310 Records out of 22207 Records

Impact of statistical quality control on customer loyalty in the Maize and Wheat Flour manufacturing firms in Kenya

Author: Bwika, Hamisi Salimu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Grain ; Wheat ; Maize ; Quality control ; Management ;

Abstract:

Firms are faced with problems arising from emergence of new technologies and shifts in consumer demands. Such problems have increased the complexity and range of issues to consider when making decisions. In an attempt to improve quality and reduce costs of maize and wheat flour, every firm in the industry is striving to cope with such problems and remain competitive. The primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which SQC procedures are applied in the maize and wheat flour manufacturing firms in Nairobi, Kenya and to evaluate the impact of its application on customer loyalty. The study also sought to establish the challenges faced by these firms in the application of SQC. This research was conducted through a survey method with a population consisting of 10 maize and wheat flour manufacturing firms in Nairobi. A census approach was used because it was easy to reach all the mentioned firms which were located at one region. The study used primary data obtained using questionnaires which had targeted the firms' management team, the support staff and customers. These questionnaires were distributed to all the firms as well as customers. The impact of application SQC procedures can affect customer loyalty because customers tend to shift from one manufacturer to another in search of value for their money. The study found out that customers valued quality and would be willing to pay more for products with higher quality. While the manufacturing firms strived to meet customer.expectations, there were also , challenges associated with the implementation of the quality control procedures. Some of these challenges which the study identified hindered the implementation of quality control procedures in the industry. Finally, since problems associated with quality have the potential of recurring, the study has recommended that manufacturing firms have to continually design and implement appropriate strategies to overcome the negative impacts of poor quality. These recommendations are aimed at helping the firms in the industry on how to satisfy customers by applying SQC procedures.

A statistical approach in modelling maize prices volatility

Author: Wambua, Jonesmus Mutua

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Maize/Prices/Volatility ;

Abstract:

Volatility provides a measure of the possible variation or movement in the price of a commodity experienced over a given period of time and is measured using the standard deviation. In this study, volatility of maize prices for Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania in comparison with the F AO Global prices for the period of January 2003 to August 2011 is estimated. The study employs measures of dispersion like unconditional standard deviation and the coefficient of variation together with a 20% band around the trend line compared with time series models, the ARMA and EGARCH. Maize prices in Kenya, Tanzania, and F AO Global were found to be time varying and thus estimated using the EGARCH model and the average unconditional standard deviation used as a measure of volatility. Volatility of Uganda maize prices was constant over time and was estimated using ARMA (1,1). Different from other studies that have investigated volatility of commodity prices in the region, we compare volatility as estimated by both measures of dispersion and time series models. The study shows that by both methods, maize prices in Uganda were the most volatile followed by Kenya, Tanzania and then F AO Global implying that volatility in the East African markets is high compared to the global maize market. The study finds time series models to be more appropriate in quantifying volatility than measures of dispersion because they account for the time varying pattern that is common in commodity prices and can be used to predict future volatility which can be used as a risk management tool. Key words: volatility, Maize Prices, ARMA, EGARCH

A study of the relationship between oil prices, exchange rates and maize prices in Kenya

Author: Wambugu, Conrad Kibugi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Prices/Oil/Maize/Foreign exchange rates/Economic impact ;

Abstract:

World crude prices, exchange rates and maize prices represent three markets namely the oil market, exchange rate market and the commodity market. World crude prices are exogenously determined hence any shock to the system ripples through to consumer prices. Foreign exchange enables international trade through imports and exports of goods and services. Turbulence in the foreign exchange market results in the transmission of volatility into input prices and eventually into product prices. Maize being a staple food in Kenya, serves also as a strategic grain and is heavily weighted in the food basket of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Price stability is important in ensuring food security. This research aims at finding the linkages between these three markets by using cointegration, Granger Causality and correlation analysis to measure the strength of these relationships to determine what risk management strategies are better suited to hedge against adverse volatility in markets. Descriptive analysis, unit root tests, cointegration tests, Granger Causality tests and correlation analysis tests were conducted. The results show that oil prices, exchange rates and maize prices are cointegrated. Granger Causality tests reveal that exchange rates granger cause oil prices in the 5th and 6th lag hence showing the presence of a strong long-run relationship. Correlation analyses reveal that only exchange rates and maize prices are statistically significant. From the results, various risk management have been recommended.

Influence of national accelerated agricultural inputs access programme on maize production in Nyamarambe Division, Kisii County

Author: Kipng'eno, Robert Bett

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: National Accelerated Agricultural Inputs Access Programme/Agricultural extension work/Agricultural subsidies/Maize/Agricultural production/Nyamarambe Division ;

Abstract:

This study was on the influence of national accelerated agricultural inputs access program (NAAIAP) on maize production in Nyamarambe division, KisiiCounty, Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives; To determine how provision of free farm inputs influence maize production in Nyamarambe division, Kisii county, Kenya, to establish to what extent farmer group trainings influence maize production in Nyamarambe division, Kisii county, Kenya, to examine how farm follow up visits influences maize production in Nyamarambe division, Kisii county, Kenya and to assess how holding of farmer field days influences maize production in Nyamarambe division, Kisii county, Kenya. The research questions werecentered on the four objectives which guided this study. Literature review on the Concept of national accelerated agricultural inputs access program (NAAIAP) provision of free farm inputs, Farmer group training, farm follow up visits, and holding of farmer's field days. This study was based on subsidy theory; this theory on providing farm inputs and capacity building support to farmer in order to increase production and the chapter also covers theoretical Framework and Conceptual Framework.This research used a descriptive research design as it seeks to analyze the relationship between the variables that influence maize production in NAAIAP program. The criterion for the selection of the study population was based on the NAAIAP program beneficiaries who received program services covering distribution of input grants and capacity building by the government of Kenya to resource poor farmers in the division during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 financial year. A total of one thousand two hundred farmers received program services and thus this was the study population. A pre-test of research instruments weredone in the Nyakembene location to twenty participants to determine the reliability and validity of the data collection instruments. Data was collected using one type of questionnairewhich wasadministered on the sampled beneficiaries and the resulting data collected was coded and entered into frequency tables. Data analysis presentation and analysis outputs are descriptive statistics in form of frequency tables, percentages and mean. Inferential statistics used were also usedcorrelation analysis aided the researcher on determining the relationship between variables. This research established that the NAAIAP program intervention led to increased maize production in Nyamarambe division.

Diversity of food consumption by households and their exposure to aflatoxins from Maize products in Kibwezi District, Makueni County

Author: Kilonzo, Robert Musyoka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Food contamination and poisoning/Diet/Food safety/Aflatoxins/Maize/Kibwezi District ;

Abstract:

Maize is the basic staple of the Kenyan diet. Ugali, a thick porridge of maize meal, is the main dish. Other maize based dishes include boiled mixture of maize and beans (githeri) which when the maize kernels are decorticated, is referred to as muthokoi, and cooked mash of maize, beans, vegetables and potatoes, referred to as irio. Other staple fO,ods include cereals like sorghum, millet, legumes, pulses and rice, cassava, sweet potatoes, fruits and vegetables. Milk and dairy products are also important items in the country, but especially among the pastoral communities. A wide variety of agricultural products worldwide, have been found to be contaminated by aflatoxins. Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly occurred Kenya. This study was designed to examine the consumption patterns of maize products and other foods in Kibwezi District and assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 72 households for the study from the three (3) divisions of the district with 24 households being randomly sampled from each division using a sampling interval of 2 households. A previously pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the socio-demography of the household, diversity of foods consumed and the frequency of their consumption. Twenty samples, each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were randomly sampled from households in the three divisions of Kibwezi District. The samples were transported to the laboratory for aflatoxins analysis. Each sample was qualitatively screened for the presence of aflatoxins using Thin Layer Chromatography method and then the positive samples analyzed quantitatively for the toxins using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Total aflatoxins exposure (ug/kg body weight (bw)/day) was determined from multiplying the average daily per capita maize and maize products consumption (kg) by the total aflatoxins level in maize and maize products (ug/kg). For each household the figure was divided by an average body weight of an adult of 60 kg. The results on socio-demography showed that the households had a total of 298 residents of which 45 % were males and 55 % females with an average family size of 4?1.3. Those aged below 5 years were 15 %, while those aged between 6 - 12 years and 13 - 18 years were 18 % and 12 % respectively. The results further showed that 9 % of the residents had attained college and university education while 20 % had completed secondary education. Those who had completed primary education only were 27 % and those without formal schooling were 9 % . Results on diversity of foods consumed revealed that 44 % of the respondents consume ugali seven times in a week, and about 10 % of the households consumed it more than ten times a week. Githeri was consumed seven times a week by 35 % of the families. Consumption of muthokoi was once a week by 25 % of the families, and porridge was consumed seven times by 21 % of the families. Of the other foods, the most commonly consumed 'foods included rice and finger millet, roots and tubers. Less than 50 % of families consume sorghum, irish potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas mash in a week. Sorghum was rarely consumed by 86 % of the respondents, while 6 % consumed it once a week. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was varied. Kales were highly consumed by 47 % of respondents seven times a week. Less than 50 % of the families consumed pawpaw, mangoes, oranges, carrots, cowpeas, amaranth black and nightshade. Milk had high frequency of consumption with 79 % of the respondents taking milk seven times a week. Fish was poorly consumed by 7 % of families Of the 20 samples, each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal, 45 % maize kernels were found to be contaminated with aflatoxins while 20 % and 35 % of muthokoi and maize meal, respectively, were also contaminated. The maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were found contaminated

Maize crop yield prediction through reinforcement learning, artificial neural network and alert messages generation

Author: Onyango, Paschal Odhiambo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Maize ; Agricultural production ; Neural networks ; Instant messaging ; Short messaging services ;

Abstract:

Most of the medium and small-scale Kenyan farmers rely on metrological department for weather information and subsequently also rely on the ministry of agriculture to provide information on the crop yield. This seldom occurs as the agricultural officials do not use the scanty available data for data mining to provide relevant information to farmers. While the current metrological stations are few, thus accurate weather and crop yield information for any season and station cannot be disseminated to the diverse population that needs the information. The purpose for this project is to address the temperature, rainfall and maize crop yield information to relevant bodies and to provide a centralized information dissemination center for farmers. To analyze, build, test and evaluate a prototype system that shall provide information to farmers and the meteorologists' officers. Agent based methodology was borrowed to develop the application prototype and thus the methodology used was Tropos methodology in combination to machine learning algorithm (Q learning). The implementation was carried out using Delphi 7 and MS SQL server 2008 and F ANN Delphi components to exploit the artificial neural network features. Test cases were run for the purpose of evaluating the prototype in comparison to the actual data that was collected from the field. And thus graphical comparison of the test runs is as shown in the graphs and respective broadcast message generation and subsequent dissemination. The farmers and meteorologist too used the system.

Factors associated with nutritional rehabilitative effectiveness of corn soy blend in children aged 6-36 months at Mukuru, Nairobi

Author: Omolo, Juliet Onyuma

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Malnutrition ; Baby foods ; Maize ; Soy products ; Babies ; Low income groups ; Mukuru, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Child malnutrition is the underlying cause of 3.5 millions of deaths in young children under five years of age in developing countries. Progress in addressing ibis through improved feeding of children has been insufficient. One way of addressing malnutrition is through supplementation with nutrient rich foods. This study determined the level and factors associated with rehabilitative effectiveness of corn soy blend in children aged 6 - 36 months in a supplementary feeding programme based at Mary Immaculate Nutrition Centre, Mukuru, Nairobi. The study conducted, between September 2011 to April 2012, applied two phases; i) a cross sectional study with an analytical approach of the household demographic and socio economic characteristics, food security and health factors, utilization and compliance to the use of corn soy blend by mothers/caretakers, dietary intake and morbidity experience of the children and ii) a retrospective study on weight gain, length of stay in the programme as compared to the recommended performance indicators. A total of 150 children participated in the cross sectional study through exhaustive sampling. Mothers of the children were interviewed using a pretested semi structured questionnaire to obtain information on the children and their households. Eleven mothers were interviewed using a focus group discussion guide, and 5 key informants were interviewed to obtain data on their experience and perceptions related to the feeding programme. Data for 153 children was collected from records of children in the feeding programme in the previous one year up to October 10th 2011, for the retrospective study. Data was coded, entered and analyzed using means and standard deviation for continuous data, proportions and frequency distributions for categorical data. T test. analysis of variance, correlations and Chi - square were used to test for significant differences and associations between group characteristics at p values < 0.05 and generalized linear model regression was used for inferential statistics. Most of the mothers were of primary level education (57.7%) and not employed (61.7%) in any income generating activity. Stunting, underweight and wasting were very high in the study children at admission and after three weeks in the programme at 48%, 39% and 22% respectively. However, the mean z scores for stunting, underweight and wasting increased significantly by 0.68, 0.59 and 0.23 respectively after 3 weeks in the programme. Nevertheless, the mean daily weight gain was lower than 5g at 1.65g/kg body weight and mean length of stay was longer than the recommended 4 weeks at 12 weeks. This may be attributed to diet inadequacy of the children, not using CSB flour as recommended by 54.5% of the mothers and missing supplementary feeding programme (SFP) sessions or illnesses. Though CSB contributed 33 -55% of Kilo calories, Iron, Vitamin A and Zinc, only half of the children (54%) had consumed a diet that was adequate in KCalories, 91 % in protein, 80% in Vitamin A, while no child consumed a diet adequate in bio available iron and zinc. The study established that almost half of the respondents missed the SFP sessions at least once in the previous month. Most of the children (73 %) had experienced an ailment in the previous 2 weeks. The factors associated with dietary intake were distance to water source (r=-0.170, p=0.039), household size (r=-0.234, p=0.004), marital status (X2=11.218, p=O.016), and gender of the household head (X~5.875, p=O.047). The factors associated with the child's progress in the SFP were the employment status of the mother and length of stay of the child in the programme (Fishers Exact Test =11.389 p=O.020); employment status and change in WHZ (X2=3.335, p=O.05) and WAZ scores (X~5.041, p=O.025); person who fed the child and change in W AZ (Fishers Exact Test =12.034, p=0.021 )and WHZ scores (Fishers Exact Test =8.296, p=O.027). The lack of association or correlation between dietary i

Influence of farm subsidy on sustainable maize production in Transmara West District, Narok County

Author: Muendo, Ernest Kakula

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Transmara West District ; Maize ; Food security ; Farm price supports ; Agricultural production ;

Abstract:

This report is on influence of farm subsidy on sustainable maize production in Transmara West District, Narok County. The study was warranted by the continued food deficit in the world where around 925 million out of the total 6.8 billion people in the world are food insecure, 13.1 percent, or almost 1 in 7 people are hungry. From the literature reviewed it was found out that Maize the staple food for many Kenyans has been in the decline over the years. The country suffers a maize deficit of 6.8 million bags (612,000 metric tons). Maize imports cost the country between USD192 and USD 487 per year if imported from Africa and elsewhere respectively. The use of agricultural inputs is fundamental in modem agriculture in developed countries, and they were a primary ingredient in the green revolution that swept through Asia and Latin America during the '60s and '70s. However, the green revolution largely by-passed many African countries, and the use of agricultural inputs remains very low. While agricultural production and productivity soared in Asia and Latin America during the last four decades, they have largely stagnated in Africa, resulting in a rising dependency on imported grains and an increase in the number of food insecure people. Several efforts have been employed in developing the food security, scenario key among which was the use of farm subsidies in various ways with differing results. In Kenya National Accelerated Inputs Access programme was started in 2007 and Transmara West district was chosen. Though not a net food deficit district it was intended to boost its production especially from the poor and the vulnerable farmers who were not using the inputs or using the inputs inadequately. The study therefore was to establish to what extent these farm subsidies have been able to influence maize production in Transmara west district over the four years after it was advanced to the 1500 farmers. A descriptive survey design was chosen since it was found fitting and cost effective for the researcher. A total of 150 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire. The farmers were stratified into males, females, and youth farmers after which using random sampling technique 10% was chosen. All the 7 agricultural officers participating in the National Accelerated Agriculture Inputs Access programme were chosen using purposive sampling giving a total of 157 respondents. A questionnaire was used to interview the farmers while an interview guide was used for the officers. A pretest was done in Transmara East District of the instruments to test their reliability and viability. seven agricultural officers were be selected using purposive sampling one from the district and one from each division for data triangulation on overall change in food production in the District. Data was collected, coded, and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5 computer software. Descriptive statistics was used to give the outputs. Conclusions and recommendations were made on if farm subsidy has had influence on sustainable food production in Transmara West District. It was found out that despite the government putting lots of effort to provide farm subsidy considerations need to be made in relation to the timeliness, administrative costs, amount, quality and type of farm inputs being given to achieve sustainable food security in Transmara West and Kenya in general. Further recommendations for research were made to the ministry of agriculture to review the modalities of giving farm subsidy to address maize deficit in the country.

Land use change and intensification : impacts on soil macrofauna with emphasis on Earthworms in land use mosaics in Embu and Taita-Taveta Districts, Kenya

Author: Musombi, Kibberenge B J

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Land use ; Soil fertility ; Maize ; Embu District ; Taita-Taveta District ; Dirofilaria immitis ;

Abstract:

The study set out to determine, characterize and compare geomorphologic, physiographic land use types and agroecosystem intensification, assess physicochemical nature of soil at benchmark study sites of Embu and Taita Kenya. Then determine macrofauna occurrence, abundance and diversity along a land use intensification chronosequence and explore their relations with soil characteristics, and impacts of land use and agricultural intensification on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna. Then finally determine effects of soil fertility amendments on earthworms in a maize based agroecosystem. Specific stages within of study included site characterization, stratified sampling of macrofauna and estimation their abundance, biomass and diversity in land use mosaics subjected to varying degrees of anthropogenic intensification and determination of within and between land use mosaic macrofauna diversity. The study synthesized and appraised importance of macrofauna in soil structure stability and quality, soil organic matter translocations, decomposition and inorganic soil components. Findings from this study provide baseline data and information on use of macrofauna in evaluating potential consequences of anthropogenic management practices as global change drivers of ecosystem processes responsible for loss or maintenance of soil productivity. Key words: Macrofauna biodiversity, Earthworms, Geomorphology, Physiography, Land use, Soil fertility, Soil degradation, Agricultural intensification, Kenya

Efficacy of Muthokoi pounded with green leafy vegetables in improving the Vitamin status using Rats

Author: Maina, Edah Wanjiru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition ; Maize ; Pumpkins ; Vitamin A ; Rats ;

Abstract:

Majority of Kenyan families especially those from lower socio-economic class feed their children with cereal-based foods sometimes with little vitamin A. Green leafy vegetables are sometimes incorporated, but though containing high levels of vitamin A, do not effectively release the vitamin to the body due to interaction with the leaf matrix. Decortication of maize to produce Muthokoi by pounding in a mortar with pestle sometimes incorporates green leafy vegetables resulting in a greenish yellow product due to infused [l-carotene. The p-carotene is presumed to be better available from this Muthokoi because it is only physically bound. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Muthokoi pounded with pumpkin leaves in improving the vitamin A status of rats with view to relating the results to humans. Different proportions of maize and the pumpkin leaves were pounded and the most appropriate Muthokoi determined. The Muthokoi was analyzed for proximate composition, p-carotene, iron and calcium. The Muthokoi was milled into meal and fed to laboratory rats together with whole maize meal as control. A total often rats were used, with five rats as the test group and five rats as the control group. The test group was first induced with vitamin A deficiency to the level of 0.696 ? 0.075~moI/L from serum retinol level of 1.87?1.60~mollL, after which they were fed with p-carotene enriched Muthokoi for a period of three weeks. The control group was not induced with the deficiency but were fed on the whole maize meal for a period of three weeks. Both the test group and the control had their basal serum retinol levels determined and thereafter the serum retinol levels were determined every three weeks using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. The proportion of maize and pumpkin leaves that was select:q for the study was one part of maize pounded with two parts of pumpkin leaves which resulted to Muthokoi with a ~-carotene content of 465.3?9.20Ilg/1 OOg. After pounding maize with pumpkin leaves, it was observed that the carotene content of the maize was significantly increased from 26.87!lgIl00g to 465.3 J.lgll OOg. The Muthokoi was also enriched with calcium and iron to levels of 21.2 ?5.3 l7.3?8.24mg/1 OOg respectively. The serum retinol levels of the control and test groups before deficiency induction did not show significant difference (p>0.05) between them. The mean levels of serum retinol among the control group of rats did not change significantly (p>0.05) after the three weeks of feeding, the serum retinol during the three weeks feeding period changed from 1.85?0.214IlmollL to 1.86?O.207IlmollL. The serum retinol levels of the test group after deficiency induction was 0.696 ?0.075 and the content after the intervention was 1.496 ? 0.069 .This showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the serum retinol levels due to feeding with enriched Muthokoi. The study showed that maize meal from Muthokoi pounded with pumpkin leaves is effective in increasing the vitamin A status of vitamin A deficient rats.