutional framework needs to be put in place to mediate on the negative impact of ethnicity.

Political leadership as a source of conflict in Africa : a case study of Kenya

Author: Ogaja Irene Atieno

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : Master of Internatio

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Political power ; Leadership ; Conflicts ; Africa ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The impact of ethnicity on Kenya's democratic transition 1990 - 2007

Author: Ng'ang'a, Watau

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : Master of Internatio

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Impact analysis ; Multiculturalism and pluralism ; Minority and ethnic groups ; Democracy ; Political power ; History ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The rise and fall of civil-authoritarianism in Africa : patronage, participation, and political parties in Kenya and Zambia.

Author: Cheeseman, N

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Political science ; Authoritarianism ; Political parties ; Political power ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Segregationist town planning and the emergence of African political protest in colonial Nairobi, 1899-1939.

Author: Murunga, Godwin Rapando

Awarding University: Northwestern University, USA

Level : PhD.

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: History ; African history ; Colonialism ; Political power ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This study discusses contestations over segregationist town planning in Nairobi. It argues that the built environment this form of planning gave rise to largely influenced the patterns of African nationalist protest in the inter-war period. Segregation and the establishment of African locations at a distance from European residences and commercial areas, backed up by neglect in service provision to these areas and by a laissez-faire administrative approach to implementing important decisions relating to Africans, all facilitated a convergence of African political protests outside the purview of effective colonial surveillance. In part, this explains why Mau Mau was a surprise in some quarters of the colonial system. To facilitate this analysis, I use the sanitary factor to explain how the built environment and spatial organization of the town took their specific forms. At the center of segregationist town planning were European concerns about disease, sanitation and public health. The study highlights the role of plague in the settler rhetoric about sanitation and how the practice of town planning was influenced by fears of plague by the settler population in the town. This therefore is as much a study in the social implications of medical policy as it is about the spatial consequences of colonial town planning. It concludes that the residential makeup of Nairobi encouraged interactions among Africans and Asians that largely took place outside the framework of colonial control thereby allowing new forms of collective action that benefited principally from the towns' spatial organization.

Challenges to the hegemonic African state : media and civil society in Kenya and Zambia.

Author: Mudhai, O.F

Awarding University: Nottingham Trent University, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Political science ; Political power ; Leadership ; Media ; Zambia ;

Abstract:

The central argument in this thesis is that urban-based political Civil Society actors, particularly Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and news media, in both Kenya and Zambia, perceive Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as presenting them with significant opportunities for achieving greater democracy. Representatives of these non-state actors view the Internet, e-mail and the cell phone in particular as tools that have not only enhanced their operational efficiency but also helped them overcome obstacles that the ruling elites often erected using human, material and ideological state machinery- to stifle any form of challenge to their incumbency. Increasingly, the new media enable the non-state actors to engage in cross-border communicational activities as a way of effecting changes within states. They facilitate what David Held has described as webs of relations and networks that stretch across national borders. However, unlike recent cosmopolitan approaches to democratic theory and practice, this stud privileges local conditions and off-line factors concomitant with the use of rapidly diffusing new media technology. Taking a structural approach to democratic theory and thereby employing civil society perspective with a focus on a recently modified public sphere concept, this thesis makes a significant contribution to knowledge through an empirical study based on interviews carried out in Nairobi and Lusaka around crucial election epoch. By providing a rare insight into perceptions on new media by a category of Africa?s political actors who have been not only considered early ICT adopters and topmost users, but also largely accredited for recent waves of democratisation, this study departs from a plethora of existing literature that have been overly deterministic in favour of technological and conjectural slants to new media in the developing world. To augment authenticity and validity, every effort is made to contextualise the interviewees? claims. This directly addresses a substantial gap in the literature which has been widely identified but not, so far, addressed.

Donors' dilemmas in democratization : foreign aid and political reform in Africa (Malawi, Kenya).

Author: Brown, Stephen

Awarding University: New York University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Foreign aid ; Democracy ; Political power ;

Abstract:

In sub-Saharan Africa more than anywhere else, direct intervention from foreign aid donors has played an important-and under--examined--role in several recent transitions to democracy. For example, in Malawi and Kenya (the dissertation's two case studies), multilateral and bilateral donors specifically suspended new foreign aid in the early 1990s until political reform was enacted--a practice known as political conditionality. As a direct result, in both cases, authoritarian rulers held multiparty elections. In Malawi, power was subsequently transferred to the opposition, while in Kenya a severely flawed electoral process returned the same regime to power. Using data gathered during fieldwork in 1997-98, this dissertation examines the interaction of international and domestic actors to determine the effectiveness and consequences of donor intervention for both democratic transitions and eventual consolidation. Donors can assist the process, notably by raising the cost of continued authoritarian practices and helping build democratic institutions and local capacity. However, international actors' involvement, if only short term, can jeopardize future democratization. In countries such as Malawi, donor intervention, though extremely positive in bringing about a transition, could ultimately be a negative factor for consolidation if it is not sustained, because domestic actors never acquired the strength required to act as a check on the government and pressure for further change. Where donors played a less proactive role, as in Kenya, democratization has proceeded more slowly, but democracy enjoys greater popular legitimacy and domestic actors are in a better position to strive for additional political reform. This study suggests that political conditionality is inherently most effective in prompting political liberalization in an authoritarian country, less effective in ensuring a full transition to democracy and least effective in promoting consolidation. It becomes progressively more difficult for donors to focus their limited leverage effectively as the political reform agenda becomes more broad. Recipients also learn to resist pressure to democratize further. Moreover, donors' lack of long-term commitment, of understanding of the democratization process and how best to assist it, and the prevalence of other priorities (mainly economic reform and political stability) have contributed to political conditionality's middling results to date.

Production of urban space in Kenya : central-local government power relations in mediating space in Athi River town.

Author: Koti, Francis Tama

Awarding University: West Virginia University, USA

Level : MA

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Urban planning/Political power/Public administration/Land use/Athi River (Town)/Mavoko Municipal Council/ ;

Abstract:

Centrally controlled political and economic systems are popular among Third World countries. They however, become problematic particularly in rapidly growing urban areas where different forces compete for scarce resources, hence calling for an understanding of the nature of the relationships between the different forces that produce the urban environment. In Kenya, the basic assumption is that urban space is mediated by the Local state. The author uses Athi River Town, as a case study, through which survey questionnaires and informal interviews are conducted with key personnel of Mavoko Municipal Council on one hand, and Central Government ministries operating within the municipality, on the other. Archival search and content analysis are used to provide a complete historical record of the urban policy, and the legal framework that legitimizes urban land use. Various urban processes are identified through which different Central Government ministries interact with the Local Authority to shape the built environment of the town. The results reveal that though the legal framework empowers local authorities to control the nature and character of the urban built environment, innumerable central controls imposed by the same legislation undermine local capacity to assume this function. The resulting shape of the urban environment, this work concludes, is largely influenced by this unbalanced power relationship.

Democratisation in Tanzania : women's associations and the potential for empowerment.

Author: Brown, Andrea M

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Political power ; Women's studies ; Social classes ; Gender ;

Abstract:

This work is an exploratory study mapping the emerging relationship between women's empowerment and democratisation in Tanzania, from a class perspective. It explores the impacts of the political reform process, which began in the mid-1980s, on the organisational capacities of women in Dar es salaam and the new opportunities emerging for these women to meet empowerment goals. Middle-class women are self- consciously addressing and transforming political, legal and cultural gender power relations as well as initiating practical strategies for women. Poor women are engaging mainly in strategies to meet their practical economic needs, empowering themselves in a more indirect fashion. The distinction between strategic and practical gender interests, developed by Caroline Moser (1989, 1993) and the structural framework formulated by Dawn (Sen and Grown 1985) are operationalised and critiqued to help evaluate strategies most likely to result in the realisation of empowerment. The determination of what strategies and outcomes can be evaluated as empowering is in this study weighted towards the opinions and experiences of the women involved. The practical/strategic distinction as used by Moser is unable to account for empowering outcomes that emerge from practical strategies at both class levels, but most significantly for women working in the informal sector. The Dawn model is ill equipped to address political environment, the middle-class women's movement as a whole, or lower-income women's organisational activities. Transformations within the culture and the economy, and new policies responding to areas identified as of gender concern are resulting in an overall increase in the number of women's empowerment objectives being met at the levels of the family, civil society and the state. Nevertheless, concerns remain with the limited nature of reforms, which have implications for a continued and sustained deepening of both democracy and the potential for women to formulate and realise empowerment goals. However, in comparison with women's movements in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Zambia, the Tanzanian movement is seen as most promising due to its high level of unity and a more supportive political environment.

Analyzing African 'civil society' : people's orientation to the state in colonial and independent Kenya.

Author: Kamino, Yukio

Awarding University: University of Denver, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Political science/African history/Colonialism/Political power/Multiculturalism and pluralism/ ;

Abstract:

This study is a broad review of Kenyan people's political experiences from the pre-colonial time into the 1990s. First, it points out that sovereign polities of sub-Saharan Africa generally have been strikingly autocratic, authoritarian, and anarchic-while the literature on the subject has typically been unduly theory-constrained, imaginary, neglectful of history, and focused on the state/political elite. This study sees itself as an antithesis of those aspects of the literature. Following the revelation of indigenous traditions and process of colonial conquest, both the colonial and independent periods are discussed in the order of: governance, opposition, and the people's political orientation. The last item is examined regarding four select questions: which sociological identities did the autonomous political actors represent? Which types of non-compliant activities were common? Which aspects of the state were popular? And, which motives for political compliance with the state were prevalent? Each inquiry employs its own set of conceptual categories/variables as the analytical tool, and substantiates prominent patterns by utilizing a vast range of information found in academic works and news periodicals. This study reveals that there has been a remarkable degree of similarities in the Kenyan orientation to the colonial and independent states. Particularly notable among such continuities are: the decisive significance of (sub-)ethnic communalism in political formation and the general lack of trans-communal bonds; the resistance to state regulations and the prevalence of conventional crimes; the wide-spread resentment of the autocratic- authoritarian political structure, including the authorities themselves, and the belief in grass-roots movements for development; and political compliance with the state being based on fear of punishment by the state, or benefit of exchange with it, rather than genuine support for it. The study points out that such political patterns in Kenya sharply contradict the notion of 'civil society,' or any sound human organization, and attributes them to indigenous and colonial legacies as well as African governance. Finally, it assesses two diametrically opposing strategies to counter communal divisions in Africa.