306 Records out of 22207 Records

Nutritional status of children aged 3-5 years with and without severe early childhood caries in New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya

Author: Wasunna, Dorah Catherine

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MDS

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition/Children and youth/Dental caries/Dental care/Teeth/New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital Dental Clinic/Hospitals/ ;

Abstract:

Early childhood caries (ECC) is defined as the presence of one or more decayed, missing due to caries, or filled tooth surfaces in the deciduous dentition in children whose ages are from 71 months and below. However, in younger children aged 3 years, any sign of smooth surface caries is indicative of severe Early Childhood Caries (severe ECC). In the age group of 3 to 5 years, ECC is also considered once one or more carious, missing (due to caries), or filled smooth surfaces in the primary maxillary anterior teeth. Also a decayed, missing or filled score of ~ 4 (age 3), ~ 5 (age 4), ~6 (age 5) constitutes severe ECC. Some studies have shown that severe ECC affects growth and development of a child; while others have shown that there is no relationship between nutritional status and severe ECC. Currently there is scarce information regarding the nutritional status of children with severe ECC in Kenya. Objective: To determine and compare the nutritional status of children aged 3 - 5 years with S - ECC with the nutritional status of 3 - 5 year old children who are caries - free. Study area and Design: This was a comparative cross sectional study based at the Nyanza Provincial General Hospital in Kisumu, Western Kenya region. Materials and methods: Sampling and sample size: Purposive sampling was done to select the 196 children aged between 3 to 5 years for this study. There were eighty one children with severe ECC selected from amongst the patients who had sought dental treatment at the dental clinic at the Nyanza Provincial General Hospital. However, 115 children who were caries free were selected from amongst the children attending the maternal child health clinic at NNPGH over a period of three months. While Oral hygiene status was assessed using the plaque index of Loe and Silness (1964) ,the WHO 1997 caries diagnosis criteria was used to assess dental caries experience. Oental caries was diagnosed when there was Clinically detectable loss of tooth substance and when such loss had been treated with fillings or extraction. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric measurements and cut-offs of ?2 standard deviations (SO) were used to identify children at Significant risk for either inadequate ?-2S0) or excessive (>+2S0) growth for the following indicators: weight- for-age (WAZ) , height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ). Results: One hundred and ninety six children aged 3 - 5 years among whom 100 were males and 96 were females were recruited for the study. One hundred and forty eight children had fair oral hygiene status and thirty two had good oral hygiene status. Children with severe ECC had poor and fair oral hygiene status when compared to caries - free children. Pearson's chi square test showed that there was a statistically Significant difference with a p - value of 0.027. The mean -dmft of children with severe ECC was 7.5 (? 1.9 SO). Among males and females the mean dmft was 7.5 (?1.8S0) and 7.5 (?1.2S0) respectively. The prevalence of underweight, wasting, and stunting among both groups of children was 14.3% 3.6%, and 2.6% respectively. Eleven males were underweight and seventeen females were underweight. Among children with severe ECC 14%, 4.9%, 2.5% were underweight, wasted and stunted respectively. 13.9%, 2.6%, 6.1 % of caries - free children were underweight, wasted and stunted respectively. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the nutritional status of children with severe ECC and caries - free children for Stunting (p=O.311), Underweight (p=O.859) and Wasting (p=0.451). However, children with Severe - ECC were 1.23 .times more likely to be underweight than caries - free children . Recommendations: There is a need to create awareness on infant feeding practices and oral hygiene status for all children below 5 years of age. This may be done through maternal child health clinics. There is also a need to improve accessibility and availability of dental servic

Levels and determinants of nutritional status, knowledge and practices of adult Osteoarthritis patients : the case of Kikuyu Orthopaedic and rehabilitation centre, Kenya

Author: Wanjala, Zipporah Kiruthu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition/Diet/Adults/Osteoarthritis/Kikuyu Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Centre/Diabetes/Hypertension/ ;

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the commonest condition that affects human beings; however, there is paucity of information in its management in Kenya and Africa at large. According to the Association of Arthritis and Rheumaac Disease of Kenya (AARD) there is sufficient evidence that arthritis is a growing burden in this country hence the need to improve quality of life of arthritis sufferers by empowering them to participate in their own care by being part of the treatment plan which involves medication, diet, weight management and physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status, knowledge and practices of adult OA patients. The study took place at Kikuyu Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Centre (KORC) in Kikuyu County from November 2011 to January 2012. A structured questionnaire was pretested and used to collect information on socio-economic demographics, nutritional knowledge, dietary diversity and level of physical activity. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were used to calculate BMI and determine nutritional status of the patients. Focus Group Discussion guide and Key Informant interview guide were used to collect qualitative data. SPSS 16.0 and Ms-Excel 2007 software was used for statistical data analysis. A sample size of 205 OA patients was determined using the Fischer's formula. The study design was cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical in nature. Sampling procedure involved purposive sampling of KORC and exhaustive sampling method was used to select respondents. The respondents were aged between 18-74 years and 26.8 % were male while 73.2 % were female, 31.2 % of the respondents originated from Nairobi County and 30.7 % from Kiambu County. The study showed that more than two thirds (80.2 %) of the respondents hal low level of knowledge (scored 0 % to 40 %), 8.7 % correctly described a balance diet as die containing carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals and 67 % described it a: adequate amount offood. Eighty six (86 %) of the respondents bad moderate dietary diversity score consuming between 4-8 food groups in a day. Fifty percent (50 %) of the respondents reported that they suffered from other diseases with 45 % suffering from hypertension and 25 % from diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, OA patients have low nutritional knowledge. Their daily dietary intake of fruits (30.7 %), eggs (7.3 %), milk and milk products (15.6 %) is low while that offish and sea foods (3.4 %) which are known to be rich in omega 3 and Vitamin D is extremely low. Majority of the patients are overweight or obese (71 %). Physical activity level is moderate while sedentary behavior mean time is 4.8 (?2.2) hours. Education level is related to nutritional status (r=O.360, p=O.014), knowledge (r=O.419, p=O.024) and dietary practices (r=O.539, p=O.002). There is a positive association between nutrition knowledge and dietary diversity (r=O.127) (p=O.04). Physical activity is related to nutritional status (X2=10.129, P=O.03). Approximately 42.9 % of the variance of nutritional status is accounted for by age, monthly income and education level. To improve patient's nutritional status and knowledge therefore there is need to educate the public on healthy habits such having a balanced diet and exercising. Nutritionists should work closely with OA patients in order guide then on appropriate diet, weight management and physical activity.

Mechanisms and effect of access to Microfinance credit by women entrepreneurs on child care, health practices and food consumption patterns in urban low income settings in Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Thuita, Faith Mugure

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Microfinance/Credit/Women/Entrepreneurs/Families and family life/Child care/Health services utilization/Nutrition/Urban areas/Low income groups/Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

The Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sector has been recognised throughout developing countries as an engine to development and a vehicle towards fulfilling the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the UN Millennium Summit in 2000. In Kenya, the MSE sector has grown rapidly over the last two decades. Currently, it provides employment to the majority of entrepreneurs in both urban and rural areas, accounting for 70 percent of the total employment opportunities (GoK, 2008). The MSE sector has been an integral part of the poverty reduction and resource generation strategies for improved livelihoods in low- income settings in Kenya. Consequently, it has continued to receive a lot of attention from the government and development agencies. In urban areas in Kenya, the middle to low-income women's participation in the informal sector has also been increasing steadily over the last two decades in tandem with the increasing role of MSEs(KIPPRA, 2009; 001, 2008). At the same time, there has been an increasing focus on the need to empower women economically with a view to improving their social position and consequently the welfare of households, especially children. This is because a growing body of evidence shows that increasing resources in the hands of women has greater impacts on family welfare, in particular, improvements in child survival, health, nutrition, hygiene and educational standards for families and consequently for the whole society (Duflo, 2005; World Bank, 2001; Mayoux, 1999). This realisation has led to a paradigm shift towards targeting more women entrepreneurs in the informal sector with microfinance credit. This is seen as a major strategic move through which social development could most effectively be achieved. Increasing participation of women in the running of ?SEs and facilitating their access to microfinance credit to improve their businesses is expected to improve both their social and economic status (Brau, 2004; Betsy, 2001). It is widely assumed that access to microfinance credit by women entrepreneurs will have a positive impact on them and their families livelihoods through increased earnings from their enterprises thus enhancing their self confidence and status within the family as independent providers of valuable cash resources to the household economy. This is expected in tum, to enable them better perform their roles as brokers of the health, nutritional and educational status of other household members (Dunford, 2002). The plausibility of these assumptions is however not always backed by empirical evidence. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of access to micro finance credit by women entrepreneurs on business earnings and selected household welfare parameters such as child care, health practices and household food consumption patterns in a low-income urban setting in Nairobi, Kenya. The study was conducted in a low-income area in Nairobi, Kenya among women entrepreneurs with micro finance credit. A cross-sectional evaluation study design was used to compare clients of microfinance programmes to non clients as a comparison group. The study was conducted in two phases, commencing with an ethnographic phase followed by a quantitative survey using a pre-tested questionnaire. A sample of 787 respondents comprising 337 microfinance clients and 450 non clients was covered. The survey questionnaire comprised of five modules which collected information on: a) socio- demographic characteristics, b) employment and income, c) child care practices, d) healthcare practices, and e) food consumption patterns. The qualitative phase utilised in-depth study methods to investigate: characteristics of women's enterprises (types, ownership, earnings, decision-making in use of loan funds and income earned); effect of access to loans on women's social status; maternal work and domestic responsibilities; child care arrangements and coping strategies; and women's economic roles in the

Factors affecting nutritional interventions on malnourished children (6-59 months), pregnant and lactating mothers in Mandera East and North districts

Author: Kopi, Samuel Shikuku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mandera East District/Mandera North District/Malnutrition/Children and youth/Babies/Food programs/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

Malnutrition remains a consistent challenge in the world especially sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya Demographic Health Survey data collected between 1993 and 2008 indicate no significant gain in reduction of malnutrition (GOK, 2009). Although underweight seem to be on the gradual decline, there is no indication that the change in the proportion of children chronically malnourished (stunted) and wasted are on the decline. Mandera East and North districts are among Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) districts has been experiencing perennial droughts which results to loss of livelihood. The region depends mostly on Relief Aid where there, Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) levels have remained relatively high (> 15% the WHO threshold standards). The research focused on the three factors namely; effect of health and nutrition education, influence of family economic status and family size nutrition intervention program. Each of these was studied to establish the extent at which it contributes to malnutrition intervention. To achieve this, descriptive survey was employed where from population of 350 beneficiaries, 186 was selected by proportional sampling technique to get sample size from each division; each sample unit was selected through simple random sampling technique. Quantitative data was analyzed through SPSS where and heights of children 6-59 months were analyzed to determine their Z score based on WHO WFH Z score reference while for pregnant and lactating mothers MUAC was used to determine their nutritional status. All other indicators were analyzed by the same software based on their frequencies. The study revealed that family economic status positively influences the nutritional intervention program. On family size, the study found out that the bigger family size the higher the food demand thus higher the malnutrition cases in families with food insecurity. From the study, the following conclusion was drawn; health and nutrition education had a positive effect on the nutritional intervention program, if well done it reduces duration taken for the beneficiaries to cure. Based on the findings, the study recommended that educations programs should be emphasized as a means of community empowerment. Nutritional programs need to be integrated with programs like hygiene and sanitations which involve toilet construction and empowering the community on the importance of maintaining high standards of hygiene and livelihood which has long term impact as opposed to short term projects which emphasize on reliance on Relief Aid thus posing high dependency syndrome.

Determinants of the nutritional status of preschool children in Tetu zone, Nyeri county

Author: Kibe, Phyllis N

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tetu Zone, Nyeri County/Babies/Children and youth/Nutrition/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This study aimed at assessing the determinants of nutritional status of pre-school children in Tetu Zone, Nyeri County, Kenya. The study sought to establish effect of maternal education on nutritional status of preschool children, determine the impact of household economic status on nutritional status of preschool children, find out the impact of quantity of food on nutritional status of preschool children and to investigate the effect of quality food on nutritional status on preschool children. It is hoped that the findings of the study may enable the stakeholders realize the importance of determinants of nutritional status to preschools. The findings of the study may also form a basis for further research on impact of determinants on nutritional status of preschool children. Also stakeholders such as teachers, parents and caretakers may be sensitized on the determinants of nutritional status on their children. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was preschoolers, teachers and parents. This involved 4 private and 6 public schools, giving a total of 800 children. Stratified sampling method was used in selecting schools to be included in the sample. The schools will be categorized into two; private and public. A half from each of the two categories of schools was picked at random to give a total of 5 schools in the sample. From the five schools, samples of 50 children were randomly sampled from the attendance registers of each school. Three research instruments were used. There were two researcher administered questionnaires, one for the parents and another for the teachers. One semi structured interview schedule was used to collect data from children. The researcher administered the questionnaires to the parents and the teachers as well as the semi-structured interview schedule to the children to collect data. The data was coded, entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program). Descriptive statistics such as percentages, means and frequencies will be used to describe the population characteristics such as the demography, income, occupation and the education of the parents. Statistical analysis used included Pearson correlation. Correlation coefficient was used to analyze the magnitude of the maternal education, house hold economic status, quality and quantity of food and nutritional status of the pre-school children. The study found that nutrition status of children is determined by several factors. First, the correlations between maternal education and nutrition status of children obtained was positive and significant, r (0.38) implying that there-is-a significant positive correlation between maternal education and the nutrition status of the children. The coefficient of determination (r2) is found to be 0.14 meaning that maternal education contributes 14.3% to the children's nutritional status of the children. Secondly, it was found out that the correlation coefficient between the family economic status and nutritional status of children as indicated by the mid upper arm circumference zone of the child was significant and positive(r=0.178). Showing that family income impacts significantly on the nutrition status of the children. The coefficient of determination (r2) value was 0.032 indicating that the monthly income of the family accounts 3.2% of the nutrition status of the child. Thirdly, the findings of the study revealed that the multiple correlations between the type of food taken and the nutrition status of children are positive and significant. This implies that the quality of food taken determines the nutrition status of the children. Finally, all the correlations between the amount of food taken and the nutritional status of children were positive and significant. This implies that the amount of food is a determinant of the nutritional status of children.

Nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy attending Kenyatta National Hospital

Author: Koriata, Nancy Simat

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MMed

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Malnutrition/Babies/Children and youth/Cerebral palsy ;

Abstract:

Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in 3.6 per 1,000 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Although the primary impairment in CP is in motor function, poor growth and nutritional status is common in young children with cerebral palsy and impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development as well ,S on health care utilization and quality of life in later childhood. Approximately one-third of children with CP are undernourished and many exhibit the consequences of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and determine factors associated with poor nutrition in children with CP attending KNH outpatient clinics. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy and secondary objective was to find out the factors associated with poor nutritional status in these children. Design: A hospital based cross-sectional study. Setting: Pediatric Neurology Clinic, occupational and physiotherapy clinic of the Kenyatta national hospital. Study Methodology: A cross-sectional study of 140 children was conducted at the KNHneurology, physiotherapy and occupational therapy clinics over a period of three months. The study participants were children with cerebral palsy aged 6 to 139 months. Sociodemographic, nutritional data were obtained from the parents/guardians, and then physical examination and anthropometric measurements (weight and height) of the children was performed. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.3. Results: During the 3 months study period, children with cerebral palsy in the age of 6 to 139 months with a median age of 17.0 months (11.25-30.75) participated in the study. Most of these Children were aged 6 to 23 months 92 (65.7 %) and out of the 140 children who participated in the study, 75 (53.6%) were male. About 86.4 % of these children were in GMFCS (gross motor functional classification system) level III and above. Overall, 70.3 % of children with cerebral palsy were malnourished, 35.0 % were severely wasted and 10.7% were severely stunted. The factors that were significantly associated with moderate to severe wasting were; age less than 2 years (p=0.0466), lack of regular source of income (p=0.04), higher GMFCS level (p= 0.035) and vomiting/regurgitation after feeding (p =0.031). Moderate to severe stunting was significantly associated with age of more than 3 years (p=< 0.001), low level of care taker's education (p=0.026) and higher GMFCS (~:;0.026). Conclusion: 70.3 % of children with cerebral palsy were malnourished and Stunting was more prevalent in children with cerebral Palsy in the developed countries than in our study. Factors that were significantly associated with moderate to severe wasting were; Age less than 2 years (p=0.0466), lack of regular source of income (p=0.04), higher GMFCS (p= 0.035) and vomiting or regurgitation after feeding (p =0.031 ). Moderate to severe stunting was significantly associated with; Age of more than 3 years (p=< 0.001), low level of caters education (p=0.026) and higher GMFCS (p=0.026). It is contended that malnutrition is of high prevalence in children with cerebral palsy and therefore regular assessment and timely nutritional support may improve the situation.

An evaluation of nutritional support given to critically ill children admitted to paediatric wards and the intensive care unit at Kenyatta National Hospital

Author: Kimani, Wairimu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MMed

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition/Babies/Children and youth/Critical care/Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Nutritional support of critically ill patients has been found to improve nutritional outcomes. This support aims to correct the pre-existing nutritional deficits and supply substrae for the various phases of the meLbolic response to critical illness. Early enteral feeding has been found to be well tolerated in this population of patients, iIustrating a highly feasible accessible option especially for resource 6mited settings. provision of optimal nutritional support has challenges, some of which are avoidable interruptions. Identification of these facilitates improvement in nutrient delivery which may impact positively on clinical outcomes. Objectives This study evaluates the prescription and delivery of caloric support in critically ill paediatric patients at Kenyatta National Hospital and describes factors associated with lack of optimal delivery of prescribed feeds. Methods A short longitudinal study of patients aged 28 days to 12years, admitted to the paediatric wards and the intensive care unit at Kenyatta National Hospital was carried out Critically ill patients, 24hours - post admission, without severe malnutrition ~ included. Their caloric requirements and caloric values of their prescribed and delivered nutrients were determined. The mail outcome measure was the percentage of patients receiving adequate nutritional support. The association between various factors and inadequate nutritional support was determined. Results 150 critically ill children were recruited. Majority had normal Weight for Height Z scores at recruitrnent.A kltal of 37 (24.7%) of the patients did not have a nutritional prescription throughout the entire period they were in the study. A total of 21 (18.6%) out of the 113 children with a prescription had an average daily calorie prescription that was inadequate. Overall, 34 (35%) of caloric intake reported by guardians was inadequae compared to 44 (47.3%) of intake recorded on feeding charts. Involvement of guardians in feeding was significantly associated with adequate caloric intake. Conclusions Nubitional support of critically ill paediatric patients in KNH is inadequate. Appropriate nutritional prescriptions and involvement of guardians in feedilg of critically ill children where feasible improves the nutritional support.

The potential role of nutrition education in reduction of overweight and the associated risk factors among school children (9-14 years) in Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Kyallo, Florence Mumbi Muthiani

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition education/Diet/Obesity/Health risk assessment/Children and youth/Teenagers/Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Obesity among children is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, With research linking both childhood malnutrition and obesity to increased risk of morbidity and mortality in adulthood, more attention is now shifting to addressing the pandemic among children so as to alleviate the generational calamity in the future. This study investigated the prevalence of overweight, the associated risk factors and the potential of nutrition education as an intervention among school children aged 9-14 years attending private and public schools in Nairobi. From two randomly selected divisions, four schools, two public and two private, were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. At baseline, nutrition status of the children was determined using anthropometric indices. Dietary practices were assessed using the 24 hour dietary intake recall method. Sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. One public and one public school were randomly allocated into two study groups, an intervention (IG) and a control group (CG). Pupils in the IG received a nutrition education package while those in the CG did not receive the intervention. The children were followed up for eleven months (3 school terms) and assessments were carried out at the end of every school term. Data were analysed using WHO AnthroPlus, OpenEpi and SPSS version 17.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of the study children while inferential statistics were used to establish differences in various variables between the control and intervention groups, and relationships between selected variables and overweight. Chi-square tests and Odds Ratio (OR), were used to test relationships between categorical variables. Tvtests and MannWhitney U tests were used to compare continuous variables with normal distribution and those without normal distribution, respectively. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare trends in anthropometric characteristics throughout the study. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. Out of 344 study children, 40.4% were from private schools and 52.3% were female. The mean age of the children was 12.0?0.84 years, with 79.9% within age 11-12 years. The prevalence of obesity was 5.9%, while combined overweight and obesity was 19.0%, with prevalence in private schools significantly higher (29.0%) than public schools (11.5%). Prevalence was highest among girls in private schools (30.9%), followed by boys in private schools (27.1 %). Socio-dernographic and economic factors found to be positively associated with overweight included being in a private school, not having siblings, mother's occupation, type of residence, access to a family computer with computer games, having a personal cell phone, number of cell phones, use of motorised transport to and from school and time spent on sedentary activities after school. Dietary factors included consumption of margarine, white bread, githeri and sugar sweetened black tea/coffee. On the other hand, factors found to be negatively associated with overweight included having physical education ePE) scheduled in the class timetable, participation in physical education, active commuting to and from school, having family meals and receiving food rewards, consumption of vegetables, cake, maandazi and eggs. The predictors of overweight included being in a private school, having a self-employed mother, being a single child, having access to a family mobile phone and not having family meals. The intervention resulted in significant increase in participation in physical education (PE) and swimming, decrease in consumption of white bread, maandazi and crisps and an increase in consumption of wholemeal bread and fruits (p<O.05), but no significant decrease in overweight. In conclusion, the overweight rate in the study group is of public health concern. The school curriculum should be revised to include compulsory participation of all children

Levels of community participation and association with nutritional status of children beneficiaries aged 6-59 months in nutrition programmes in Nairobi : the case study of Riruta Health Centre

Author: Ouma, Emma Apo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Health facilities ; Child welfare ; Social impact ; Nutrition education ; Children and youth ; Babies ; Nairobi, Kenya ; Riruta Health Centre, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Nutritional status and its determinants among children aged 1-59 months accompanying their mothers in prisons in Kenya

Author: Omukhweso, Sammy Osore

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition ; Babies ; Children and youth ; Prisoners ; Women ;

Abstract:

Adequate information regarding the nutritional status of children accompanying their mothers in prisons in Kenya is scanty. Children in prisons ought to be considered as children under difficult circumstances in need of assistance (UN, 1989), but they have never been classified as such by any international organization or agency. In Kenya, 4,053 and 3,348 children under the age of 4 years spent some time in prisons in the year 2005 and 2009 respectively (Kenya Prisons Service, 2005; 2009). A cross sectional survey was conducted among children aged 1-59 months who accompanied their incarcerated mothers into prisons in Kenya between May and June, 2007. The study aimed at establishing factors that influenced the nutritional outcome of these children in prison. The target population included the children aged 1-59 months, their mothers and the officers-incharge of the prisons as key informants. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire, focus group discussions (FGD) checklist and key informant interviews guidelines. The quantitative data obtained was processed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) 16.0 and World Health Organization (WHO)-Anthro computer application software. The WHO-Anthro was used to calculate the nutritional indices of weight-for-height, height-for-age and weight-for-age Zscores for each child while SPSS 16.0 was used to calculate measures of central tendency and univariate analyses. The qualitative data was analyzed by categorizing and organizing into themes before generalizations could be made. The study found that about 8.9% of the study children suffered from acute malnutrition and were wasted ?-2 z-scores). The most at risk age group was the 6-11 months old where 17.4% of them were reportedly wasted. The boys (14%) were also found to be more wasted than girls (5%). About 14% of all the children were underweight. The most affected age-group was of children aged 6-11 months with a prevalence of 32%. More male children (17%) were underweight than their female counterparts (12%). The prevalence of stunting ?-2 z-scores) among children in prison was 18.8%. The most vulnerable children to stunting were aged 6-11 months with 26% found to be stunted. The prevalence of stunting among male children (25%) was much higher than among the female children (14%). It was noted that the levels of malnutrition among children within Kenyan prisons was nevertheless well below the national levels for all the nutritional status indicators used in this study. Various factors were examined to establish their effect on the nutritional ~atus of the children. The following factors were established in this study as determinants of nutritional status of children in prisons: morbidity, timing of complementary feeding, immunization status, age and sex of the child. It is recommended that Parliament should review Chapter 90 of the laws of Kenya with a view to introduce special children units within prisons where expectant mothers and mothers accompanied by children could be accommodated. The special units, if established, should accord a home environment with proper nutrition in terms of quality and quantity, comprehensive medical care, clean and safe water. The Director of Prison Health Services should ensure that each prison dispensary is staffed with adequate medical staffs, well stocked with effective drugs and other necessary medical equipments. The Policy on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices should be incorporated in the Prisons Act, adopted and integrated in child care in all prisons. It is also recommended that a study on the dietary intake of children and their mothers in prisons should be conducted to determine its effect on their nutritional status.