64 Records out of 22207 Records

The role of the media in escalating conflict (a case of the Rwandan genocide)

Author: Were, Emily Nasirumbi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media/Media coverage/Conflicts/Journalists/Rwanda/Genocide/ ;

Abstract:

This study examines the role of media in escalating conflict, a case study of the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The genocide was among the most appalling catastrophes of the 20th century, and media played a significant part both internally and internationally. Globally, ftationally and locally, the mass media plays a crucial role in public policy, agenda setting, national, and international conflicts. Conflicts do not occur spontaneously but tend to have a history as all conflict have a history. The purpose of the study was to determine what role both the Rwandan and the international media played in the Rwandan Genocide. The study examined and analyzed the factors that forced the media to propelling violence in conflict situations in third world countries instead of promoting democracy and peace. The media can play different roles in terms of escalating, moderating, or balancing a conflict. The case of the Rwandan Genocide is a good example of how media can be directly involved in escalating of conflict. The mass media has been of great importance in the war leading to, the genocides in Rwanda as well as in many other internal conflicts. The objectives of the study were to determine the factors that made the media vulnerable to political manipulation, examine the role played by the media both local and international in escalating violence in the Rwandan genocide, and to examine the challenges faced by the media operations under the political umbrella in Rwanda. The study will be useful to the management of conflicts globally, to academicians, to the government and other researchers. The research was a desk review that analyzed data from both internal sources and external sources. Internal sources included information sourced from the media. External data sources included data originating from outside the media urgencies such as government sources, commercial sources, inter and intra industry sources like trade publications, journals and other sources like non-governmental organizations, institutes of economic survey and also academic institutions.

Electronic media in electroral conflict in Kenya

Author: Syallow, Anne Maureen

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media/Post election violence/Journalists/Media coverage/Social impact/ ;

Abstract:

Ethnic diversity in Kenya has been the most outstanding factor in Ali the elections since independence. Over 42 tribes and communities that have lived together in happiness and reverence always clash when it comes to the electioneering period. In the wake of this respectful unity between the different communities, threats on issues of resource distribution and political differences cost ethnic differences and this becomes worse during general elections that come every five years. These differences have been recurrent over the years but it sadly reached its climax during the 2007 general elections when the country broke into ethic fighting after presidential elections results were fiercely disputed. This enhanced the ethnic differences among Kenyans and promoted the destruction of the cultural diversity. Electronic media news source has implications for three entities: the journalists, the organizations that the media houses represent or the involved parties, and the news consumers. Central to the model was the relationship between the involved parties as news source and the reporter. The concept of marketingdriven journalism and the role of public relations in news production lead to the concept of agenda building. In the process of agenda building, public relations practitioners channel information subsidies through the media and subsidize the news reporters' newsgathering. The role of information subsidies in the mass media is termed as 'agenda building,' and the term represents the relationship between a newsroom and its sources. This study was fundamentally a descriptive survey. It entailed the description of the state of electronic media in Kenya. The description was appropriate for collecting information about electronic media fraternity and people's attitudes, opinions and a variety of issues regarding electronic media and conflict in Kenya for the period April 2007 to April 2008. The target populations were residents of the areas affected by the post election violence, such as the Rift valley, Kibera and Naivasha. From the interviews conducted, it was evident that the general Public received most of the information and developments of the election campaigns and the election process through the leading media houses in Kenya. A majority of the respondents said they knew of the current developments through the radio. The actions by the electronic media were so intense at the peak of the electioneering process and the result was upraising and revolts from all the parts of the country were witnessed. However, the researcher found out that both the electronic media and the general public had a part to play in the violence although it was not quite clear whether these actions were deliberate or not.

Occupational health and safety management practices among the electronic media houses in Kisumu County, Kenya

Author: Ojiem, Duncan Odongo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Occupational health ; Occupational safety ; Broadcasting industry ; Mass media ; Kisumu County ;

Abstract:

Occupational health and safety management is a phenomenon, which has recently gained prominence as a major issue at the work place. This study was designed to assess the occupational health and safety management practices among electronic media houses in Kisumu County. A descriptive census survey design was used in the study. Data was collected using semi structured questionnaires which were administered through the drop and pick later method. 20 out of the targeted 23 respondents dully filled and returned the questionnaires for analysis giving a response rate of 86.96% . The findings from the study indicate that the following occupational safety management practices existed among electronic media houses in Kisumu County; Inspection, maintenance and repair of machines; employee protection from hazards; having efficient physical plants layout; safety education practices; proactive identification of hazards; and employee empowerment. The study also found out that the main occupational health management practices include: having health and medical programs; use of health rules and regulations; use of noise and vibration control equipment; health surveillance on employees; employee counseling and rehabilitation; and promoting physical fitness activities. From the study findings, it was recommended that media houses in Kisumu County should promote health and safety awareness programs by sensitization through education and seminars. The government through its relevant agencies should also closely monitor all industry players to ensure adherence to statutory health and safety regulations while creating room for the emergence of new trends.

A critical assessment of the effects of the media on students' perceptions on ethics and anti-corruption in Kenya : a case study of the University of Nairobi

Author: Mwangangi, Stephen Mbaluki

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media ; University students ; Perceptions ; Ethics ; Corruption ; University of Nairobi, Kenya ; Colleges and universities ;

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to identify the effects of the media on the perceptions of University of Nairobi students towards ethics and anti-corruption in Kenya. The research only focused on the University of Nairobi students as the key respondents. This study used qualitative methods including interviews, focus group discussions and participatory observation and applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The study used purposive random sampling in selection of survey respondents. 200 respondents from the six colleges of the University of Nairobi were involved in the study. 12 Focus Group Discussions were held with 10 participants per group. Quantitative data was expressed in terms of numbers while qualitative (categorical) data was expressed by description summary and descriptive statistics gathered. The findings of the study showed that the media has positively affected students' perceptions towards ethics and anti-corruption. However, although knowledge and awareness on corruption in Kenya and in the University of Nairobi is high, adoption of ethics and anti-corruption is still low. Majority of Kenyans and university students still practice various forms of corruption. However, it is evident that the work of the media and CSOs in the fight against corruption in Kenya is being recognized. Awareness has not translated into perception change as most people would expect. This shows that other ways to educate people than the ones currently being used must be put in place. It is clear that use of other media platforms especially social media in the struggle can achieve a lot. The study has included recommendations to address corruption and change of perception towards ethics and anti-corruption in Kenya and in the University of Nairobi.

The media and conflict management in Kenya, 2007-2008

Author: Mwai, Elizabeth

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media ; Conflict resolution ; Media coverage ; Post election violence ;

Abstract:

With the rapid advancement of Science and Technology in the 21st century the role of media is omnipresent for all positive and negative changes in the society no matter of geographical location but it depends how media functions in its dutjes and responsibilities in such situation. Media as a whole has its potentiality either to affect any social development or to get affected by the factors of the social change. For all types of public opinion which impact mass media in any crisis situation with regard to media coverage or crisis one has to reflect, how mass media can influence the conflict resolution. This study reviews the role of the media in conflict resolution. Using Kenya as a case study, the study seeks to demonstrate that the media can effectively be used either to fuel conflict in a region or to reduce conflict in a region. The Project seeks to demonstrate the role played by the media in conflict and conflict resolution in Kenya during post election violence. It discusses the role of the media in Kenya, traces the roots of the problem of post election violence in Kenya, describes the methodology used in gathering data for the study and presents the results obtained from the study. Finally, the study has identified specific recommendations which if implemented can be used to address the future challenges of conflict in Kenya.

Bridging gap between broadcast and narrowcast : Kenyan media innovating on mobile phones through premium rate services

Author: Mutegi, Juliet Kangai

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mobile phones ; Mass media ; Information dissemination ;

Abstract:

Mobile telephony finally earned its rightful place alongside internet as a mass media. In the rapidly changing media landscape, the paradigm has shifted from traditional mass communication to a more personalized communication. Mobile communication plays a pivotal role in this transition. Mobile phones have evolved from basic tools of communication to smartphones. They have more powerful processors that give them enhanced capabilities beyond the typical mobile phone. In Kenya, almost all internet access is done via mobile phone. In the past year, there has been a push that has seen cheap smartphones geared for mass market amidst a backdrop of reduced data rates. Mobile phones are unique media in that they are both portable and wearable. They offer flexibility and accessibility even while in motion unlike traditional media. The adoption rate for mobile subscription has exceeded that ofthe internet many times over. The subscribers comprise a majority of traditional media's audience. This study seeks to examine the impact of increased accessibility to information via mobile applications and its effect on traditional media Previous studies have studied social media aspects of interaction between media houses and audiences while ignoring the latent potential inherent in the simple applications that have been innovated upon to phenomenal success such as m-pesa that uses SMS and has gone on to become the world's most used mobile applications. A success that media houses can replicate.

The role of the media in post conflict peace building : post independent South Sudan

Author: Lole, Margaret

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts ; Peace-building ; Mass media ; Sudan ; South Sudan ;

Abstract:

Conflict has existed in Sudan for several decades and due to this, millions of people have been displaced from their homes. Sudan has always been on focus in the world's media, with raging wars pre-dating the country's independence. The primary parties in the civil war were the government of Sudan (GoS) and the Southern People Liberation Army (SPLA) and after over two decades of fighting, the conflict came to an end in 2005 with the Conlprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). The overall objective of this study was to establish the role of the media in post conflict peace building in post-independent South Sudan. Specific Objectives were; to determine the influence of the media as Information Provider and Interpreter on peace building in post-independent South Sudan,determine the influence of the media in building diplomatic relationships on peace building in post-independent South Sudan and establish the role of the media in policy making on peace-building in post-independent South Sudan. The study adopted a descriptive survey as it deemed the best strategy to fulfill the objectives of this study was a technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of responses and objectively identifying and using the same approach to relate trends. The study used both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was obtained through interviewing media personalities involved in conflict and peace building efforts. The interviews were carried out with the help of an interview guide. The interview guide contained relevant issues concerning the conflicts in South Sudan and peace building. Secondary data was obtained from analysis and review of books, journals, papers and other available literature on the issue of role of media in peace building. The data was analyzed using content analysis. The population for this study included the media houses in the post independent Southern Sudan, Non Governmental Organizations, Government officials and the General public. Simple stratified random sampling was used based on the sampling frame below to come up with a sample of 50 respondents. The study concluded that on role of the media in peace-building as a social practice, media took an active role to report on the peace process that followed the civil war in Sudan. Particularly, in terms of monitoring policy decisions that led to the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU).The study concludes that media is a strong tool that acts as an information provider and interpreter. It is also a strong means of building diplomatic relationships and also for policy making on peace building. The study recommends that the government of South Sudan institutes the policy to govern the media for efficient and careful reporting for the successful peace building mission. The journalists be given freedom and be trained on journalism to promote professionalism in the areas of work.

The role of Explicatures and Implicatures in advertising discourse : a comparative between Gikuyu and English using relevance theory

Author: Irungu, Jane Wambui

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Advertising/Kikuyu language/English language/Mass media ;

Abstract:

This study is an analysis of the difference between Gikuyu and English advertising discourse. The argument of the study is based on some notions of Relevance theory namely explicatures and implicatures. The study will also examine other key notions of relevance theory that are related to advertising discourse. The study has used three different types of advertising media namely: radio, television and print. Samples of advertisements in both Gikuyu and English will be analyzed with a view to identifying the explicatures and implicatures in each sample as well as determining whether relevance theory can be used to analyze of the discourse of advertising. The texts studied indicate that both Gikuyu and English use explicatures and implicatures in advertising discourse, however, Gikuyu prefers to use implicatures while English prefers to use explicatures. The explicatures in the study are derived from reference assignment, disambiguation, ellipsis as well as semantically incomplete propositional forms. Implicatures on the other hand are derived from proverbs or metaphors, use of euphemisms, rhetorical questions and connotations of words. The study also reveals that advertisers must learn their audience's way of thinking as well as other factors that motivate them, in relevance theoretic terms, an advertiser and his t~rget audience must have a mutual cognitive environment in order to achieve optimal relevance. The study is divided into five sections. The first section is devoted to a presentation of Relevance theory, advertising discourse and Hall's view of High context culture and Low context culture. The second chapter focuses on the applicability of Relevance Theory to advertising discourse. Chapter three deals with presentation of the data from both English and Gikuyu .Chapter four gives a comprehensive analysis of the data and the last chapter has the conclusion and recommendations.

The media in conflict: a case study of the Somali Civil War

Author: Gumba, D E O

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Somalia ; Mass media ;

Abstract:

This study set out to trace the development of the media against the backdrop of the origin and evolution of the Somali conflict, assess the extent of media involvement in the Somali conflict and the impact of the media on the course and outcome of the conflict. The study attempted to answer the question: Is the media an important supplementary actor in a conflict and more specifically in attempts to end it? The study focused attention on the dimension of the role the media played in escalating the Somali conflict during the rise and fall of the Union of Islamic Courts and what role the media can play in the current efforts to resolve the conflict. The study sought to assess possible expressions of war journalism versus expressions of peace journalism using the tools of conflict analysis. The study employed the peace-war journalism framework of analysis and found that both the local and international media propagate 'war journalism' than 'peace journalism'. In addition, propaganda-orientation in media coverage prevails over factual orientation. However, the findings show that international media lead in propagating violence-orientated reports.

Factors influencing utilization of the media by women parliamentarians in Kenya

Author: Barasa, Mildred P

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media ; Women ; Politicians ;

Abstract:

The media refers to the channels of communication such as radio, television, newspapers, magazines, the internet, etc. that provide the public with news, education, entertainment, . among others. In agenda setting by the media quality has a very powerful influence on everything that happens in our day-to-day life - the ability to tell us what issues are important. Thus the two important elements of the media: awareness and information. Given the importance of media as a powerful tool in development, it is imperative that both women and men access it and utilize it for their advancement. However, there is still a gap when it comes to women (especially political leaders) utilizing the media to push their agenda. Literature gathered by the study strongly points out that the Kenyan media has a bias in reporting women's issues compared to men's. This prompted the need for this study to investigate the factors that influence utilization of the media by women political leaders in Kenya. Using mainly in-depth and key informant interviews, the study sought the opinion of the current twenty two (22) women members of parliament, four (4) senior representatives of different leading media houses in Kenya and two (2) representatives of organizations supporting women involvement with media and leadership. In addition, one women MP gave a narration on her personal account on the subject of study. The study results indicated that women political leaders have not gotten much prominence in media coverage as compared to their male counters. Also, it came out from the study that the media was an important factor in determining the success or failure of political leaders. The study pointed on factors such as; invisibility of women political leaders, media perception and stereotype, monetary inducement, lack of awareness of media governing policies, personalities of women political leaders like media shyness, few women representatives in media content decision making organs of media houses and reluctance by women political leaders to seek coverage as the main factors influencing utilization of the media by women political leaders. It is therefore evident that women political leaders face numerous hindrances in their efforts to seek media coverage, many of which are beyond their control. This being the situation, a lot has to be done by not only women political leaders themselves, but the government, NOOs supporting women's leadership as well as media houses and journalists.