29 Records out of 22207 Records

The role of NGOs in conflict transformation : a case study of the Catholic Justice and Peace Commission in Lelan Division, West Pokot County, Kenya

Author: Sang, Philista J

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nongovernmental organizations/Conflict resolution/Peace-building/Catholic churches/Catholic Justice and Peace Commission/Lelan Division, West Pokot District/Pokot (African people)/Marakwet (African people)/ ;

Abstract:

The concept of contlict transformation can be traced back to the writings of Lederach in the 1980s and those of Galtung in the late 1970s.The concept, however, gained much support with the evolution of conceptualization of human security by the international community. The protracted nature of conflicts arising in Kenya has led to the 'ldoption of the conflict transformation approach by NGOs involved in peace building. Studies, however, indicate that NGOs, despite setting out with conflict transformation plans, end up resolving and managing conflicts; they do not transform conflicts. This has been as a result of the unclear specification of activities that the NGOs are expected to be involved in so as to transform conflicts. This study, therefore, sought to find out the role ofNGOs in conflict transformation. This is a case study of activities by the Catholic Justice and Peace Commission (CJPC) in Lelan division, west Pokot County. Data for this study was collected in 2012. The: study employed several methods of data collection including focus group discussions with different categories of respondents in Lelan and key informant interviews with officials from CJPC and Lelan. The findings show that CJPC had been involved in initiation of various peace connector projects in the region and in the formation of youth and women groups. These activities had been instrumental in addressing access to economic resources and raising standards of living in the region. They also served to erode stereotypes and suspicion among Pokot and Marakwet in the region. The study also found out that CJPC was actively involved in facilitating workshops aimed at disseminating knowledge concerning peace building. The 0 organization also incorporated cultural practices and beliefs in its activities. In order to ensure complete change of attitudes and perceptions towards rival groups, the study recommends that CJPC initiate activities that bring more children on board. This would ensure that their attitudes are shaped towards peaceful coexistence at an early age hence ensuring durable peace. The study also recommends that the current draft national policy on peace building and conflict management (NPPBCM) provide for roles by NGOs and other actors in peace building. This would ensure that the policy is effective in ending conflicts in Kenya.

Media and conflict resolution : the case of Cattle Rustling in Northern Kenya

Author: Emeripus, John

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Northern Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Conflict resolution ; Livestock ; Turkana County ; Pokot County ; Rustling ; Mass media ; Turkana (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ;

Abstract:

This Northern Kenya case study is an example of armed violence in the periphery, in the remote, semi-arid northern districts of the country. The economy is principally dependent upon pastoralism, and armed violence is mostly associated with livestock raiding. This case study focuses on two contrasting counties of northern Kenya: Turkana in the north-west, which has endured a particularly intense couple of decades of armed violence and the Pokot.Although livestock raiding is an inherent feature of the pastoralist economy, it appears to have become increasingly violent since the early 1980s as small arms became more widely available. It is now associated with higher and less discriminate loss of human life and greater livestock losses. The conflict dynamics that fuel livestock raiding are complex and extend far beyond a simple 'competition for scarce resources' model. The weakness of government, specifically of state security institutions, means that criminal activity can flourish, particularly in the form of 'commercialized' livestock raiding. Instability has sometimes been encouraged for electoral purposes. The wider regional dynamics are also critical, as northern Kenya borders with Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, all of which have had, or are currently experiencing violent civil wars. They are thus associated with lawlessness and the unchecked flow of small arms. The use of arms in northern Kenya has to be understood in this wider context.

Factors influencing cross border conflict resolution between Turkana and Pokot communities of Northern Kenya

Author: Ekiru, Mark Narengo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Northern Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Conflict resolution ; Turkana (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ; Kainuk Division, Turkana County ; Sigor Division, West Pokot County ;

Abstract:

For many decades peacemaking between Turkana and Pokot communities in Northern Kenya has been very elusive. This study therefore examined major factors influencing cross border conflict resolution between the two communities with the aim of determining the extent to which local politics, local culture, social and the prevailing economic conditions influence interventions for durable conflict resolution. Cross border conflict has been evolving taking many forms currently manifested through regular cattle raids, highway banditry, conflict over resources such as land, pasture and water. The study was carried out in two divisions, Kainuk in Turkana County and Sigor in West Pokot County. Questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Data analysis was done with the aid of the SPSS tool. Rank correlation and regression techniques were used in data analysis and based on the results of the data analysis, the study findings clearly indicated that economic factors had the highest influence in cross border conflict resolution with key elements such as deepening poverty, high unemployment, over-reliance on single livelihood and natural resource competition ranked high as the main economic drivers. Political factors came second and most of the respondents pointed out to lack of local leaders peace building capacities, incitements, disregard of the traditional governance systems, long held marginalization and lack of local communities in development activities and implementation which played a key role in influencing cross border conflict building and resolution. Breakdown of social networks and decline of intercommoned interactions through sports and intermarriages reduced extent of harmonious co-existence which previously existed. Finally cultural factors which played a greater influence were ingrained in deep held value system, rituals, rites and beliefs. The contemporary setting within the two communities indicated that these cultural elements had been abdicated and thus played a lesser role in cross border conflict resolution. The study concludes that the four factors discussed had high level of influence on cross border conflict resolution and therefore recommended strengthening of cross border policing, enforcing laws that prohibit politicians from interfering in peace building efforts, creating investments on the local economy and diversifying livelihoods of the communities while at the same time reviving social networks with a high premium on peace, and also taking into account positive cultural elements that paid dividends on cross border peace. These actions to be taken by the by government, civil society, United Nations agencies, donors and the Non Governmental Organizations.

Policing strategies and their effects on cattle rustling in Tot Division, Marakwet District in Elgeyo Marakwet County

Author: Murkomen, Mark Kosgei

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tot Division, Marakwet District ; Pastoralists ; Rustling ; Law enforcement ; Marakwet (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ; Social life and customs ;

Abstract:

Marakwet-Pokot cattle rustling have led to great suffering to the people of Tot Division in Kerio Valley for a very long time; defying interventions from the local community, civil society and the state. Many lives and property have been lost, as well as the internal displacement of people and abrupt closure of schools and businesses. This study assessed the effects of policing strategies on cattle rustling in Tot Division, Marakwet District. The general objective of the study was to assess the effects of policing strategies on cattle rustling in Northern Kenya. The study involved 77 respondents, from two categories. There were 28 respondents from various police units and 49 respondents from the local community residents in the categories of elders, women and youth. 14 key informants were purposively selected from provincial administration officers, religious leaders, leaders of NGOs and CBOS dealing with conflicts. The respondents were selected through stratified sampling. The data was collected using questionnaires, key informant guide and observations in the field. The study utilized survey design to achieve its objectives. The study generated and utilized both qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS computer program and described using descriptive statistics. The qualitative data was analyzed using themes and trend analysis. The data was presented in frequency tables, percentages and charts. The study found out that cattle rustling in Tot Division led to loss of live and property, displacement of people, closing of businesses, poverty and under development. The study established that the following policing strategies were engaged to fight cattle rustling in Tot: peace building and restoration, deployment of more police officers, disarmament, arrest and prosecution, gathering of intelligence, stopping illegal arms and livestock trade, laws and policy framework, community policing and free and compulsory education. The study established that, the following socio-economic, political, cultural and environmental factors in the society impede the functioning of policing strategies in the area: cultural support for cattle rustling, political influence, organization of illegal arms and livestock trade, poverty and youth unemployment, rough terrain and hot weather conditions, and finally police low morale, poor equipments and training. The study found out that the policing strategies employed were not very effective in preventing cattle rustling. However some succeeded to a limited extent. The study recommended that the government should conduct continuous disarmament and ensure the country's porous borders are properly manned to prevent entry of illegal firearms and guarantee the security of the pastoralist communities living along the border. The government should also facilitate police officers adequately and develop the pastoralist areas to spur economic growth to provide them with alternative livelihood beside pastoralism. The government, civil society and the local community leaders should encourage education among the pastoralists by building more schools and provide sponsorships.

The socio-political effects of Marakwet-Pokot conflict in Tot Division

Author: Kiptoo, Peter Laxmana

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tot Division, Marakwet District/Kerio Valley, Kenya/Marakwet (African people)/Pokot (African people)/Minority and ethnic groups/Conflict resolution/Rustling/Social conditions and trends ;

Abstract:

This study sought to investigate the effect of Marakwet-Pokot conflict on the sociopolitical organization of the Marakwet in Tot Division (along the Kerio Valley). The Marakwet-Pokot conflict has visited untold sufferings to the people ofKerio Valley for a long time, thereby collapsing traditional socio-po litical institutions of peace-making like kokwo and administration of oath taking ceremonies (muma or miissi. The objectives of the study included determining the nature of Marakwet-Pokot Conflict in Tot Division, identifying the existing socio-political structures of the Marakwet living in Tot Division, exploring the effect of out-migration on the socio-political organization of Marakwet living in Tot Division, and finding out the emerging coping mechanisms. adopted by the Marakwet as a way of preserving their socio-political organization in the face of the violent conflicts in the region. The study targeted 100 respondents. There were 80 randomly selected general informants and 20 purposively selected key informants comprising of provincial administration officials, heads of police divisions, leaders of CBOs, NGOs and church based organizations were targeted as key informants. Questionnaires/ interview schedules, key informant guides and FGD questions were used to collect the data. The quantitative data was then analyzed using SPSS and described using descriptive statistics,? whereas the qualitative data was summarized and interrelationships among variables were noted. The study found out that Marakwet-Pokot conflict has disrupted Marakwet socio-political organization in many respects. There is more involvement of external forces and women in resolving the conflicts than before. The council of elders have been touted as having good experience on how to resolve conflicts, enjoying supremacy and the capacity, to enforce forceful decisions, or having the necessary skill and qualifications because they are the custodians of curses. However, their declining capacity in resolving MarakwetPokot conflict, thereby paving way for external forces, is a reflection of the breakdown of Marakwet socio-political organization as a result ofthe cattle rustling conflicts.

Impact of armed conflict on education : a case study of Chesegon Division of West Pokot District, 1992-2003

Author: Ndege, Julius Kionga

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Chesegon Division, West Pokot District ; Education ; Pokot (African people) ; Traditions ; Conflicts ; Minority and ethnic violence ; School attendance ;

Abstract:

This study analyses the impact of armed conflict on education in West Pokot District in general and in particular Chesegon division between 1992 and 2003. The study argues that armed conflicts, insecurity and violence have negatively influenced the provision of and access to education in the region. Based on a wide array of primary and secondary sources, the study uses historical analysis methodology to analyze the role of African indigenous informal education. Key among these include, customs such as circumcision, age-groups, marriage and bride wealth, herding livestock, cattle raids and heroism the institution of Laibon/diviners, casting of skin sandals and 'reading' of animal entrails, women altitude and envy and dances such as adonga that have contributed to conflicts in West Pokot. The desire to satisfy their basic needs motivates the youth in West Pokot District to engage in conflict. Armed conflict presents an easy avenue for accessing cattle, which is considered the foundation of the socio-economic wellbeing in the District. For instance, raiding provides cattle for paying bride wealth, food, prestige and status. Many youth thus, consider formal education as secondary. Raiding and other cultural activities readily offer solutions to their immediate needs. As detailed in this study, the youth including school-going children are actively involved in the conflicts playing various roles ranging from actual combatants, spies and carriers of looted items among others. The involvement of the pupils/students as shown has significantly lowered the standards of education in the region- through absenteeism, displacement, injuries, fatigue, and loss of interest, diseases and misconduct. The conflicts too, have led (0 fleeing/withdrawing of inspectors of schools and teacher's services. The conflicts have scared away the investors and other education stakeholders, thus making the region to lag behind as far as education standards are concerned. The study concludes that armed conflicts do affect the smooth provision and access to education whenever they occur. It is also imperative to note that conflicts are exacerbated by traditional practices and beliefs of the communities in West Pokot District.

Track one conflict management in cross-border pastoral conflicts : a case study of the Pokot-Karimojong

Author: Migwi, P N

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pastoralists ; Conflict management ; Rustling ; Security ; Pokot (African people) ;

Abstract:

The search for sustainable peace among the cross-border pastoral communities who have for a long time engaged in armed cattle rustling has eluded practitioners and policymakers alike and still obtains as a major challenge to peace and security. This is more so in view of the fact that these conflicts especially in the Horn conflict system are complex, compounded by non-conventional features such as trans-nationalization, their commercialization, and the accompanying proliferation of actors as well as weapons leading to their intensification and escalation in 'Scale and violence. Scholars of pastoral conflicts biased to the conflict research paradigm situate the ensuing violence in the context of a legitimate struggle for remedying oppressive structures that prevents people from achieving their full potentials. They see conflicts as organized to attempt to change the distribution of welfare and argue that violence is the cause of the difference between actual and potential human mental and somatic realizations and is built into the structures resulting in unequal life chances. A proliferation of state and non-state actors has variously applied different approaches and strategies in an attempt to cease hostilities or enable peaceful co-existence among the conflict parties, albeit with little success. Key among these is track one; the official, state-sponsored conflict management approach. This study argues for a principal role by track one actors towards conquest of these challenges to found sustainable peace. Track one conflict management responses, whose mainstay is power and deterrence have so far been ineffective and actors have been accused of lacking adequate focus on other critical imperatives necessary for nurturing sustainable peace. Track one aim for immediate results such as cessation of violence, with explicit possibility of use of power, including military force. Actors have employ strategies such as disarmament, arming of vigilante groups and border surveillance. They have occasionally imposed their will over the pastoral communities, introducing policies that are based on misinformed and unfounded notions that fail to respond to the needs of the people. These approaches are not acquiescent to conflicts with fundamental differences or root causes especially in protracted conflicts over non-negotiable needs. There is need to device techniques for constructive handling of difference and divergence so as to prevent disputes from erupting into violent crisis and designing appropriate institutions that structure and guide the existing conflicts to accommodate all conflict parties and guarantee security of, not just the state but also life and property of the affected communities - hence, human security. This study suggests various but synchronized efforts to meeting human needs - a proactive, deliberate and affirmative action by the state to respond to the human security needs of the pastoral people by establishing a conducive environment that enables them to pursue unlimited life chances; regional effort to deal with instabilities and the arms menace; alliances within the various tracks of conflict management; revitalizing traditional justice systems and conflict transformation. These will ultimately lay a strong foundation for sustainable peace and security of the people, the state and the region.

The role and impact of Armed conflict on women : the case of the Kerio Valley, 1978-2007

Author: Masika, David Neville

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kerio Valley, Kenya ; Women ; Conflicts ; Pokot (African people) ; Marakwet (African people) ; Baringo District ; Marakwet District ; Weapons ; Social impact ; Economic impact ;

Abstract:

The focus of this research is the role and impact of the Kerio Valley armed conflict on women. The research begins with an examination and analysis of the relations of communities living in the Kerio Valley in different historical times and, in particular, the Pokot and Marakwet, who are the main target of this research. This provides a background to the understanding of the conflict and the role of women in it. The study was carried out among the Pokot who live in Kolowa, Bartabwa and Barwesa of the larger Baringo District and among the Marakwet who live in Tot and Tunyo divisions of Marak wet District. The study examined the conflict from 1978 to 2007. In order to understand the conflict, the study argued that the conflict was caused by various factors. The weapons that were used came from different wartorn countries, alongside the communities' traditional weapons. The general conclusion here is that these weapons introduced a new warfare in the valley that influenced women to be involved in the conflict. These roles varied from active roles to those which were passive, but in one way or the other contributed in sustaining the conflict. As the conflict intensified, the post-colonial governments launched disarmament operations that were in one way or another faced by various challenges. It, therefore, became hard for the government security personnel to rid the region of the modem and deadly weapons. The study further argues that the conflict impacted on women in the entire region. This affected life in the valley either in a negative way or in a positive way. Negatively, the conflict inflicted suffering to a large section of the population, who lost their family members and livelihood, as well as being displaced and property destroyed. Positively, there were gains associated with the conflict, ranging from raided livestock to benefits gained by those who took part in trading in arms.

The East Pokot on the precipice : conflict and social change in a pastoralist community

Author: Mutsotso, Beneah Manyuru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pokot (African people) ; Pokot, Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Samburu (African people) ; Njemps (African people) ; Minority and ethnic groups ; Conflicts ; Security ; Social life and customs ; Social change ;

Abstract:

This study was designed to understand the context of the East Pokot conflict with the neighbouring communities and the resultant socio-economic changes/adjustments on pastoral livelihoods. Further, the study sought to understand the nature of the East Pokot relationship with the government of Kenya from the colonial period to the present and how this. has affected pastoralism. The study utilized research questions set out at the beginning to guide the study. The literature on pastoralism shows that pastoralists in general are faced with many challenges: drought, disease and insecurity, and have. an uneasy relationship with government. This is out cf their desire to move freely as pastoralism dictates and the government's intend to put them under control. Government legal and policy reforms have led to the alienation of the most productive pastoral land thereby leading to strained relations. The theoretical framework utilized to guide the study was: rational choice theory, conflict theory and modernization theory. The study utilized a qualitative approach in the data collection and analysis process. Primary sources of data were focus group discussions, group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Secondary data was obtained through review of archival materials and other government documents. Quantitative data was obtained through administration short questionnaire to capture the social characteristics of the respondents who participated in the interviews. The findings of the study were: the triggers of conflict are both historical and contemporary and they vary from conflict zone to another. However claims and counter claims over land and contested administrative boundaries featured prominently. The historical causes were the collapse of the oath taken between the East Pokot and the Samburu, Njemps and the carelessness of the middle age-group among the East Pokot who have failed to take up the responsibility the community has bestowed on them. The East Pokot have now delved into other forms of livelihood as a fall back mechanism or enhancement of pastoralism in response to conflict.. They now undertake activities previously reserved for the poor (chepleng) for a livelihood. Other social adjustments include: cultivation of crops, beer brewing, bee keeping and labour employment. The rise of an entrepreneurial ethic especially among the East Pokot women' is impressive. They now dominate small scale enterprises in the shopping centres - food, kiosks, hotels, grocery shops, honey etc The rise of the indigenous East Pokot businessmen who now dominate the livestock trade is particularly intriguing. Enclosure of common land especially in Churo area is a new phenomenon as people begin to take a more or less permanent claim to land. The rise of alcoholism and the deviant moran reflect a moral decline among the East Pokot. The relationship between the East Pokot, the colonial and independent Kenya government has been strained to the present especially following unpopular government policies towards them. The study concludes that unless the conflicts are urgently resolved the future of East Pokot pastoralism remains in jeopardy due to an increasingly shrinking resource base. The prospect of the East Pokot pastoralism sliding further down the precipice remains real unless the security situation is sustainably resolved. However, the rise of alternatives to pastoralism is a discernible adjustment mechanism which should be enhanced. The study recommends the. following: diversification of pastoralists economy is needed and important in order to reduce over-reliance on livestock; insecurity among pastoralists arid/or agro-pastrolists could be sustainably resolved through utilization of historical records and by itltpartial negotiators; insecurity is a national problem and should receive national attention. At a research level, the study recommends a regional study of conflict between pastoralists in order to appreciate it

Factors affecting the nutrition status of the Pokot and the Tugen elderly in the drought areas of Baringo District.

Author: Odunga, Pauline Omboko

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition ; Drought ; Tugen (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ; Baringo District ; Older people ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE