57 Records out of 22207 Records

Media and Conflict : a case study of Citizen Television's decision making during the 2007-2008 Electoral Conflict

Author: Mbugua, Joan Waithira

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level :

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Post-election violence ; Media coverage ; Citizen Television, Kenya ; Television news ; Decision making ;

Abstract:

Between 2007 and 2008, Kenya experienced an electoral conflict unlike any other previous conflict in its history. With the abrupt declaration and swearing in of Mwai Kibaki as Kenya's president on zs' December, 2007, a corresponding reaction was immediately experienced. The peaceful political scene in Kenya was drastically altered. Protests and spates of sporadic violence filled the country. A political crisis was born. Political leaders from the opposition were on one hand up in arms crying foul and calling for the annulment of the final presidential results. Media on the other hand made frantic efforts to report what exactly was happening. In a matter of time, the conflict went from bad to worse. Reports of killings, displacement, destruction and political turmoil filled the airwaves. Indeed, democracy comes at a high cost. This is because in most 'democratic' countries, there is a worrying trend that is slowly becoming acceptable in society. In most societies today, for an election process to complete its cause, several people have to lose their lives, property or livelihood. Conflict and democracy seem intertwined to each other; where one cannot do without the other yet from a human security perspective, violence and insecurity more often than not affect an election outcome. This is electoral conflict. Generally, media is operated by the permission of the government. It has to be licensed to run its business by government. Hence media is often controlled by the government through regulation and other channels. There are also other constraints and factors that govern media and at times influence how they operate. They can either hinder or facilitate media messages especially during conflict. Decision-making is one of the defining characteristics of leadership. It's core to the job description. Making decisions is what managers and leaders are paid to do. The media management has the ability to make decisions that contribute towards conflict or its reduction. This thesis is a case study of Citizen Television which is one of the dominant local renowned media station in Kenya. Drawing from a series of interviews and questionnaires as well as viewing documentation on the post election violence from Citizen Television, the thesis examines the factors that influence media decision-making, how they influence decision-making and their effects. Often the media owners and journalists are struggling to suppress bias and exercise honesty in their decision-making. However, as the study findings indicate news decision-making of the media is sometimes influenced by factors such as fellow colleagues, the routines of the particular media house, organizational influences, external influences and ideologies but there can be a limit to it.

The role of the media in voter education : the case of the 2007 Nairobi City Council elections

Author: Muhindi, Dancan

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi City Council ; Local elections ; Media coverage ; Local Authority Transfer Fund (Kenya) ; Local government ; Voter behaviour ;

Abstract:

This study examined the role played by media in the electoral formations and running of Local Authorities (LAs) in Kenya with a specific focus on the Nairobi City Council. Within the context of the 2007 general elections, the study explored the role played by media in providing salient and insightful content for voters that could have been relied upon to make informed decisions in the election of civic leaders in that election year. Specifically, the study examined the media content and nature of information availed to voters with regard to the election of Councillors to the Nairobi City Council. The study was primarily motivated by the well-documented phenomena of a failed local government system in Kenya symbolised by endemic corruption, deplorable delivery of services such as sanitation, infrastructure and security among other basic services required for the wellbeing of residents within LAs jurisdictions. The study shows from various commentators and scholars that failure of the system to deliver is largely attributable to the low-quality civic leadership that manages the local authorities. This leadership is characterized by low levels of educational qualifications, frequent political infighting and the mismanagement of local resources. The study therefore examined the electoral processes that appear to regularly deliver low caliber leadership into these institutions, and the basis on which voters elect their civic representatives. The study further investigated the role played by the mainstream media in educating voters on the leadership choices available at this level of governance in Kenya. The basic qualifications and management competencies of elected Councillors were also examined with compelling secondary data suggesting that many civic leaders lack the educational qualifications and work experience needed to tackle the challenges of running LAs competently. The study investigated the possible reasons behind the low qualifications threshold for civic offices, why these elective positions have not attracted higher caliber individuals over the years and how the media tackled this subject during the 2007 general elections. The study also conducted an assessment of the Local Authority Transfer Fund (LATF) and its quality of management by civic leaders. The study argues that the LATF has not achieved the desired aims for which it was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1999. This is largely blamed on civic leaders who have been accused of mismanaging and misappropriating the funds over the years. The study unravels the intricate linkages between this poor performance and the basic qualifications of civic leaders in terms of managerial experience and educational levels, while examining information availed by the media in regards to the profiles of aspiring civic candidates during the last general elections. The study provided a brief comparative look at the role played by media in voter education in other countries during local government elections and the implications of this for our media. By looking at Botswana and the United Kingdom, the study investigated media best practices in the coverage of local government operations and elections in democratic countries that have well- managed cities. Finally, the study delved into the operations of LAs under the new constitutional dispensation where local governments will be superseded by the devolved County Governments after the 2012 general elections. The study explored opportunities arising for the media in influencing better management of the County Governments through voter education and enlightened citizen participation in the election of their county representatives. The study findings therefore come at an opportune time when the country is grappling with the future of Local Governments under the new constitutional framework that commenced after 27th August, 2010.

Coverage of the Kenya vision 2030 in Kenya's mainstream print media : a case study of the Nation and the Standard

Author: Muthuri, Joseph Mbae

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Newspapers ; Kenya Vision 2030 ; Media coverage ; Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Standard (Nairobi, Kenya) ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of Kenya Vision 2030 in the country's print media. The Nation and the Standard newspapers for the period between June 2008 and June 2010 were used for this purpose. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods the study carried out a content analysis of the two newspapers to determine their coverage of the Kenya Vision 2030 for the period under investigation. The findings of the study revealed inadequate coverage of the Kenya Vision 2030 in the print media in Kenya. Results also indicated that the three pillars of the Kenya Vision are disproportionately covered by the print media. A large proportion of articles on the Kenya Vision 2030 in the print media are written in a pessimistic language tone that expresses doubt at the country's ability to achieve goals of the vision. The principal conclusion was that for Kenya to achieve the Kenya Vision 2030 the mass media in general and the print media in particular should play their active roles in popularizing the goals and projects envisioned. This should be done by increasing the overall coverage of the Kenya Vision 2030 and reducing the prevalence of'pessimistic language in media articles and reports covering the blueprint.

A critical analysis of the role played by print media in the integration process of the East African Community (EAC) : a case study of the East African Newspaper

Author: Mutisya, Consolata

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: East African Community ; Media coverage ; Newspapers ; East African, The (Nairobi, Kenya) ;

Abstract:

The study set out to find the impact of print media on issues of East African Integration. It was guided by five objectives which aimed at establishing the amount of coverage that print media gives to EAC issues, determining the issues given priority by the print media as regards EAC, establishing how print media frames issues related to EAC, establishing the accuracy, framing and balancing coverage of the East African Integration. The agenda setting theory was advanced to explain the role of print media in the integration process. The study results validated all that is advocated by the agenda setting theory. The notion is that the media cannot tell us what to think, but it always successful in telling us what to think about by selecting what content to publish, where to publish it (placement) and the type of language (framing) to use in the articles (McCombs and Shaw, 1972; Lang and Lang, 1983). Accordingly, agenda setting may lead to agenda building, defined as a 'collective process in which media, government and citizenry reciprocally influence one another, leading to formulation of policies like those related to the EAC. The study used content analysis as a survey design. This entailed analyzing the contents of the articles dealing with East African Integration. The newspaper that formed the basis of the study was The East African this is the only regional newspaper that covers issues related to East African Integration. In general the study shows that the print media as presented by The East African has a positive influence on issues of integration. Some of the articles published by the newspaper shows that trade, the economy, education, infrastructure and the common market protocol have benefited a lot from integration efforts. All the articles about these topics gives them a favorable coverage.

Media and Conflict: a comparative analysis of media coverage of Turbi massacre (May-September 2005) and Mt. Elgon clashes( July-November 2007)

Author: Galgalo, Rashid Abdi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Media coverage ; Conflict ; Turbi ; Marsabit ; Kenya ; Mount Elgon District ;

Abstract:

This study seeks to conduct an investigation into how the Kenyan Media covered the Turbi Massacre conflict in Northern Kenya with a view of highlighting the poor coverage and lack of Agenda setting. The study also tries to compare and contrast how the media covered the conflict in Marsabit (Turbi Massacre) and the Mt.Elgon clashes in Western Kenya. The Study also aimed at establishing whether the attention given the conflict in Marsabit was with a view of bringing about resolution of the conflict or simply giving it shallow coverage. The Study unearthed a lot of discrepancies and double standards applied to conflict coverage in Marsabit as opposed to the overwhelming coverage and prominence given to the Mt, Elgon clashes to the point of addressing and facilitating post conflict documentaries aimed at conflict resolution. The Turbi Massacre in Marsabit had been simmering for months and despite desperate attempts by local leaders and NOOs at quelling the differences within the communities; the media never gave the issue sufficient attention. Even after the dreadful attacks, the media did not attempt to monitor peaceful resolution of the conflict. To achieve its objectives, the Study employed content analysis methodology in which various parameters were used to investigate the level of coverage and its significance to conflict resolution in Marsabit. Through this procedure, a lot of short comings from the local media in particular the print media is observed in terms of impartial and unfair coverage during the Turbi Massacre of July 12th 2005. In the final chapter, several recommendations have been forwarded to try and improve the conflict portrayal in northern Kenya generally, from a positive and non discriminatory angle.

Media and conflict in Kenya : an analysis of the print media reportage of the post election violence

Author: Barasa, Christine Naswa

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Post-election violence ; Media coverage ; Newspapers ; Journalistic ethics ; Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Standard (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Nairobi Star (Nairobi, Kenya) ;

Abstract:

This is a content analysis study that set out to examine the print media reporting of the post election violence in Kenya. It was limited to the period January 2008 and the Nation, Standard and Nairobi Star newspapers. The objectives of the study sought to examine how newspapers covered the 'Violence including framing, and its contribution to the escalation or mitigation of the conflict, and the capacity of journalists to adhere to the set ethics and code of conduct when reporting conflict and particularly when they are involved in it. In order to achieve this, news items, editorials, analyses and opinion pieces were analyzed. The study was guided by the agenda setting, personal influence, decision making and information processing theories of mass communication in its interpretation and discussion of the findings. The study found that inasmuch as newspaper reporting of the post election violence influenced readers' attitudes and contributed to' the escalation of the same, the print media also played a signifIcant role in mitigation and reconciliation. Further, the media was influenced by external forces and this was reflected in a lapse in keeping to the expected journalistic standards.

The impact of media clampdown on Kenya's Post election violence : the case of Kibera Division Nairobi

Author: Waimiri, Justus Kungu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya/Post-election violence/Media coverage/Radio broadcasting/Censorship/Regulation ;

Abstract:

When the government clamped down on live media coverage during the post election violence in January 2008, the assumption was that this would militate against further wide scale conflagrations that were presumably being promoted and even initiated by the media stations. This study comes in the backdrop of the 2010 Constitution of Kenya (PCK) referendum and the role the media continues to play in political discourse and more importantly political violence. Specifically, there has also been ongoing debate on the role vernacular media houses play and whether it is indeed time to reformulate the Communications Commission of Kenya Act 1999 and possibly deregister the vernacular stations altogether or strictly control their programming. If there is a grain of truth in the assertion that the mass media misdirected and even incited audiences on the events following the blotched 2007 General Elections, this study hypothesized that curtailing media freedom and/or out rightly closing down media stations as it happened, might as well have denied them the only opportunity to quell the fire they had presupposedly lit. Given that every media station has a category of loyal audiences and the fact that the government tried unsuccessfully to use alternative means to dispel information covered the media shows that the Government's decision to clampdown on the media was a policy flop. This study used the survey method to establish what communication channels replaced the live broadcasts and their impact on the violence. In particular the study looked at what were the alternative sources of venting after live broadcasts that had been shut down, the impact of closure of live broadcasts on the violence and the origination of grapevine after the clampdown. The study adopted an exploratory approach in collecting and analyzing the data. The study area was Kibera in Nairobi Province. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected through structured questionnaires. In sum, the study found that the media ban contributed to more violence and that a similar policy decision should not be implemented in the future.

Negative media practice and the Kenyan Tourism Industry : a study of the mainstream print media with special reference to the Daily Nation and the East African Standard newspapers

Author: Salim, Masud Khalid

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya)/East African Standard (Nairobi, Kenya)/Newspapers/Media coverage/Tourism/Economic impact ;

Abstract:

This study sought to investigate impact of Negative Media Practice and the Kenyan Tourism Industry. The study was carried out at Nation center and the Standard Group . The finding of this study indicates that the intensity to coverage was about violence. Determinants of news factor include; reference to the events, continuity of the story, Personification and Consonance of the stories covered by the two newspapers. According to the finding, the Nation newspapers used more of, continuity and personification as news factor determinants. According to the findings of this study the main factors determining Newsworthiness during the period of study included sensationalism, relevance, proximity, un ambiguity and facility respectively. Clearly significant in the research finding, is that, sensationalism is a major determinant factor for deciding both newsworthiness and selection. Therefore the negative media practice, particularly Sensationalism of violence, impact on tourism industry adversely. The positive media practice identified includes simplification of the content, meaningfulness of the occurrence, frequency of the stories, and unexpectedness of the events. As a result of their ability to reach and influence a large number of people, the media carry immense power in shaping the cause of destination image.

Trends in print media coverage of the Kibaki presidency : 2003-2007

Author: Wayumba, Iddah Wandolo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: /Media coverage/Standard Group Limited/Kibaki, Mwai/Presidents ;

Abstract:

Media is any democratic society plays an important role of keeping people informed and the explosive impact of the mass media on the political and governmental process has brought about changes in politics, public administration and the international relations. Interrelationship between government and media has given rise to many dimensions that must be explo-red and understood. Problems such as social, economic, legal and political implications of the communication process exist when dealing with government. Such include the problem of restriction, censorship, distortions and propaganda, freedoms and national security and of organization and technology. In Kenya, the 'Print media has 'been 'blamed for being hostile to the government of president Kibaki ( Kibaki Presidency), in various occasions. Such blame has mostly been directed to one of the leading media houses. The Standard Group has been accused of tearing down President Kibaki's government by highlighting negative issues and at times being disrespectful to the office of the president. Inevitably, as a result of such conflict between the media and President Kibaki's government, there has been conflict resulting to several attacks on the media. This paper therefore seeks to address the following research questions: (1) what trends emerge in print media coverage of the Kibaki presidency? And (2) what role did print media play under the Kibaki presidency? Content analyses study of the coverage of President Mwai Kibaki's government was the main study unit and newspaper articles the coding units. The study focused on only those instances that the presidency was highlighted by print media. This meant that from the data collected, the study took into account all articles, features and editorial content that directly talked about President Kibaki within their title in both The Daily Nation and The Standard newspapers between the year 2003 and 2007. However, due to time and cost limitations, not all articles within the five-year period were looked at. Purposive sampling was employed and a few politically significant months selected in Kibaki's presidency as follows: The first two months January and February 2003; the period between May and June 2004; the period between November and December 2005; the period between February and March 2006; and the last two months to be considered were January and February 2007.This was a total of 10 months in the 5 years. The study's findings indicated that authoritarian coverage by print media under the Kibaki presidency was minimal and declined over time; free press was substantial and steadily increased over time reaching its peak in the year 2006 but steadily decreased towards the year 2007; social responsibility was highest at the beginning in the year 2003 and steadily decreased to its lowest in the year 2006 with a steady increase to the year 2007; while soviet print media coverage of the Kibaki presidency was only witnessed in the year 2007. Findings also indicated that the major role of print media under the Kibaki presidency was shaping public opinion which moved from high to low between 2003 and 2004; low to high between 2004 and 2006; and high to low between 2006 and 2007. Print media's agenda setting role alternated with the social responsibility role over time but at lower proportions. Individual framing was the least played of the three analyzed print media roles and it steadily rose over the period with a decline in the year 2007. Consequently, conclusions and recommendations were drawn based on the study's findings.

Use of media in resolving conflicts in Kenyan boys schools : a case study of Nairobi province

Author: Khaimia, Anne Claire

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi Province/Secondary school students/Conflict resolution/Media coverage/School violence ;

Abstract:

The study aimed at finding out the use of media in resolving conflict in Kenyan boys' schools. It was established that communication was vital within the process of curbing unrest in schools. There is a direct relationship between media and conflict. To this end, availability of media is important to provide a medium of communication. Whereas media could inflame conflicts by reporting negatively it could also act as a third party watchdog that provides feedback to the public on problems facing students in schools. Before the onset of conflict, media could also draw attention pressure to address the conflicts as well as give early warning of potential conflicts. How media portrays violence is very important. The role of the media in the post violence period is also essential. In this study, 120 questionnaires were issued to teachers and students in five boys' schools in Nairobi. Out of the questionnaires issued, 106 were returned: 20 for teachers and 86 for students. It was found out that unrest was rampant in boys' secondary schools. Using the media to educate students on amicable conflict resolution tactics was practiced by a majority of teachers. In addition, it was strongly established from the study that the school notice board was the most highly used media in boys' schools. The other most used media in communicating with teachers, the administration and the Ministry of Education according to students were school magazines, newsletters, suggestion boxes and writing of letters. To this effect, the majority of students pointed out that their schools published school magazines. According to teachers, face to face was established as the most preferred media channel for use in dissuading students from planned unrest. This corroborated the finding that face to face and the schools' suggestion boxes were the most used media used in communication between teachers and students. Other media such as the internet and mobile telephones were slowly but increasingly being promoted by teachers in communicating with students. In search for media platforms to air their views, some teachers elucidated that students wrote a lot of graffiti about the schools and the administration in their washrooms and around the J schools. Consequently, in case of planned strike by fellow students, the majority of students pointed out that they would tell about it if the students involved did not get to know about it. In terms of access, the most frequently accessed media was newspapers according to students. A minority of students pointed out that their schools did not have radio but Standard newspapers featured articles written by students for students followed by those who pointed out the Daily Nation and the Saturday Nation. In terms of radio stations that aired programs run by students for students, three percent of the students pointed out the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC). Lack of proper communication and poor diet were the other main reasons that caused students in boys' schools go on strike among others. The majority of teachers perceived that school strikes in Kenyan boys' schools led to poor performance in examinations. In conclusion, a few recommendations and areas of further study were established.