7 Records out of 22207 Records

African literature in the digital age : class and sexual politics in new writing from Nigeria and Kenya

Author: Adenekan, Olorunshola

Awarding University: University of Birmingham, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: African literature ; Nigeria ; Sexual politics ; Digital libraries ;

Abstract:

Using wide-ranging literature and theoretical concepts published digitally and in print, this thesis will build the emerging picture of African literature in English that is being published in the digital space. The study will analyse the technological production of classed and sexualised bodies in new African writing in cyberspace by some of the young writers from Nigeria and Kenya, as well as writing from a few of their contemporaries from other African countries. This thesis will also analyse the differences between the agenda of the previous generation including representation and perspectives - and that of a new generation in cyberspace. In the process, I hope to show how literature in cyberspace is asking questions as much of psychic landscapes as of the material world. To my knowledge, there is no substantive literary study done so far that contextualizes this digital experience.

The efficacy of the legal institutional and policy framework against trafficking of persons in Kenya : a critique

Author: Wanyonyi, Godfrey Pwoka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Legislation/Human trafficking/Kenya Counter Trafficking in Persons Act/Nigeria/ ;

Abstract:

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a serious Crime that has attracted concerted global effort to combat. Characteristic of any developing country, Kenya is a major source and transit country for victims of TIP. This paper examines the efficacy of Kenya'S efforts to combat the crime. This isan investigative response to two major issues on the subject. Firstly, the study evaluates whether the legal, institutional and policy framework before and after the enactment of the Kenyan Counter Trafficking in Persons Act (CTPA) implements the Palermo Protocol to suppress Trafficking in Persons. Secondly, it seeks to examine efficacy of Kenya's efforts on counter trafficking in comparison with experiences from other jurisdictions. The study concludes that though the legal, policy and institutional framework before and after CTPA implements the Palermo Protocol in several ways, it does not fully implement some aspects of the Protocol. In addition, the study finds that the Kenyan legal, policy and institutional framework falls short in several areas in comparison with the US and Nigerian frameworks which are considered a success story in the war against the crime of TIP. The study proposes reforms that would see the Kenyan framework improved to fully implement the Protocol. Three major recommendations for reform arise from the findings of the study. These are that Kenya should create stronger institutions, grant better victim protection and prosecute perpetrators and crirriinalize attempted TIP. The study also recommends incorporation of prevention mechanisms in the war against TIP. The study recommends that this can be done by amending CTPA. This paper draws on information from secondary sources such as books, journals, newspapers and published works on the World Wide Web in examining the relevant issues and arriving at the conclusion. This study is structured into five chapters. Chapter one gives background information that determines the context and scope of this study. It includes matters such as the research objectives, questions, hypothesis and literature review. Chapter two analyses the elements of TIP as defined by the Palermo Protocol and establish the Protocol's requirements on each member state. Chapter three examines the existing legal, policy and institutional framework before and after enactment of CTPA in 2010. It further examines the challenges that existed before the enactment of the new direct law on TIP and the limitations in the said new law. Chapter four engages in a comparative analysis from US and Nigeria. It brings out aspects in the US and Nigerian legal, policy and institutional regimes that are not incorporated in the Kenyan law. Finally, chapter five is the concluding chapter. It deals with recommendations for the reform of the legal, policy and institutional framework in Kenya on counter TIP. In summary, the study discusses efforts by Kenya to combat TIP and how the efforts can be strengthened.

Nollywood movies on Kenyan television : an exploratory study of Kenya Nigerian Movie audiences and their motivations

Author: Mwanthi, Shadrach Moki

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Motion pictures ; Television programs ; Audience profile ; Nigeria ; Shauri Moyo, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This paper is an exploratory study of the Nigerian movies audiences in Kenya, ftleir motivating factors and the purpose why Kenya Television Channels air Nigerian movies . It begins by considering the antecedents to this industry, in an attempt to identify the Nigerian movie audiences in Kenya, Why Kenya Television air Nigerian Movies and the factors that motivate Nigerian Movie audiences in Kenya. The research methodology used was qualitative analysis and the study was based on two television channels: Citizen and Kiss TVs, Households at Shauri Moyo, Nairobi and focused Discussion groups. The units of analysis were Nigerian Movie audiences. The study revealed that Nigerian movies have audiences from people of all ages, gender, levels of education and living standards measure. However, the more people advance in their level of education, the more they lose interest in Nigerian movies. The research also found out that Nigerian movies are packed with African culture which is incorporated in the songs, the setting in the movies, the proverbs and idioms, the Pidgin English and direct translations which are typically African. These are the factors which motivate audiences to watch Nigerian movies. By watching these movies, audiences gets entertained, their knowledge on African culture is enhanced , and above all they gets educated through themes in these Nigerian movies. The study also found out TV Stations in Kenya air Nigerian movies in order to reach the popular Nigerian movie audiences population through their commercials. All these and more are discussed in this study. The research ends with a recommendation that Nigerian movie study being very new in Kenya needs more research, which should encompass more media, audiences and longer period.

Prophet, priest and king in colonial Africa : Anglican and colonial political responses to African independent churches in Nigeria and Kenya, 1918-1960

Author: Higgins, Thomas Winfield

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: African Independent Churches/Central Kenya/Nigeria/Christianity/Missionaries/Anglican Church of Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Many African Independent Churches emerged during the colonial era in central Kenya and western Nigeria. At times they were opposed by government officials and missionaries. Most scholars have limited the field of enquiry to the flash-points of this encounter, thereby emphasizing the relationship at its most severe. This study questions current assumptions about the encounter which have derived from these studies, arguing that both government and missionary officials in Kenya and Nigeria exhibited a broader range of perspectives and responses to African Independent Churches. To characterize them as mainly hostile to African Independent Churches is inaccurate. This study also explores the various encounters between African Independent Churches and African politicians, clergymen, and local citizens. While some scholars have discussed the positive role of Africans in encouraging the growth of independent Christianity, this study will discuss the history in greater depth and complexity. The investigation will show the importance of understanding the encounter on both a local and national level, and the relationships between the two. It is taken for granted that European officials had authority over African leaders, but in regard to this topic many Africans possessed a largely unrecognized ability to influence and shape European perceptions of new religious movements. Finally, this thesis will discuss how African Independent Churches sometimes provoked negative responses from others through confrontational missionary methods, caustic rhetoric, intimidation and even violence. These three themes resurface throughout the history of the encounter and illustrate how current assumptions can be reinterpreted. This thesis suggests the necessity of expanding the primary scholarly focuses, as well as altering the language and basic assumptions of the previous histories of the encounter.

One world one voice? Libyan affairs coverage by one European and three African newspapers, 1970-1986 [Times of London; Nigerian Daily Times ; Tanzanian Daily News; Nairobi Standard]

Author: Abdullahi, A

Awarding University: University of Leicester, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1990

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Journalism ; Newspapers ; Times of London (United Kingdom) ; Daily Times (Lagos, Nigeria) ; Daily News (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) ; Standard (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Libya ;

Abstract:

This thesis basically proffers a critical reexamination of the debate on the New International Information Order. It mainly accosts two problematic issues viz; the faulty conceptual framework adopted by a majority of the Third World member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement under the auspices of UNESCO to address the problems of international communication, and secondly, the inability of researchers - as a result of the limitations imposed by the North vs South polarization of the debate and the Third World leaders' pedestrian conceptualization of the problems at hand - to focus on the operations of the Third World media in order to arrive at much more comprehensive generalizations. The starting point of this thesis is that it is not enough to concentrate on only one side of the coin. To fully understand the interconnections of neocolonialism and its symptomatic manifestations in the field of information and communication, we have to go beyond the polemical stance the debate and current research assumed. This is, it is not enough to accuse or heap all the blame on imperialism and neocolonialism. It is obvious most of the accusations levelled against the media of the advanced capitalist countries in their portrayal of the Third World countries are valid. But, to get to the roots of the problems i.e., the underlying causes of these problems at large, there is also a fundamental need to put the Third World media themselves under the same analytical microscope. It is with this in mind that we set out to analyse how the African media cover and project African affairs, taking Libya as a case study. The rationale behind this endeavour is that since the African states have been accusing the media of the capitalist countries of ill treatment by negatively portraying them, the African media would somewhat cover and portray other African states in a more positive manner, particularly in the period of the debate and in its aftermath. Our results suggests the opposite. That is, there is no fundamental difference in how Libya was covered and projected to the outside world by both the African media in our sample (The Nigerian Daily Times, the Tanzanian Daily News and The Nairobi Standard) and The Times of London in the period 1970-1986. This we believe suggests that both the Third World media and the media of the advanced capitalist nations share some characteristics that cause them to operate along similar lines. They are to a certain extent, two sides of the same coin, which might suggest that, what we are confronted with in the field of international communication is a paradox of `a one world with a one voice' when it comes to the coverage of some contentious issues that threaten what is normally projected as the norm in society. Although these findings are tentative, we hope they will open avenues for further research in our efforts to fully understand the complexities not only of the information sector, but the whole institutional structures that underlie and give bearing to international relations, politics and economics.

The causal links among fertility, family planning and socioeconomic development utilizing Kenya, Nigeria and Sri Lanka fertility surveys

Author: Abbo, Asad Kuhder

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Chicago, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1989

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences ; Family planning ; Fertility ; Nigeria ; Sri Lanka ; Fertility ;

Abstract:

The improved longevity and reduced mortality in recent decades have led to rapid population growth in many areas of the world. In each decade, about 1 billion persons will continue to be added. Given the limited capacity and resources of the planet earth, nations must control their fertility soon. To achieve this rapidly and effectively, the simultaneous work on both family planning and socioeconomic development is the real remedy. In order to test this hypothesis, we chose Kenya with a strong family planning program but low level of development, Nigeria with high income but weak family planning efforts, and Sri Lanka with modest efforts in both fields. Neither correlation nor regression helped us reach firm conclusions for many reasons including the cross sectional nature of the data, the differential levels of measurement errors, and the complex nature of the interrelationships among fertility, family planning, and development. To untangle these intricate relations, we utilized LISREL, by which we found significant negative effects of fertility on development ($-$0.264), development on fertility ($-$0.269), and family planning on fertility ($-$0.206), adjusted for their effects simultaneously. Family planning was found to improve development (0.190) significantly also. Equally important, we found insignificant effects of both fertility and development on family planning, indicating that the latter will not follow progress spontaneously. By comparing the means, we found that both Kenya and Sri Lanka have higher family planning than Nigeria, and both Nigeria and Sri Lanka have higher development than Kenya. These indicate that the separate work on either of them led to nowhere, but their combination reduced the Sri Lankan fertility effectively and rapidly. Finally, we also found that both family planning and development have negative effects on children ever born, wasted children, breastfeeding, and total children desired. In addition, family planning and socioeconomic development have a positive effect on contraceptive use, residence, parent's education and occupation, and the ages at first marriage and first birth. Also, we found that fertility increases the number wasted pregnancies and children, total children desired, and reduces mother's education directly and significantly

A Guttman facet analysis of racial attitudes in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and the United States

Author: Smith, Winfred Joseph

Awarding University: University of Michigan, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1975

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ; University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Race relations/Attitudes/Nigeria/South Africa/United States ;

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem. Intergroup conflicts and problems have been continuous as long as mankind has consciously or unconsciously accepted 'devaluing' differences between one another. In the twentieth century, the focus has been predominantly that of racial/ethnic or national differences. Students of society have attempted to establish historical, psychological, and social-structural roots of prejudice; however, there have been few definitive studies which assess racial attitudes. The purpose of this study was to assess racial attitudes in three African countries and compare them to race attitudes in the United States. A further purpose was to validate the South African form of the Attitude-Behavior Scale (ABS-SAF) (Smith and Jordan, 1973). The form differs from Jordan's 'general' racial attitude scale (Humersma, Paige, and Jordan, 1974) in that it does not include items in the areas of military, law and order, and political activism. The review of literature includes the history of Guttman facet design, and the extension of this design as well as the formation of attitude-behavior scales based on Guttman's facet analysis of attitudes. A review of racial attitudes in the United States and Africa was presented along with a theoretical framework by which racial behavior between groups can be predicted. Methodology, Jordan and Hamersma (1969) constructed a series of attitude scales based on the facet analysis of Guttman (1959). The scale used in this study, ABS-BW/WB-SAF, is one in this series of scales. Theory and construction of the items followed a systematic a priori method instead of the Likert method of intuition or the Thurstone use of judgers. Guttman's (1959) facet theory specifies that the attitude universe represented by the item content can be sub structured into behavioral profiles which are systematically related according to the number of identical conceptual or semantic elements they hold in common. The sub structuring of an attitude-behavior universe into facets and elements facilitates an a priori sampling of items within each of the derived profiles and also enables the prediction of relationships between various profiles of the universe. The sample for this research was drawn from the first-year psychology students in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Georgia, and Michigan with a control group of Ed. 429 students at Michigan State University. The subjects were composed of Black and White, male and female students; there were 1,070 subjects sampled. The statistics employed were the Kaiser Q2 for the simplex approximation, analysis of variance, and simple correlation. Results. The results indicate that the ABS-SAF is cross-culturally invariant. The Kaiser Q2 simplex approximation test was >. 70. The hypotheses dealing with efficacy or sense of control over the environment (H-2). Urbanity (H-3), new child-rearing practices (H-4) and new techniques of birth control (H-5) were not supported. The remaining hypotheses (H-6,7, and 8) dealt with the socio-cultural and socio-cultural and socio-structural aspects of racial behavior. The groups were ranked according to size and control of social power in their respective society. Hypothesis 6, dealing with the rank order of the White samples, was not supported; Hypotheses 7 and 8 were. Hypothesis 7, dealing with the rank order of the Black samples, was supported. Hypothesis 8, dealing with the social control of societal institutions in relation to the percentage of the particular racial group within a society, was also supported.