32 Records out of 22207 Records

The effect of occupation on wage discrimination in Kenya

Author: Akuma, Joash Ogonyo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Wages and salaries ; Occupations ; Sex discrimination ;

Abstract:

This research paper examines the effect of occupation on wage discrimination in the Kenyan labour market using cross-sectional data from 1998/1999 labour force survey. The study examined whether occupational segregation exists in the labour market and assessed the effect of occupation variable on wage discrimination in the labour market in Kenya. Occupations have been classified into eight categories based on International Labour Organization's International Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) framework. The Duncan and Duncan Index of dissimilarity was used to measure the existence of occupational segregation. The computed value of 25.7% reveals that occupational segregation exists in the Kenyan labour market. This index is however, less than that observed in industrial countries such as Germany and United Kingdom with 40% and 33% respectively. Two separate equations were regressed for both the male and female wage equations using Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The regression was first run with occupation included in the model and with occupation excluded from the model. The results indicate that the value of R-squared was 46% and 55% for male and female respectively when occupation was included in the model while when the occupation variable was excluded; the Resquared value was 39% and 49% for male and female respectively. Based on the findings, we can be conclude that occupation has an effect on wage discrimination since its inclusion in the regression gives a higher value of R - squared which decreases when he variable is excluded from the model. The results of the wage decomposition show that there is a wage gap between male and female. This is attributed to the human capital characteristics and the contribution of returns. The study recommends investment in instruments that reduce gender inequalities in access to education, choice of occupation and also policies aimed at promoting training programmes for both men and women.

A survey of the occupational health and safety programs adopted by chemical manufacturing firms in Kenya.

Author: Mutemi, D Kimanzi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Lower Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Occupations ; Chemical industry ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Educational and career aspirations among secondary school girls in Nyeri District, Kenya

Author: Chieni, Susan Njeri

Awarding University: University of Manchester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Secondary school students ; Girls ; Careers ; Occupations ; Nyeri District ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The relationships between leadership styles, cultural orientation, organizational commitment, job satisfaction and perceptions of organizational withdrawal behaviors.

Author: Walumbwa, Ochieng Fred

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Cross-cultural studies/Leadership/Culture/Occupations/ ;

Abstract:

Previous cross-cultural research on transformational leadership theory has mainly focused on replicating the augmentation effects of transformational leadership over transactional leadership on followers' attitudes and behaviors. Relatively few studies have systematically examined cultural impacts in moderating the influence of transformational leadership and transactional leadership behaviors on work-related outcomes. Using a field survey of 577 employees from banking and financial sectors in three emerging economies, namely: China, India, and Kenya, I examined the moderating effects of cultural orientation on the relationships between leadership styles, work-related attitudes, and organizational withdrawal intentions. Hierarchical moderated multiple regression and graphical probing of the interactions revealed that cultural orientation moderated the effects of leadership styles on outcome variables. A three-stage procedure was used to assess the fit of the measurement model using Analysis of Moment Structures (Amos) maximum likelihood estimation procedure. Measures of goodness-of- fit for the measurement model indicated a satisfactory fit to the data, even under very rigorous constraints. The implications of these findings for future research on transformational leadership theory and cross-cultural research are discussed.

Health impact of exposure to pesticides in agriculture in Tanzania.

Author: Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera

Awarding University: Tampereen Yliopisto, Finland

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Health care ; Pesticides ; Farming ; Occupations ; Agricultural extension work ;

Abstract:

The present study assessed health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use on agricultural estates and small farms in Tanzania where coffee, cotton, and other important crops are grown, with a view to developing strategies for the control of pesticide exposure and prevention of pesticide poisoning. The Tanzanian component of an extensive field study entitled East Africa pesticide network used a standard protocol developed jointly between research partners in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Canada, and Finland. The target population was made up of farmers and other agricultural workers applying pesticides in coffee and cotton farms, as well as of non-agricultural control subjects, health care providers and extensionists in the same areas. Background data were collected, focused observations of target farms carried out, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and organochlorine residue levels in blood samples determined, and extensive interviews of agricultural workers, control subjects, health care providers, and extension service workers conducted. A total of 104 pesticide chemical names and 179 trade names were compiled in Tanzania. Most of the pesticides were organophosphates, but carbamates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids were also represented. The pesticides included aldrin, endosulfan, ddt, dieldrin, camphechlor and lindane, some of which are confirmed endocrine disruptors or persistent organic pollutants, which were banned or restricted in their countries of origin, and some were classified as World Health Organization hazard class ia and ib. The availability of obsolete, endocrine disruptor, persistent organic pollutant, and World Health Organization hazard class Ia and Ib pesticides on the open market indicated that the existing regulatory system in Tanzania is inadequate and requires improvement in order to safeguard pesticide users, the general public, and the environment. Pesticide handling-practices on farms increased the risks of exposure of farm workers and their families to pesticides, thus undermining pesticide safety in many small farms in Tanzania. There was no strong indication for adverse effects of organophosphorus pesticides during the study period, either based on erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase or on symptoms. However, a great concern over potential long-term effects arising from the use of pesticides in these areas is eminent because pesticides suspected of long-term adverse effects are being used in hazardous work and living conditions. The extensionists were not aware of the health effects of pesticides and did not know what measures should be taken in case of poisoning. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

A survey of the occupational health and safety programs adopted by the banking industry in Kenya.

Author: Mberia, A M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Lower Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Banking industry ; Occupations ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Organic/metal oxide interface : an ultrahigh vacuum study.

Author: Purvis, Kathleen Louise

Awarding University: Princeton University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Occupations/Solvents/Painting industry/Paints/Chemistry/Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Organometallic species were studied as possible linking molecules between metal surfaces and organic overlayers. Clean metal substrates, aluminum and titanium, and metal oxides, indium-tin oxide, are very reactive, and therefore, develop a native oxide coating. Several surface specific analytical techniques were utilized to study reaction composition and stability, including X-ray photoelectron, reflection absorption infrared, and thermal desorption spectroscopies. Initially, controlled oxidation of each of the surfaces was studied by varying water dose/heat cycles and in some cases, oxygen pre-coverage. The metal alkoxides, tetra (tert -butoxy)zirconium and tetra (tert-butoxy)tin, chemically reacted with the hydroxylated surfaces through a proton transfer reaction mechanism from a surface hydroxyl and subsequent desorption of a tert-butanol group to form a surface-bound species. The reaction stoichiometries were found to vary according to surface hydroxyl concentration, which differs depending on the metal substrate. For every surface alkoxide complex, competition exists between thermally driven reaction with an additional surface oh group or decomposition of the ligand. Overall, a variety of stable reaction products formed on each of the hydroxylated metal surfaces. Field work detailing the chemical exposure of workers in the paint manufacturing industry of Nairobi, Kenya to volatile organic compounds, as a part of the Princeton Environmental Institute-Science, Technology, and Environmental Policy Fellowship program is also described. This study provides a model for the evaluation of cleaner manufacturing and the provision of cost effective worker health improvements in the fastest growing industrial sector in the world: developing nations. A variety of different paint production jobs were monitored with individual organic vapor monitors, followed by gas chromatography analysis. Exposure levels were calculated based on a time-weighted average over their entire workday. The paint solvents used can cause both acute and chronic health problems for the workers exposed, and 3 of the 5 organics monitored, exhibit carcinogenic properties (i.e. benzene, styrene, and xylene). Simple and inexpensive technologies should significantly reduce the excess exposure of workers in these manufacturing facilities, examples of which are cited.

A study of career mobility among women administrators in Kenyan universities.

Author: Irura, Grace Gathoni

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ; University of Nairobi Medical Library ;

Subject Terms: School administration/Women/Colleges and universities/Occupations/Career advancement/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Making sense of students career choices : the case of technical training institutions in Kenya.

Author: Kithyo, Isaac Mattemu

Awarding University: University of British Columbia, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Vocational education/Occupations/ ;

Abstract:

This study investigated the factors that shaped students' choices of training programs in two technical colleges in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to determine the nature of the students reasoning with regards to their decisions about enrolling in particular training programs. It also highlights how the students deal with the pressures from their parents, peers, and the community at large, to conform to their 'gender expected' program choices. The expectations of Kenyan society have been that female students would choose programs within the female dominated fields of secretarial, food and beverage, and clothing technology. The expected programs for male students have been in the male dominated fields of engineering and building trades. The study showed that program choices for girls differed from those of boys irrespective of the type of school the students attended. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative methodology. Ethnographic techniques were used to analyze the participants experiences obtained through conversation like interviews. Chi square tests and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the enrollment records obtained from the participating colleges. The participants included 39 students and 4 heads of departments from the two participating colleges, college A and college B. There were 14 female and 7 male students enrolled in traditionally female programs, and 9 male and 9 female students enrolled in traditionally male programs. For each college, one head of a department with predominantly female programs and one from a department with predominantly male programs participated in the study. All the participants were interviewed within their college. The interviews focused on the participants' individual experiences related to their choices of training programs. The interviews with the heads of departments also looked at the relationship between the government guidelines on student enrollment and the actual criteria used by the colleges to select the students for different programs within each college. All the interviews were audio taped. The students indicated that their choices were moderated by factors within the homes they came from, the schools they attended, the society at large, and the world of work. Factors within the homes included gender related socialization, and parental pressure for the students to choose the programs that the parents wanted them to choose. The major factors within the schools the students attended included lack of career guidance, the school facilities, and lack of role models for the students to emulate. The main factors that were related to the society at large were the general expectations that the students would choose 'gender appropriate' programs. It was interesting to note that the students placed an emphasis on their perception of the expectations of their potential future spouses. The main factors related to the world of work were the availability of employment in particular careers, and the students' perception of the gender biases that the employers might have when recruiting workers for different types of jobs.

Perceptions of Kenyan professional women with respect to experienced stress and social support.

Author: Kemoli, Patricia Wanjiru

Awarding University: United States International University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Occupations/Women's studies/Stress/Nairobi, Kenya/Psychology, Industrial USE Occupations/ ;

Abstract:

The problem. The social structure in Africa as a whole is changing as a result of rapid modernization. The current problem in Kenya is that the social support structure is not as intact as it used to be in the pre-colonial era (Huston, 1979, & Masini, 1991). The purpose of this study was to measure the perceptions of Kenyan professional women with respect to stress and social support. The study addresses the relationship between social support and stress, and also addresses the influence of network orientation, (i.e., utilization of social support) on the relationship. The relationship between the level of team orientation within the women's organizations and stress, is also addressed. Method. The social support appraisals, network orientation scale, perceived stress scale, and the SYMLOG (Systematic Multi-Level Observation of Groups) questionnaire were administered to 124 Kenyan professional women living and working in Nairobi, Kenya. The data was analyzed using correlational analysis, post- hoc linear regression, and SYMLOG statistical analysis, to explain the relationship between the variables. Results. Results from the study indicated significant correlations between social support and stress; social support and network orientation; and network orientation and stress. SYMLOG statistical analysis revealed that women who experienced high social support and low stress rated their organizational culture as being friendly and open and less task-oriented, on more occasions than women who experienced low social support and high stress.