105 Records out of 22207 Records

A study of factors associated with potential human exposure to pesticides and levels of lead, copper and organochlorine residues in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South district

Author: Gathumbi, Jason Kimotho

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kirinyaga South District ; Pesticides ; Environmental conditions ; Health hazards ; Soils ; Fish ; Food contamination and poisoning ;

Abstract:

Exposure to pesticides, heavy metals and other chemical residues poses health risk to human beings and farm animals. This may occur directly or indirectly especially during pesticide application by farmers when carrying out various agricultural activities. This study was therefore carried out in Kirinyaga South district with an overall objective of identifying factors that are associated with potential exposure of farmers and farm workers to commonly used pesticides and determining levels of copper, lead and organochlorine pesticide residues in fish and soil sediments. Information was gathered from one hundred and fifty two (152) farmers and farm workers on the extent of possible exposure to pesticides. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires, on some agricultural practices that may lead to exposure of human to pesticides. The levels of copper, lead and organochlorine residues were determined in tilapia, catfish and soil sediments which were sampled during the months of December 2009 and May 2010 from Thiba and Nyamindi Rivers and the Canal joining the two rivers. The concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in each sample was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The types and quantities of organochlorines were determined using Gas Liquid Chromatography technique. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to tests level of significance at 95% confidence limit using Statistical Package for Social Scientists Statistics 17.0 version. The results showed that commonly used pesticides belonged to chemical groups of organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, Ivermectin, amitraz, strobilurin and neonicotinoid. The biological pesticide used was Bacillus thurigiensis. Farmers who reported having been trained on handling of the pesticides were 13.8%. Majority (85%) of the farmers kept farm chemicals in a store away from the living house. Use of Personal Protection Equipment was reported by 49.3% of the farmers. Types of Personal Protection Equipment used by famers included gumboots, coats and jackets 19.1 %, gumboots and overall 17.1 % and gumboots, overall and facial masks 8.55%. Disposal methods of empty pesticide containers were burning 27.6%, burying 16.5%, and both burning and burying 37.5%. A total of twenty nine (29) health effects were reported, where itchy skin accounted for 20.8 %, runny nose 13.1 %, eye problems 9.8% and dry throat 9.3 %. The mean concentration oflead in tilapia was 5.61?1.81 ppm ranging from 2.50 to 9.66 ppm and in catfish was 5.64?1.79 ppm ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 ppm. The mean concentration of copper in tilapia was 8.28?8.87 ppm, ranging from 0.50 to 33.33 ppm and in catfish was 3.63?5.20 ppm, ranging from 0.50 to 25.66 ppm. The mean concentration for copper was significantly different (p <0.05) between tilapia and cat fish such that tilapia had significantly high levels. Concentration of copper was also significantly different (p <0.05) between the sampling months of December and May such that December had significantly high levels. The mean concentration oflead in soil sediment was 18.73?9.59 ppm ranging from 6.80 to 66.40 ppm. The mean concentration of copper in soil sediment was 19.26?5.75 ppm ranging from 11.20 to 34.40 ppm. Soil sediment from Thiba River had the highest amount of lead, 66.40 ppm while the lowest level of 6.80 ppm was from Nyamindi River. The Canal soil sediment had the highest amount of copper, 34.40 ppm and the lowest level of 11.20 ppm was from Nyamindi river. The mean level of copper was significantly different (p <0.05) between the sampling sites such that the canal had significantly high levels. In the analysis of organochlorines in fish samples, p,p'DDE was the only detected organochlorine in 38% of the samples. The mean p,p'DDE concentration in fish from Nyamindi river was 16.9 ?5.4Jlglg ranging from 9.1 to 21.6 ug/g while that in Thiba river was 24.1? 11.48 j.lg/g ranging from 10.3 to 50 Jl

Structural modification of some flavonoids to enhance their larvicidal activity

Author: Sangale, Michael Bugigi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Flavonoids/Antioxidants/Aedes aegypti/Mosquitoes/Pesticides ;

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to modify three naturally occurring flavonoids namely: abyssinone V-4'~methyl ether (5), (+)-usararotenoid-A (6) and (+)_12a-epimilletosin (7) in a bid to enhance their larvicidal and antioxidant activities. Five modified analogues including abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether oxime (59), tetrahydro-abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether (60), 7- acetyl-abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether (61), 5,7-diacetyl-abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether (62) and dehydromilletosin oxime (63) were prepared. The compounds were characterized by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques. The reaction of abyssinone V -4' -methyl ether (5) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridine gave an oxime in 99% yield, while that with hydrogen gas in the presence of 5% palladium on carbon yielded 99% of the hydrogenated compound. The reaction of abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether (5) with acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine yielded a mixture of 5% of the monoacetate and 45% of the diacetate. The reaction of (+ )_12a-epimilletosin (7) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridine gave 50% of dehydromilletosin oxime (63) whereas the hydrogenolysis of the 9- hydroxyhomoisoflavanone (8) on 5% palladium on carbon yielded 58% of the corresponding 9_deoxylhomoisoflavanone (64). The reaction of (+)-usararotenoid-A (6) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridine gave 99% of a mixture of diastereoisomers. Abyssinone V -4' -methyl ether (5), (+)_12a-epimilletosin (7), (+)_12a-usararotenoid-A (6), and their analogues were tested for larvicidal activity against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and compared with the standard - Rotenone. Potent larvicidal activities were observed against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti with LC50 values of 0.46, 4.08, 1.68 and 13.4 Ilg/ mL at 24 hours for rotenone (9), abyssinone V -4' -methyl ether (5), abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether oxime (59) and hydrogenated abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether (60) respectively. Compounds 9 and 59 showed 100% mortality at all concentrations tested whereas compounds 5 and 60 had LC50 values of2.78 and 7.07 Ilg/ mL respectively at 48 hours. Rotenone (9), degeulin (15), (+)-12a-epimilletosin (7), (+)-12a-usararotenoid-A (6), oximes 59, and 63 showed larvicidal activity against the late third and early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti with LCso values of 1.31, 10.4, 38.4, 13.9, 18.5, and 20.8 ~g/ mL respectively at 24 hours. Rotenone (9) showed 100% mortality at 48 hours while compounds 15, 7, 6, 59 and 63 had LCso values of 2.42, 27.6,5.29,9.63, and 10.8 ~g/ mL at 48 hours and 1.43, 19.1 2.8,4.52, and 7.99 ~g/ mL respectively at 72 hours. Rotenone (9) showed 100% mortality at 24 hours against the late third and early fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae, whereas (+)-12a-usararotenoid-A (6) exhibited strong larvicidal activity with LCso value of 1 0 ~g/ mL at 24 hours and achieved 100% mortality at 72 hours. No antioxidant activity was observed for abyssinone V-4'-methyl ether and its analogues towards 2,2_diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) when compared with quercetin as a standard.

Pesticides and phosphorus dynamics in Lake Victoria Basin

Author: Madadi, Vincent Odongo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Pesticides ; Phosphorus ; Sediments ; Soils ; Water ; Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya ;

Abstract:

1890 field samples comprising of 630 sediments, 630 soils and 630 later samples were collected quarterly over a period of 21 months covering the wet, dry and short rain seasons experienced in Lake Victoria Basin. Sampling sites covered lakeshores, river mouths and effluent discharge points. Physico-chemical parameters, total reactive phosphorus, total hydrolysable phosphorus, total phosphorus and pesticides residues were analysed in water, sediment exchangeable phosphorus and sediment bio-available phosphorus were analysed in sediments, whereas available phosphorus was measured in soil. Pesticides residues were analysed in all the three matrices. Most of the water samples from both the rivers and the lake were found to contain phosphorus levels higher than the recommended guidelines for aquatic life indicating the influence of anthropogenic sources, whereas soils contained 10 to 100 times higher concentrations than sediments and water. The total phosphorus in water samples had mean concentrations of 4.61, 3.43, 2.45 and 2.30 mg/l for wet, short rain and dry seasons 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the total reactive phosphorus had mean concentrations of 2.22, 2.08, 1.12 and 1.61 mgll for the same seasons. Sediment bio-available phosphorus was higher than exchangeable phosphorus, with the highest mean concentrations of 24.45 and 8.22 mg/kg obtained during the dry season and wet season, respectively. The mean concentrations of soil available phosphorus ranged between 639 and 1,076 mglkg. The high levels of phosphorus measured In sediments signified accumulation of phosphorus over time. Therefore, through exchange processes, the trapped phosphorus could continue to replenish the fraction in the water column over a longer period . The concentration of pesticide residues varied from one season to the other in all the matrices analysed. Sediments contained the highest levels followed by soil and water. However, there was no clear temporal trend in terms of reduction of pesticide levels in the samples. This was attributed to the diffused nature of the source of pesticides in the catchment. The most dominant pesticides in the lake basin were p,p'-DDT, endrinaldehyde, P-HCH, dieldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor, 8-HCH, y-HCH and endrin. Studies of pesticides fate in the catchment revealed a strong influence of soil organic carbon and other physico-chemical properties such as texture, pH and minerals composition, whereas calculation of phosphorus loading revealed that the contribution of phosphorus from the drainage basin into Lake Victoria is higher than the figures reported in the previous studies.

Investigating removal of pesticide and natural organic matter from water by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes

Author: Riungu, Joy Nyawira

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Pesticides/Water treatment/Filters/Toxicity/ ;

Abstract:

The presence of humic acid (HA) and pesticides in water has for long posed a cballenge to researchers in the field of water/ wastewater treatment Owing treatment processes such as disinfection by chlorination, the presence of HA in water leads to formation of disinfection by-products that may be carcinogenic. Presence of pesticides in water is of significant health concern in Kenya especially in hoticultural production areas where chemicals are applied throughout the growing season. The removal efficiencies of such chemicals from water can be enhanced by application of membrane fitration. This research work investigates removal of humic acid and pesticide (atrazine) from water by membrane filtration and photocatalytic oxidation using two forms of Titanium Dioxide (Ti(h) catalyst; solution and powder form. A laboratory cross flow filtration unit was used to investigate; the retention of humic acid and atrazine by the membranes, the effect of catalyst on membrane permeate flux and ability of the catalyst to clean fouled membranes. Three types of Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes; polysulphone based (pS 1 OOH), and regenearted cellulose acetate based (C30H and CIOOH) were used to investigate the removal of humic acid. Removal of atrazine from water was investigated using three Nanofiltration (NF) membranes; NF90, NF270 and NTR72S0. Atrazine filtration was carried out at three different feed solution pH. Monitoring of membranes permeate flux and % retention was evaluated by monitoring the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and flux of the permeate. Controlled bench scale photo reactor cell experiments were carried out using Titanium Dioxide (Ti(h) catalyst; (Ti(h, solution and Ti(h, powder) as photocatalyst to investigate degradation of HA. The ability of the catalysts to degrade humic acid in presence and absence of Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation was the major interest in thesis research. The HA degradation was monitored by measuring the TOC and UV absorbance of the sample. The performance of the catalyst was evaluated by calculating the reaction rate constants. In humic acid filtration, PS I OOH membrane recorded TOC removal efficiencies of over 9()01o. C I OOH had higher flux but lower retention than PS I OOH even though they had same Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO). C30H had higher flux and better retention than ClOOH. Membrane material, MWCO and hydrophillicity were found to influence the rejection of HA. Rejection of atrazine by NF membranes resulted in NF90 showing the best performance with efficiencies of over 90010 in all conditions tested. NF270 and NTR7250 performance was affected by changes in solution pH and both showed. varying retention. In investigating the influence of catalyst in the degradation of HA, the Ti<h solution showed higher degradation efficiency than Ti~ powder both in the presence and absence of UV radiation. This observation was attributed to the differences in surface area between the two catalysts when at the same concentration. Cleaning of membranes fouled by HA by the two catalysts yielded good results but mainly depended on level of fouling, catalyst concentration and type of catalysts. When. distilled water was used to clean membranes fouled by 100 ppm HA feed solution, the range of restoration of original water flux varied between 72% - 77% for all tested membranes. Cleaning using Ti<h solution yielded good results with the restoration of original water flux ranging from 86%- 100010 for all membranes and on all tested conditions while for Ti<h powder the restoration ranged between 76% - 96%. Addition of Ti~ solution on feed solution during filtration did not have much effect on permeate flux even though there was an increase in rejection. The presence of Ti~ catalyst increased the permeate flux more when the UV lamp was turned on than when the lamp was off for all the tested membranes. Findings from this research show that UF membranes are efficient in eliminating HA from water while NF membranes are e

Studies on the degradation kinetics and the levels of chlorothalonil and Chlorpyrifos in the water systems within the coffee growing zones of Kiambu County, Kenya

Author: Ngumba, Elijah Kungu

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level :

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Coffee ; Kiambu County ; Pesticides ; Water ;

Abstract:

The practice of using pesticides in coffee production in Kenya has been necessitated by high losses in production due to pest infestation. This has resulted to, non-point contamination of surface water via runoff, spray drifts and leaching. Chlorothalonil (fungicide) and chlorpyrifos (insecticide) are some of the organic based pesticides that have over the years been used in Kenya and specifically within the major coffee growing zones of Kiambu County in Kenya. Given concerns related to both pest control efficacy and environmental risk, it is of concern that attention has not been focused on the fate of these pesticides in water within the coffee growing zones. The main objective of this study was to determine the degradation kinetics of these pesticides in both coffee pulping waste water and river water and ultimately determine their levels in the waters within these coffee growing zones using GC-MS. Samples of coffee pulping wastewater and river water were collected during the major coffee harvesting season from coffee processing factories and rivers in Kiambu County in the period between September 2009 and January 2010. The samples were analyzed for selected physico-chemical water parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity. The COD, conductivity and pH for the river water ranged from 52.5-165 mg/L, 1585-1814 J.l.S/cm and 6.3-7.9 respectively. For coffee pulping wastewater the COD, conductivity and pH were in the range of 11125-33250 mg/L, 1859-2610 J.l.S/cm and 3.7-5.5 respectively. Pesticides were extracted from coffee pulping wastewater and river water by liquidliquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), respectively. The two methods of extraction were optimized and their percentage recoveries calculated. The rate of degradation was found to follow first order kinetics and varied significantly with the nature of water, pH and exposure to light. The half-life of chlorothalonil ranged from 4.1 days to 165 days and for ;chlorpyrifos ranged from 5.739 days to 49.4 days. The study showed that both chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos at the normal water physico-chemical water parameters will not persist for a long time before they degrade to less toxic products. With regard to the pesticide levels, 'chlorothalonil ranged from below detection limit (BDL)-160.0 ug/L in coffee pulping wastewater and BDL-57.0 ug/L in the river water and chlorpyrifos levels ranged from BDL-70.2 Jlg/L in coffee pulping wastewater and BDL-9.2 Jlg/L in river water. The results from this study show that the levels are within theWHO maximum limits.

Characterisation of carbamate degrading aerobic bacteria isolated from soils of selected horticultural farms in Rift Valley and Central Kenya

Author: Omolo, Kevin Mbogo

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Soils ; Pesticides ; Pollution ; Bacteria ; Horticulture ; Vagococcus ; Paracoccus ; Pseudomonas ; Providencia ; Alcaligenes ; Bacillus ; Flavobacterium ;

Abstract:

The use of pesticides is very critical in protecting the farmers' investment in seeds, fertilizer and labour since they provide a sure cover from damage by pests. The use of pesticides is therefore inevitable and the environmental pollution due to pesticides and their residues will continue to be a challenge. In this study, bacterial strains capable of degrading methomyl (S_methyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl) oxy]-thioacetimidate) and carbofuran (2, 3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7 -benzofuranyl methy1carbamate) were isolated from soils sampled from horticultural farms with history of pesticide usage in Rift Valley and Central Kenya. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to monitor biodegradation of both methomyl and carbofuran using reference standards and acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. Complete degradation of carbofuran was observed after 90 days while that of methomyl was observed after 40 days of incubation in mineral salt medium supplemented with either carbofuran or methomyl as the sole carbon source. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the Carbofuran and Methomyl -degrading strains were closely related to members of the genera Vagococcus, Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Providencia, Alcaligenes, Bacillus and Flavobacterium. The morphological and biochemical characteristics of the isolates also confirmed the phylogenetic signature. The biodegradation capability of the strains isolated in this study make them candidates for application in bioremediation trials in pesticide contaminated soils.

Butyrylcholinesterase activity among farm male pesticide handlers in Naivasha, Kenya

Author: Mambo, Lucy Atieno

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Naivasha, Kenya ; Butyrylcholinesterase ; Pesticides ;

Abstract:

Pesticide exposure and its consequences are of concern all over the world. Although several biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported in other parts of the world, there is very limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of effective occupation health monitoring programs. To investigate the incidence of pesticide poisoning using serum cholinesterase activity patterns in a horticultural farm, 616 people comprising of 496 pesticide handlers (test group) and a control group of 120 persons participated in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information, while the activities of serum cholinesterase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin were estimated using standard commercial kits and absorbance measured using kinetic colorimetric tests. All the pesticide handlers (l 00%) were males, with majority (80.3%) aged 20-35 years old. Of the test population, 6% had significant cholinesterase enzyme depressions with no symptoms of exposure recorded. Significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in baseline cholinesterase activity between the test and control groups with a calculated intra-personal variation of 5.75%. Between the test and control groups, no correlation was observed on the baseline cholinesterase activity (r2 = 0.003). Difference in cholinesterase activity was not significant (p>0.05) between the test and control groups based on ethnicity or years of handling pesticides. Use of pesticides in successive spray seasons significantly inhibited cholinesterase activity among the spray team, supervisors and harvesters (p<0.05). Higher cholinesterase activity was observed in the 31 - 40 age group with significant changes in cholinesterase activity (p<0.05) observed among those aged below 40 years. Significant association was not found for use of alcohol or cigarette smoking. The findings indicate that over 70% of the pesticide handlers maintained cholinesterase activity close to baseline level despite working with pesticides, suggesting that with improved controls, workplace exposures can be greatly reduced. Also, the supervisors, sprayers and harvesters were the most affected groups, signifying that better controls on workplace exposure to pesticide is required in these groups of workers.

Characterization of soil bacteria capable of degrading selected organic pesticides applied in Horticulture farms in Kenya

Author: Miriti, Philip Mwenda

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Soils ; Bacteria ; Pesticides ; Horticulture ; Environmental protection ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Effects of the use of pesticides on the health of farmers in Molo District Kenya

Author: Taiti, Duncan Mwaniki

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Molo District/Health risk assessment/Pesticides/Farmers/Health education ;

Abstract:

Small-scale farmers in Molo District grow the following vegetables and flowers, tomatoes, cabbages, peas and onions and outdoor cut flowers. Farmers use many types of pesticides in order to control pests and diseases which attack these crops. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the area of study include insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. The Pesticide-related health symptoms associated with pesticides use in human beings include skin problems, stomach disorders, neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache) or even bereavement. Pesticides poisoning including, stomach problems, chest problems, allergic conditions on the skin and the respiratory system, low or high cholinesterase levels to the persons involved with these chemicals is a reflections of a failure in the storage and use of pesticides at the individual, group or community level. Several studies have reported that farmers spend money on illness due to pesticides use. This research evaluated plant protection products used in the area of study and their effects on the health of farmers in relation to storage, duration of use, the use of personal protective equipment and frequency of application of the plant protection products. A qualitative research design was used in the study through determination of a representative sample of an the farmers in Molo district. A simple random sampling technique was employed to Molo District farmers to generate the required sample. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The statistical analysis included measures of relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Partial correlation analysis was used in order to measure separately the relationship between the dependent variable, on the health of the farmers and the relevant independent variable. The main findings of the study found that the nature and quality of pesticide used by farmers in the study area has an effect on their health. Poor production methods characterized by crop damage, clinical problems among operators and their families, livestock pastures contamination, soil and water pollution and low quality products, is an indicator of poor agrochemicaIs management practices in crop protection and integration. Some types of pesticides, depending on the contents of active ingredients affect the users more than others. The degree of harm caused by the pesticide to man depends on the group or category in which it belongs. Use of protective gear significantly reduces chances of contamination while the duration and frequency of exposure consequently affects the health of the applicators. The study found that training on safe use has a positive effect on the health of the fanners. The findings were presented using Tables and the data was used to draw conclusions and recommendations on pesticides use by farmers. In conclusion pesticides were found to affect the health of the users and therefore Training on safe and effective use of pesticides can significantly reduce the likelihood of the farmers' misuse of pesticides. Training increases the level of farmers' information when using the pesticide chemicals therefore reducing the chances of harming oneself. The study recommends that there is need for the government and stake holders in environmental management, farmers and pesticide manufactures to develop a policy tool in pest management by use of pesticides by small-scale vegetable farmers and flowers producers in Kenya which would contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides. Farmers should be educated on the correct and safe use of pesticides to enable them control and prevent chemically caused ailments and deaths. This could be done through government efforts of establishing and strengthening extension services in the rural areas of Molo District Government extension officers who are well motivated through reward/salaries can be of vital help in promoting not o

An assessment of pesticide use in Mutarakwa division of Sotik District, Kenya

Author: Kipkemoi, Shadrack

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mutarakwa Division, Sotik District/Pesticides/Health risk assessment/Environmental conditions ;

Abstract:

The study investigated the pesticide use in Mutarakwa Division of Sotik District. Specifically, the study focused on determining the level of fanner awareness on pesticide use and the health and environmental affects resultant from the improper handling of pesticides. Pesticides are popular with fanners because of their quick, effective action. However it is presently accepted that the risk to human lives and the environment are so great that there is need for caution as we use them. The study was conceived due to the fact that Lack of proper knowledge on the safe use of these chemicals could lead to health hazard and environmental degradation. Cases of fanners reusing pesticide containers are rampant. These containers are used to carry milk and water. Cartons used to wrap pesticides are also used extensively to carry various items including foodstuff, leading to risk to the people. Some fanners do not use any personal protective equipment during spraying and also carry out the spraying in presence of children, hence exposing themselves and the children to serious chemical hazards. The findings of the study indicated that most of the fanners used pesticides on a wide range of applications. Despite the widespread use of pesticides, it was observed that the fanners did not use the pesticide safety. The study found out that majority of the people sited their livestock spraying crushes and their vegetable gardens close to water sources. This increased the chances of contamination as a result of drift or rainfall run off from the field with the concomitant environmental consequences to aquatic flora and fauna, together with human health. In the local dips it was observed that several types of chemicals were used simultaneous and also the dipping was so erratic that resistance to chemicals will be manifested in the not too distant future. Through Chi-square test, Test run, Rank correlation and correlation coefficient calculation, the study established that there was a relationship between the site of livestock spraying crushes, vegetable gardens, the water sources and level of education of the respondents. The study recommended to the government and other stakeholders in the pesticide industry to institute measures to ensure safe use of pesticides for environmental sustainability. The study concludes that the stakeholders in the pesticide industry in Mutarakwa Division of Sotik District do not use the recommended methods of pesticide handling. This is attributed to the lack of awareness on the safe use of pesticides.