5 Records out of 22207 Records

The effects of statutory justice approaches on traditional conflict management mechanisms : the case of Borana Community in Upper Eastern Kenya between 1963-2011

Author: Lakicha, Yusuf Ali

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Judicial process ; Customary law ; Conflict resolution ; Alternative dispute resolution ; Boran (African people) ; Pastoralists ; North Eastern Kenya ;

Abstract:

Northern Kenya is an arid part of Kenya, inhabited by the pastoralists who traverse the vast region on seasonal migrations as they seek sufficient pasture and water for their livestock. The harsh weather conditions and the shrinking range resources base has made pastoralists inhabitants of the region go through severe hardships in their survival manoeuvres to protect their lives and that of their livestock from the threats of the drought. This survival manoeuvers has occasionally resulted in conflicts among the communities. The conflicts of late have had numerous casualties, due to proliferation of small arms and weapons from the neighbouring unstable countries like Somalia. Due to the regions marginalization most state institutions are not adequately equipped, staffed or facilitated to handle their respective service delivery to the people. In particular the judiciary is among the least developed state institutions in the region. The courts only exist at district headquarters and are poorly staffed, with cases of one magistrate being shared by two or more districts being common. Hence the judiciary has little effect as deterrence to the perpetrators of conflict. The study sought to establish historical and contemporary factors that has contributed to conflicts among the pastoral communities in North Eastern Kenya and assess how these communities realise justice under customary laws and evaluate the effectiveness of this traditional justice system and how it should be formally included in the national policy to provide for a legal pluralism to ease pressure on the formal justice system and enhance access to justice. This study against all this odds facing the Northern Kenya region shows how the indigenous Borana community has alleviated these conflicts over the range resources through their institutions of range resources conflict management. These institutions which have checks and balances and defined division of roles have been preserved by the community and are active to this day. This is what has made their pastoralism livelihood viable and feasible despite the numerous challenges. The study further demonstrates how the justice regimes of the indigenous community appeals to their socio- political organization and demographic dynamics. Their justice system is restorative and seeks at all times to restore and repair the broken victim, offender and community relationships. The formal justice systems on the other hand is seen as alien to their value systems and does not take into account how the local pastoralist's communities understand and define crime and resolve disputes or conflicts. The study uses the restorative justice theory which builds reconciliation and reintegration and restoration of offender back into the society as opposed to the formal justice system which is retributive, punitive and aimes to make offenders suffer as much as the victim if not more. This study demonstrates analytically the socio-political and socio-legal aspects that characterize the customary and formal justice institutions and shows the existence of tension between them that needs to be addressed through a legal framework that accommodates the two in one that is legal pluralism. This is to allow the effective operations of customary justice systems without fear of contradicting the formal systems, and to have the customary restorative justice systems decisions of conflict resolutions and range resources management as binding upon the state.

Implications of cross border conflict in North Eastern Kenya

Author: Ubah, Hassan Abdi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: North Eastern Kenya/Conflicts/Boundaries/Ethiopia/Somalia/International relations ;

Abstract:

Resource based conflicts is considered to be the single most obstacle to peace and security in North Eastern Kenya. Conflicts in these environments are products of deep seated historical-structural issues such as marginalization, poverty and general under development. The recent new pressures such as the rise of Islamists groups like Alshabab have worsened the communities' susceptibility to armed violence and altered the nature of 'traditional' conflict. This study focuses on the identification and analysis of key conflict actors in the cross borders of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia and examines the causes of conflicts in these areas. An extensive study of relevant literature and the implementation of practical research had been undertaken, with the latter carried out through select individual interviews and focus group discussions with representatives from the tri borders of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. This research produced a number of key findings. One is that resource based conflicts continue to shape the nature of cross border conflicts. The study also shows that each cross border violence since 2005 has plunged the region into more intractable and dangerous levels of crisis and conflict, adding new layers of grievances, hardening divisions of the communities and fostering radicalization. A coherent and wellcoordinated cross border peace initiatives and linkages will have the potential to reduce cross border conflicts. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the need to track new developments is particularly crucial for the tri-border areas where the shifting politics of the Hom of Africa frequently alter local dynamics. The implication here is that basic mechanisms - preferably locally based ones - to monitor trends, highlight threats, and issue warnings of any rising conflict situations are critical. The study revealed that strengthening cross border linkages and relations may be the first step towards securing the borders. Active engagement of tri border States in cross border affairs will effectively strengthen cross border peace and stability.

Livestock commercialization and food security in North Eastern Kenya

Author: Abdirizak, Arale Nunow

Awarding University: University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Food security ; North Eastern Kenya ; Livestock ; Livestock industry ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Geophysical studies of Anza Graben, North Eastern Kenya

Author: Dindi, Edwin Wandubi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 1992

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Chiromo Library ;

Subject Terms: Geology ; North Eastern Kenya ; Anza Graben, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Anza Graben is situated in the north and northeastern Kenya. It is about 120 km wide and approximately 600 km long. The area of the present study is located mainly in NE Kenya and constitutes a strike length of .about 300 km. The graben is almost entirely sediment filled and is ,ut1mated to be of Cretaceous age. It is characterized by a prominent negative Bouguer anomaly reaching -40 mGal. Several studies were made in an effort to determine its subsurface structure. These involved interpretation of a number of seismic reflection profiles, 3D interactive gravity modelling using fixed density contrasts between the sediment infill and the basement, and the analysis by filtering and modelling of the aeromagnetic data over the graben. A crustal modelling of refraction data along the western shoulder of the Anza graben using 2D ray tracing was also performed. Two major basins are recognizable from the results of the studies, namely the southern basin which has a northeasterly dip and the northern basin having a southwesterly one. This alternating asymmetry is also indicated for an adjoining smaller basin located to the west of the graben. The density contrast used for the final gravity model is -300 kg/m3 which indicates a maximum sediment thickness of about 8 km. The modelling of aeromagnetic data however favour a maximum thickness of at least 10 krn. A 2D refraction crustal P wave model of the western shoulder decreasing from 35 km under Chanler's Falls to approximately 29 km under the southeastern shores of Lake Turkana. The abrupt shallowing of the Moho in the Lake Turkana area is attributed to the effects of the Kenya Rift Valley. However the gentle variation in the Moho depth along the remaining section of the shoulder of Anza Graben appears to depict a regtonal phenomenon also attributable the formation of the Kenya Rift Viney. It is proposed from the study that sections of the graben shoulder are underlain by slightly denser rocks and that the crustal thinning psoclated with Anza Graben is not Significant.

An evaluation of the range management extension services and the range development programs in North Eastern Kenya.

Author: Abdille, Abdikadir M

Awarding University: University of Guelph, Canada

Level : MSc

Year: 1988

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Range management ; North Eastern Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE