27 Records out of 22207 Records

The potential of biochar produced from Eichhornia crassipes and Prosopis juliflora to enhance soil water holding capacity of drylands soils

Author: Aller, Deborah

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Biochar ; Evironmental degradation ; Soils ; Eichhornia crassipes ; Prosopis juliflora ; Northern Kenya ;

Abstract:

Environmental degradation, agricultural productivity, food security, fresh water scarcity, and the adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are all significant concerns of the 21st century. Biochar is a highly porous, carbon rich material which is a natural soil amendment being investigated to address these current issues. Expanding agricultural production into dryland environments where sandy soils dominate is highly likely to be of great importance for ensuring future global food security, as population and food demands continue to increase. Sandy soils have little ability to store water, making food production difficult and crop yields an unreliable source of food and income for inhabitants living in these environments. This study looked at the water holding capacity (WHC) and hydrophobicity of Eichhornia crassipes and Prosopis juliflora for use as biochar, to potentially enhance soil moisture storage and thus agricultural productivity, with a particular focus on arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and northern Kenya. Both are invasive species found in Kenya which was the reason for their selection for use in this study. Biochar was produced at 350?C, 450?C, and 550?C in a Carbolite furnace and also in a Sampada gasification stove, to mimic traditional kiln char production. Biochar WHC was examined at mixtures of 2%, 5%, and 7%, corresponding to a field application rate of roughly 20 t ha-1, 50 t ha-1, and 70 t ha-1, respectively. Results demonstrated that both biochars increase soil WHC the greatest at a 7% application rate. The greatest hydrophobicity values were apparent at 350?C, with E. crassipes the more hydrophobic of the two. Mercury porosimetry analysis, which compares various characteristics of the pore space in relation to physical properties of the biochar, is consistent with the WHC data, revealing that as the total intruded volume increases the water holding capacity increases. Overall E. crassipes and P. juliflora show potential for use as biochar, but P. juliflora with its greater lignin content, is likely the better choice.

The concept of environmentally induced conflict : a case study of Northern Kenya

Author: Waikenda, Jane Wangare

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Environmental impact/Population/Conflicts/Socioeconomic factors/Northern Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Population and environment are closely entwined in a complex and dynamic relationship. Over the past three to four decades, some economists, biologists, and environmentalists have been debating the role of population in environmental degradation. The objective of this study is to investigate the concept of environmentally induced conflict. A qualitative approach will be adopted to produce the descriptive data to assess the concept of environmentally induced conflict in Northern Kenya. The findings of the study where that environmentally induced conflict has hampering development initiatives in Northern Kenya area. This implies an urgent need for restoration and sustainability of a peaceful environment among the target communities as one of the priorities by the Kenyan government partners and other stakeholders. Political, social and economic factors are closely linked to the key factors that have influenced environmentally induced conflict in Northern Kenya.

Challenges of strategy implementation at the Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and other arid lands

Author: Mwangi, Timothy Mungai

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Strategic management ; Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands ; Arid and semi-arid regions ;

Abstract:

Strategy implementation is the translation of chosen strategy into organizational action so as to achieve strategic goals and objectives. Strategy implementation is also defined as the manner in which an organization should develop, utilize. and amalgamate organizational structure, control systems, and culture to follow strategies that lead to competitive advantage and a better performance. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the challenges of strategy implementation in the ministry of Northern Kenya and other arid areas. The study was a case study since the unit of analysis was one organization which was the Ministry of Northern Kenya. The interviewees were the top managers and functional heads in charge of finance, risk management, information technology and operations, human resources, marketing and research division, and public affairs and communication division. The primary data was collected using an interview guide. The data obtained from the interview guide was analyzed using content analysis. A few of the Quantitive data was analyzed using (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) SPSS. The study concludes that that factors that influence strategy implementation in Ministry of Northern Kenya were financial capacity of the organization, top management support, involvement of board of directors and the employees in the strategic implementation process, organization structure, communication process and also staff motivation and capability of the human resource in the organization in managing and implementing new strategic direction. The study also concluded that the effect of strategy implementation and performance in the ministry was that the need to attain a competitive advantage over other ministries dependent on strategy implementation and performance. The study therefore recommends that for an efficient and effective implementation process senior management must at all levels be involved and committed throughout the process, departmental employees with should be provided with a sound understanding of the forthcoming changes and of the new way of understanding, preparation must be done as much as possible before embarking on full implementation; and also the organization must ensure that there are sufficient resources for the transition and that the top manager and the board of directors are empowered to make the necessary decisions. The study also recommends that the communication process be reinforced with a policy that will govern the activities related so as to well enhance the implementation of strategies in the ministry.

Accountability to targeted beneficiaries : a survey of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Northern Kenya

Author: Mawanda, Hilda Nyakato

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Accountability ; Corporate responsibility ; Stakeholders ; Nongovernmental organizations ; Northern Kenya ;

Abstract:

Accountability is to stakeholders and it is a process. Organizations make a commitment to respond to the needs of its stakeholders in all its activities and processes. This study focused on the nature and extent of accountability to targeted beneficiaries, with a focus on NGOs that work in northern Kenya. The conceptual framework adopted for this study is the GAP (Global Accountability Project) model which considers accountability to have four dimensions. These are transparency, participation, evaluation, and complaint and response mechanisms. The model asserts that to be accountable, an organization needs to integrate these four dimensions into its policies, procedures and practices, at all levels and stages of decision-making and implementation, in relation to both internal and external stakeholders. The research question that this survey sought to explore is the extent to which NGOs in Northern Kenya are accountable to their targeted beneficiaries and the challenges they face in this. The study is hinged on the premise that one cannot separate the process of governance and importance of stakeholders. Based on this, stakeholders need to be well identified and strategies developed to take care of their varied interests if the NGO is to be effective in its operations. The research adopted a survey where forty (40) NGOs were given questionnaires and the result was that twenty six (26) were filled and returned. The results of the survey showed that the NGOs are aware of the importance of stakeholders and that they do view the community as a major stakeholder. Despite this level of awareness, the research reveals that the level of accountability towards these stakeholders is still quite low. Several reasons have been cited as to how come they are unable to be fully accountable to the communities they serve. The limitation of the study was that the area chosen was vast and so face to face interviews could not be done and hence the data collection was only via questionnaires. The suggestion for further research is on the role of other actors such as government, international NGOs and other development practitioners can play in helping local NGOs set quality standards for accountability.

Media and conflict resolution : the case of Cattle Rustling in Northern Kenya

Author: Emeripus, John

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Northern Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Conflict resolution ; Livestock ; Turkana County ; Pokot County ; Rustling ; Mass media ; Turkana (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ;

Abstract:

This Northern Kenya case study is an example of armed violence in the periphery, in the remote, semi-arid northern districts of the country. The economy is principally dependent upon pastoralism, and armed violence is mostly associated with livestock raiding. This case study focuses on two contrasting counties of northern Kenya: Turkana in the north-west, which has endured a particularly intense couple of decades of armed violence and the Pokot.Although livestock raiding is an inherent feature of the pastoralist economy, it appears to have become increasingly violent since the early 1980s as small arms became more widely available. It is now associated with higher and less discriminate loss of human life and greater livestock losses. The conflict dynamics that fuel livestock raiding are complex and extend far beyond a simple 'competition for scarce resources' model. The weakness of government, specifically of state security institutions, means that criminal activity can flourish, particularly in the form of 'commercialized' livestock raiding. Instability has sometimes been encouraged for electoral purposes. The wider regional dynamics are also critical, as northern Kenya borders with Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, all of which have had, or are currently experiencing violent civil wars. They are thus associated with lawlessness and the unchecked flow of small arms. The use of arms in northern Kenya has to be understood in this wider context.

Factors influencing cross border conflict resolution between Turkana and Pokot communities of Northern Kenya

Author: Ekiru, Mark Narengo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Northern Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Conflict resolution ; Turkana (African people) ; Pokot (African people) ; Kainuk Division, Turkana County ; Sigor Division, West Pokot County ;

Abstract:

For many decades peacemaking between Turkana and Pokot communities in Northern Kenya has been very elusive. This study therefore examined major factors influencing cross border conflict resolution between the two communities with the aim of determining the extent to which local politics, local culture, social and the prevailing economic conditions influence interventions for durable conflict resolution. Cross border conflict has been evolving taking many forms currently manifested through regular cattle raids, highway banditry, conflict over resources such as land, pasture and water. The study was carried out in two divisions, Kainuk in Turkana County and Sigor in West Pokot County. Questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Data analysis was done with the aid of the SPSS tool. Rank correlation and regression techniques were used in data analysis and based on the results of the data analysis, the study findings clearly indicated that economic factors had the highest influence in cross border conflict resolution with key elements such as deepening poverty, high unemployment, over-reliance on single livelihood and natural resource competition ranked high as the main economic drivers. Political factors came second and most of the respondents pointed out to lack of local leaders peace building capacities, incitements, disregard of the traditional governance systems, long held marginalization and lack of local communities in development activities and implementation which played a key role in influencing cross border conflict building and resolution. Breakdown of social networks and decline of intercommoned interactions through sports and intermarriages reduced extent of harmonious co-existence which previously existed. Finally cultural factors which played a greater influence were ingrained in deep held value system, rituals, rites and beliefs. The contemporary setting within the two communities indicated that these cultural elements had been abdicated and thus played a lesser role in cross border conflict resolution. The study concludes that the four factors discussed had high level of influence on cross border conflict resolution and therefore recommended strengthening of cross border policing, enforcing laws that prohibit politicians from interfering in peace building efforts, creating investments on the local economy and diversifying livelihoods of the communities while at the same time reviving social networks with a high premium on peace, and also taking into account positive cultural elements that paid dividends on cross border peace. These actions to be taken by the by government, civil society, United Nations agencies, donors and the Non Governmental Organizations.

Pauline perspectives on reconciliation : a resource for the church in addressing inter-ethnic and tribal conflict in Northern Kenya

Author: Wario, Daniel Qampicha

Awarding University: Trinity School for Ministry, USA

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: St. Paul's University Bishop Okullu Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Paul the Apostle/Reconciliation/Conflict/Northern Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Inter-ethnic and tribal conflict is affecting the communities living in Northern Kenya within both the secular and religious corridors of life. This thesis explores some of the biblical resources and mandate available to the church for her engagement in the wider ministry of reconciliation, especially in Paul's letters to the Ephesians, Corinthians and Colossians in order to address this vice. This ministry entails reconciliation of human beings to God, among themselves, and with the wider creation, based on what God has done in Jesus Christ. For the church to be effective she must live a life of a reconciled community and extend that reconciliation to the secular society in words and deeds.

Characterisation of sheep and goat genetic resources in their production system context in Northern Kenya

Author: Warui, Harun Mwai

Awarding University: University of Hohenheim, Germany

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: International Livestock Research Institute Library ; Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ;

Subject Terms: Sheep/Goats/Pastoralists/Marsabit District/Gabra (African people)/Rendille (African people)/Social change/Rangelands/Northern Kenya/Arid and semi-arid regions/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The investigation of the causes of conflicts between Borana and Gabra pastoral communities of northern Kenya and ways of conflicts prevention and reconciliations

Author: Kamau, Patrick Mburu

Awarding University: Africa Nazarene University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Africa Nazarene University Library ;

Subject Terms: Boran (African people)/Gabra (African people)/Conflict resolution/Conflicts/Northern Kenya/Reconciliation ;

Abstract:

This study carries forward the investigation of the causes of conflicts between the Gabra and Borana pastoral communities of Marsabit in Northern Kenya, and discusses issues and priorities for conflict prevention based on the biblical concepts of reconciliation. Over the years conflicts between Borana and Gabra have become extensively severe. These pastoralist communities roam around Marsabit district driven' by the availability of pastureland and water for their animal's survival. The underlying causes of these conflicts are complex and multi-dimensional, ranging from social economic cultural political factors and others, which have threatened their existence. On the foundation of this investigation various conclusions and recommendations are considered which restrain conflicts and make these tribes compatible. Field research component of this study was conducted over a two week period in Marsabit town in February 2-16,2006. A non-probability sample method was used to collect data. The study purposively selected forty participants from each community as representatives of the population that translated to eighty participants. Questionnaires, Key informants, observation, focused groups' discussions and secondary data were utilized. Quantitative data was grouped into similar categories for analysis. Qualitative ~ Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (simple statistical techniques) in order to determine frequencies and percentages These frequencies and percentages have ~een presented using tables and figBres. Research found seventeen themes that contribute to causes of conflicts between these tribes. These themes are listed here in ascending order of the severity; revenge political incitements, drought, livestock rustling scarcity of pastureland and tribalism; scarcity of Water, current political boundaries infiltration of illegal firearm, cultural scarcity of water, current political boundaries, infiltration of illegal firearms, cultural practices and legal government laxity; favoritism, illiteracy, insecurity, misleading opinion leaders and superiority complex. Efforts that lead to prevention and alleviation of conflicts between Gabra and Borana should address each of the contributing causes of conflicts.

Gender and property among sedentarized pastoralists of northern Kenya.

Author: Mitchell, Judith Dale

Awarding University: McGill University, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Anthropology ; Gender ; Northern Kenya ; Pastoralists ; Property ;

Abstract:

In the context of growing poverty and sedentarization, the socio-economic status of pastoral women is an important indicator of how pastoralists in northern Kenya respond to social change. Accordingly, this study examines women's position in three communities in distinct settings of sedentarization. One is located in a semi-arid region dedicated to pastoralism and conservation, while the other two are in a moister mountain area where rain-fed and irrigation agriculture is combined with animal production. Analyses of quantitative and qualitative data, gathered from women and men during 2002-2003, indicate that women have largely responded to social change by using two strategies to secure the well-being of themselves and their children. First, despite the cultural assumption that married women are supported by their husbands, they have strengthened their relationships with natal kin, solidifying a support network to carry them through times of difficulty. Secondly, given decline in returns from subsistence pastoralism, women have seized numerous opportunities to diversify their economic pursuits in order to generate steady income. Essentially, findings illustrate that, in addition to gaining access to various resources through their marital homes and their own efforts, the majority of women receive socio-economic support from their natal kin, especially brothers. In two communities where land is being privatized, most women have been excluded from the land registration process because of traditional and national policies. However, many fathers are awarding their daughters permanent usufruct rights to family land to ensure they do not become landless because of the death of a spouse or negligence on the part of husbands. Although this does not eliminate the discrimination many women face from being excluded from the registration process, it is a move towards the betterment of women's long-term food and financial security. Besides contributing to domestic activities, women engage in very different forms of income-generating activities; in Archer's Post, they obtain earnings from craft sales or tourist-related services, in Parkishon/Karare they gain income from milk-marketing, while in Songa, women pursue cultivation for subsistence and market sale. It is a positive finding that most women generate steady income over which they have managed to maintain control.