93 Records out of 22207 Records

Who cares for orphans? Challenges to kinship and morality in a Luo village in western Kenya.

Author: Cooper, E

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Orphans ; Luo (African people) ; Kinship ; Morality ; Western Kenya ; HIV (infection) ; AIDS (disease) ;

Abstract:

This dissertation analyses an ethnographic study of how people in a peri-urban, agricultural village in western Kenya have responded to the questions of who will care for children, and how, when those children?s parents, or other primary caregivers, have died. It examines the practical and ideological implications of wide-scale orphaning among a population that has experienced increased numbers and proportions of orphaned children mainly due to HIV/AIDS, as well as the gradual depletion of resources in terms of both the availability of middle-aged adults and the security of economic livelihoods. The research explores how specific caring relationships, as well as general sociality, have been challenged, adapted, and affirmed or rejected normatively and practically in this context. The research revealed a high degree of questioning in people?s efforts to forge responses to children?s orphaned situations. Rarely was there unambiguous consensus in the study context concerning what should be done in response to children?s orphanhood in light of families? diminished livelihood capacities. More broadly, there was a distinctive concern with how such situations might be appraised in moral terms. The analysis therefore focuses on three main concerns, including: how to understand uncertainty as a condition of life, and the implications of this; how a shared perspective of uncertainty has spurred a concern with morality in the study context, and specifically galvanised a moral economy of kinship; and how the concern with morality affected what was deemed at stake in people?s lives.

Prevalence of type II diabetes and it's risk factors among the Luo and the Kipsigis of the Lake Victoria basin

Author: Kiplamai, Festus Kaino

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Luo (African people)/Kipsigis (African people)/Diabetes/ Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The prevalence of Type II Diabetes (T2D) in developing countries is increasing at a high rate. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifiable predictors of T2D and variations in predisposing factors among the people living around Lake Victoria region, and in particular to describe variations in dietary factors, physical activity, socio-economic status and prevalence of T2D among two rural communities in the lake Victoria basin. A cross-sectional survey design was used for randomized selection of the subjects from the two rural populations. The total number of subjects recruited was 304 (134 males and 170 females) to fulfill the 95% confidence level required for comparisons. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and T-test, where applicable, for comparison of means between groups and chi square to show associations between variables. There was no significant difference in the mean age of the two populations thus age was not a confounding factor. The overall prevalence of T2D in the rural areas represented by the sample was found to be 2.3% of the population (3.0% and 1.8% among males and females respectively). The overall prevalence of IGT in the rural areas was at 8.1% (CI: 5.0-11.2) of the total population {3.1% (CI: 0.2-6.0) and 11.3% (CI: 6.3-15.7) among the males and females respectively}. There was significant differences in the BMI between the males and females (p<O.OOI). The females had a significantly higher BMI than the males. The Body Mass Index (BMI) (p=0.003), %BF (p=0.002), and HC (p=0.004), differed significantly among glucose intolerant and the normal individuals. There were large cross-ethnic differences in dietary intake among the two populations. Glucose intolerant (GI) subjects were found to have a significantly (p=0.017) lower percentage of protein (12%) intake in their diets than the control (14%). There were no significant differences in the time reported spend on vigorous physical activities among the two populations. The total Metabolic Equivalent (MET) values were also found to be significantly lower (p<O.OOI) among the Kipsigis compared to the Luo community. The amount of time spend sitting was found to be significantly (p<O.OOI) higher among the Luo as compared to the Kipsigis in both gender. There were no significant differences in the metabolism of glucose between the different blood types across the two communities. The levels of triglycerides was found to be significantly associated (i=25.21, p<O.OOI) with increased incidence and prevalence of T2D and its risk factors among the Luo while this was not true for the Kipsigis community. The Cholesterol (i=89.42, p<O.OOI) and the LDL (i=16.82, p=0.032) were similarly associated with the prevalence of T2D and risk markers among the Luo only. In conclusion, the highly significant differences in prevalence of T2D and its risk marker are related mainly to differences in lifestyle, with a special emphasis on dietary patterns. Elevated BMI, % BF, HC, Chol, and LDL independent of age and sex are risk factors for glucose intolerance. The increased amount of time spend sitting as a proxy indicator for physical inactivity is a risk factor to T2D and its risk markers. It is recommended therefore that they should manage their diet intake and physical activities very closely to avoid being predisposed to T2D, IGT and elevated blood sugar levels.

Sexual behaviours of medically circumcised men in informal settlements : a case of Luo men in Kibera slums

Author: Odero, Kennedy Otieno

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; HIV infection ; Sexual behavior ; Men ; Circumcision ; Luo (African people) ; Low income groups ;

Abstract:

HIV/AIDS has remained to be a major health challenge over time despite the interventions that have been put in place. The focus on behavior change has recently been advanced to include cultural concerns and as a result male circumcision has been approved as a HIV risk reduction measure and is being scaled up across the country especially in noncircumcising communities and urban settlements. The effectiveness of male circumcision in relation to sexual behavior is a concern for circumcised men including those in informal settlements. Therefore, the broad objective of this research was to assess the sexual behavior of medically circumcised Luo men in Kibera. The specific objectives included the HIV risk sexual behaviours practiced by medically circumcised men, their HIV risk perception, factors that determined their acceptability of male circumcision and also factors that determined their sexual behavior in the slum set up.The study used qualitative research approach as the main data collection method with quantitative method being used to supplement qualitative method. The samples were purposively selected using snowballing technique. The study used various data collection methods such as focus group discussions, key informant interviews and personal interviews. The data collection tools such as focus group interview guide, key informants interview guide and personal interview schedule were used in this study. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically, while quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS). The study found out that majority of the medically circumcised Luo men generally avoided HIV risk sexual behaviours and hence sexual behaviour change and this was mainly due to high HIV risk perception and pre-circumcision counseling. However, some Luo men still practiced risky sexual behaviours after medical male circumcision and this was due to low risk perception following male circumcision. The study also found that Luo men in Kibera considered male circumcision for HIV prevention. In addition, other reasons such as penile hygiene, acceptability by circumcising communities and sexual partners, influence from friends and relatives, sexual enjoyment, and the fact that it is a free procedure were established. The study further found that medically circumcised Luo men considered themselves to be at low risk after medical male circumcision, but majority would still avoid risky sexual behaviours after circumcision because they understood that circumcision does not provide complete protection. The study also established that risky sexual behaviours of circumcised Luo men in Kibera were determined by factors such as peer pressure, entertainment, poverty, being away from family, sexual exposure, alcohol and drug use, risk perception and language use. The study recommended the formation of post-circumcision clubs for promoting safe sexual behaviours. The entertainment points in Kibera need to be regulated and more intervention towards behavior change communication programs in Kibera to be implemented. However, there is need for further study on HIV prevalence of the medically circumcised Luo men group.

Interethnic Coexistence among the Luo, the Kipsigis and the Kisii in Sondu area in Kenya

Author: Odongo, Dorine Achieng

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Minority and ethnic violence ; Minority and ethnic groups ; Social integration ; South Nyakach District ; Kericho West District, Nyamira District ; Kipsigis (African people) ; Luo (African people) ; Gusii (African people) ;

Abstract:

Daily interaction of society members in a given locality is based on their level of acceptance and recognition of one another as distinct and unique individuals. Interethnic coexistence refers to the existence of different ethnic groups in the same place with the aim of achieving a well defined goal hannoniously. The study revolved around Sondu area which is a cosmopolitan region covering three districts namely: - South Nyakach, Kericho West and Nyamira districts. These districts are mainly populated by the Luo, the Kipsigis and the Kisii ethnic groups who usually converge in 'Sondu' to do business. Sondu is well known for its booming trading market which attracts many people from both Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Sondu area is also known for its incidences of conflict which occur mainly during national general elections when ethnic animosity is ignited among the ethnic groups that reside in the region. However, apart from these occasional ethnic skirmishes, there is a remarked harmonious living which is interestingly important. The study focused ,on assessing the nature of interethnic coexistence among the Luo, the Kipsigis and the Kisii who comprise the major occupants of Sondu in embracing community cohesiveness and improved communication between the coexisting ethnic groups. The study was guided by four objectives, namely: to determine how the Kipsigis, the Kisii and the Luo perceive one another; to identify the underlying contributions to coexistence among the groups; to investigate the causes and nature of interethnic conflicts among the Kipsigis, the Kisii and the Luo and to assess how the interethnic conflicts are resolved. Care was taken to ensure representation thus both probability and non-probability sampling methods were used. A sample size of 150 households was randomly picked from the region. To ensure ethnic representation, 50 individuals from each ethnic group were randomly picked and were interviewed on a face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were also used to fill in the knowledge gap, thus six key informants who were purposively selected to participate in the study included the DO, Community policing chairperson, CBO chairman, DPC secretary, school head and retired civil servant. Focus group discussion was conducted with nine community elders randomly selected using focus group discussion guide.

Effects of cross border conflict on community development along Nyando, Nyamira, Rachuonyo and Belgut Districts, Kenya

Author: Gunja, Peter Juma

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nyando District ; Nyamira District ; Rachuonyo District ; Belgut District ; Conflict ; Boundaries ; Community development ; Kipsigis (African people) ; Gusii (African people) ; Luo (African people) ;

Abstract:

Conflict is natural and it is a daily occurrence in human life thus generally seen as part and parcel of human body. It is a situation in which the concerns of two or more individuals appear to be incompatible based on their goals and interests. Conflict undermines the stability required for sustainable community development. Handling conflict negatively has caused much sufferings, loss of lives, hatred, mistrust and destruction of properties all over the world, countries such as Iraq, Israel, Palestine, Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda just to mention a few have gone through bitter experiences in handling the effects of conflict and Kenya has not been exceptional. The area identified for study is not developed as a result of the effects of cross border conflict between Kipsigis, Kisiis and Luo communities since independence and the situation has worsen every time national election is held in the country. The study examined the factors influencing cross border conflict on community development along the borders of Nyando, Nyamira, Belgut and Rachuonyo districts in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research since it employs both qualitative and quantitative approaches. This design provides rich information about the phenomena and describes real life situation and provides information of the elements as they occur. Descriptive survey designs are designed to discover the underlying motives and desires to elicit unconscious and also related materials. The researcher was able to administer 104 questionnaires out of the original sample of 120 people. The questionnaires were analyzed and thus conclusions on the effects of conflict on community development were made. After data collection, the Questionnaires were cleaned of errors made during Data Collection. The Data collected were summarized, coded and entered into the computer where Analysis of Quantitative Data was done using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists [S.P .S.S]. Frequency Means and Percentages were used for Descriptive Statistics while Chi-Square, T-Test, FTest and Z- Test at 5% level of significance were used for inferential statistics. Qualitative Data from provincial administration and other NGOs working in the area were analyzed using Checklist, Matrix Analysis. Data collected through qualitative method were analyzed using the thematic approaches under the headings such as Causes, Effects of conflict, participants' perception such as Perceived power, Political factors. The study found that socio-economic factors are of significant value in terms of influencing community, and the government is doing very little to address cross border conflict in the areas for study. The study recommends that the government need to do allot more in terms of providing security to its citizens and besides this come up with a clear policy on peace Building and conflict resolution.

Influence of perceived benefits of male circumcision on its acceptance among Luo high school students in Kisumu City

Author: Dola, Caroline Adhiambo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kisumu East District ; Secondary school students ; Luo (African people) ; Circumcision ; Boys ; Perceptions ;

Abstract:

The study was conducted to investigate how the perceived benefits of male circumcision influence the acceptance of male circumcision among Luo high school students in Kisumu East District. The study specifically investigated if the perceived benefits of male circumcision among the Luo high school students could have been influenced by factual information on' and the sources of information on male circumcision and if these guided their decision to accept circumcision. The study's main concern was establishing whether the Luo male high school students fully understood how male circumcision (MC) could reduce the risks of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STI's) and Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV), since lack of this understanding may fuel the epidemic. A systematic literature review was carried out on studies and reports involving the evidences supporting male circumcision's ability to reduce the infection rates of STI's and HIV and more specifically research has revealed that MC can reduce HIV infection rates from males to females through heterosexual contacts by 60%. A literature review also included the epidemiology of HIV in relation to Male circumcision, acceptability studies as well as barriers to male circumcision. The study was conducted through a simple descriptive survey, data being collected, using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were selected using multistage and purposive sampling to obtain a sample of 363 respondents, from 5 randomly selected high schools in Kisumu East District. The basic criterion of the participants was male high school students from the Luo community between the ages of 14 to 20 years. The study revealed that out of the 363 participants, 77(21.2%) had been circumcised and 187(51.5%) had the intention to seek male circumcision service because it had health and social benefits, 150(41.3%) and promoted hygiene (81(22.3%). Forty two percent of the high school students were capable of distinguishing facts about male circumcision from incorrect information. The study also revealed that 30.6% of Luo high school students had no intention of undergoing circumcision despite them being aware of the health benefits. Pain, culture, health risks, parents, lack of interest, and religion were identified as the barriers to circumcision uptake. The research concluded that the Luo high school students perceptions on the benefits of male circumcision are based 0 factual information. Myths could influence Luo high school students to get circumcised. The major barriers to male circumcision were pain and culture. Luo high school students were accessible to varied sources of information on male circumcision and print media had the greatest influence on their acceptance of male circumcision. This study recommended that circumcision services be made free and accessible to the young people. Adequate information should be given especially on pain management. Further research should be undertaken on myths surrounding sexuality as they may influence uptake of circumcision but with negative intentions. More research should be done on myths that surround reproductive health issues and, the efficacy of information sources influencing behaviour change among the youth. This study could also be replicated in another district.

Factors influencing uptake of male circumcision among the Luo community in Nyando District, Kenya

Author: Ouma, Emmanuel Griffins

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nyando District ; Circumcision ; Luo (African people) ; HIV infection ; Men ;

Abstract:

Male circumcision has been carried out globally for many thousands of years, and is likely to be the most common surgical procedure, with an estimated 30% of men getting circumcised (UNAIDS, 2008). In many places circumcision has an important symbolic, cultural and religious meaning. For example, in certain communities of Eastern and Southern Africa young men are circumcised as a rite of passage that marks their transition from boyhood to manhood. However, studies done on male circumcision by Auvert et al, (2006) ; Gray et al, (2007) and Bailey et al, (2007) indicate that the practice has potential of partially reducing HIV infection. This has led to increased advocacy among communities that were traditionally non- circumcising such as the Luo in Nyanza province resulting to high demand for male circumcision among men from this region. Apart from the above reason, no study has been conducted to determine other factors that influence uptake of male circumcision among men in non-circumcising communities. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate factors that influenced uptake of male circumcision (MC) among the Luo community in Nyando district in Kenya. Among the objectives that the study investigated included; determining the extent to which demographic factors influence uptake of male circumcision, investigating the socio-cultural factors that influence uptake of male circumcision among the Luo community in Nyando district and examining the relationship between perceived benefits of male circumcision and uptake of male circumcision among the Luo community in Nyando district. The study employed descriptive survey design and the target population were mainly men aged between 15- 49 years. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to sample a total of 128 men and 64 women at household level. 58 elderly people, MC mobilizers and providers were conveniently sampled. Data was organized and presented using both qualitative and quantitative methods and analyzed using SAS statistical package that applied Chi- square testing. The study found out that demographic characteristics such as age, marital status and religion influenced uptake of male circumcision (MC) among the Luo community in Nyando. It also established that attitudes and perceptions are among socio- cultural factors that influenced uptake of Me. The study established that perceived benefits of male circumcision influenced uptake of male circumcision. From these findings, the study concluded that preference for male circumcision generally decreases with increase in age and that MC is more popular among the younger people. It was also concluded that socio-cultural factors and perceived benefits of male circumcision (MC) positively influence uptake of MC among men in Nyando district. The study therefore recommended that more public awareness should be raised on the benefits of male circumcision especially to the elderly people in Nyando district. It also recommended that a model of male circumcision program be rolled out in Nyando district which involves a sensitization process in which men who undergo circumcision are taken through an informal training before undergoing circumcision. From the findings, the study suggested that future studies should focus on the sustainability of uptake of male circumcision in Nyando district. It has also recommended that future research should look at the risk compensation effect that is sparked by potential for increase in risky behaviour as a result of MC partially reducing HIV infection.

Factors influencing adoption of male circumcision as a strategy against HIV/AIDS epidemic in Bondo District, Kenya

Author: Owillah, Edward Okoth

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Bondo District ; Circumcision ; Men ; AIDS (Disease) ; HIV infection ; Disease control ; Luo (African people) ; Social life and customs ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the factors influencing the adoption of male circumcision as a strategy against HIV/AIDS epidemic in female-to-male transmission, give recommendations on how to enhance adoption of this strategy to communities which do not practice circumcision in Kenya. The research objectives included establishing the influence caused by cultural practices in adoption of male circumcision as a strategy against HIV I AIDS infection in Bondo district. The extent to which, individual acceptance to circumcision passage influences its adoption in Bondo district. Evaluate effects of the existing level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS risk reduction campaign through male circumcision. Determine how availability of essential facilities influences male circumcision strategy. The research methodology was descriptive in nature. The population of the study was 39,870 adult males living in Bondo district in Nyanza province (this is according to statistics from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics of 2009). The sample size in this study was 383 male respondents identified using stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques and data collected by use of questionnaires. Quantitative methods to report on the statistics included analyses of the data in terms of frequencies. Cultural practices by the Luo community was found to have influenced the adoption of male circumcision as the culture was deep rooted, minimally influenced from outside, and there was fear of disobeying it. However the culture could change given more sensitization on male circumcision if accepted in this community. Individual acceptance of male circumcision was found to have influenced adoption of male circumcision with factors like cost of circumcision, fear of pain and discomfort and well self preparedness and safety of the procedure being important. Individual knowledge level on male circumcision and HIV! AIDS was found to have influenced the adoption of male circumcision as a strategy. However most respondents had basic education and were aware of male circumcision. The study established that the district has limited health facilities and medical staff to exercise circumcision to the respondents, while the government was not appropriately creating awareness of the circumcision campaigns in the district. The study concluded that the four identified variables that are cultural practices of the Luo community, individual acceptance to circumcision, effects of the existing level of knowledge on HIV I AIDS risk reduction and availability of essential facilities influenced the adoption of male circumcision as a strategy to mitigate against the HIV I AIDS epidemic in Bondo district. The study recommends that the government should improve on medical facilities and create more awareness on male circumcision. However the study was only limited to Bondo district and also studied only the four variables. Further studies can be carried out on other factors that influence the adoption of male circumcision apart from the four main variables. Also the factors affecting male circumcision adoption to other non-circumcising communities like Turkana, Teso and other parts of Kenya can be studied in future.

Associating genetic resistance to plasmodium falciparum malaria infection with ethnic groups residents of malaria endemic and non-endemic regions of Kenya

Author: Ayodo, George

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Malaria ; Epidemiology ; Genetics ; Luo (African people) ; Kikuyu (African people) ; Masai (African people) ;

Abstract:

Malaria causes death of millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and about 80% are children and women under 5 years of age. Infection has therefore exerted pressure on human genome and as a consequence clinical manifestations appear variable in endemic and non-endemic populations. Part of the reason for this epidemiological difference is hypothesized that over the last few thousand years, endemic populations have built up genetic resistance to severe malaria infection. To test this hypothesis, the study searched for evidence of natural selection in malaria exposed and unexposed populations by (a) carrying out a large-scale collection in Kenya of severe malaria cases and controls from the Luo ethnic group and also of population controls from the Masai and Kikuyu ethnic groups, (b) carrying out an association study at 10 genetic variants previously associated with malaria resistance, (b) studying frequency differences across populations to determine which of these variants have been subject to selection for malaria resistance in the past few thousand years, and (c) also studying haplotype and linkage disequilibrium patterns around malaria resistance genes to search for evidence of natural selection. In the Luo case-control samples, the previously described associations at CD36-GT (P value < 0.004) and HbAS (P value = 0.015) were replicated. Strikingly, there was unusually high frequency differentiation of the HbAS and CD36-GT variants in the exposed (Luo and Yoruba) vs. relatively unexposed (Kikuyu and Masai) populations compared to a panel of 1,454 randomly chosen markers that were studied in the same samples (P < 0.00036 and 0.00096 respectively). By statistically combining the case-control association and frequency differentiation statistics, the power of the association analysis was increased by several orders of magnitude (HbAS with P value < 0.0000 18 and CD36-GT with P value < 0.00043), which provides a potential tool for researchers to find risk factors for infectious disease in future. Further assessment o? haplotype blocks flanking HbAS-T, CD36-G and ICAM-T suggested that exposed and un-exposed populations exhibit different haplotype block patterns, supporting the evidence of natural selection. CD 36GT appears to be under selection in both the Luo and Yoruba ethnic group, whereas HbAS is under selection in the Yoruba ethnic only but not in Luo ethnic groups. These results suggest Yoruba and Luo-perhaps because they are on different sides of the African continent-evolved different genetic response to malaria because they had been exposed to the disease for thousand years. This study has not only developed a novel method to identify malaria variants but has also provided an insight on the possibility of exploiting haplotype block patterns to map causal genes.

The impact of orphanhood on Luo children [Kenya]

Author: Zidron, Amy M

Awarding University: Ohio State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Health sciences/Orphans/Children and youth/Luo (African people) ;

Abstract:

The HIV/AIDS pandemic is creating a generation of orphaned children in Africa. In addition to the loss of a parent(s), orphaned children may face many hardships during their childhood including a decline in health, nutrition, and psychological well-being. The central goal of this dissertation is to investigate the impact of orphanhood on a group of Luo children. This goal is achieved by investigating four aspects of orphan life: nutritional status, physical health, mental health, and food intake and estimated energy expenditure. Four hundred eleven Luo children (9?1yr) were recruited from two districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya to participate in this research. Participants underwent an interview including the Beck's Depression Inventory for Youth (BDI-Y), anthropometric measurements, testing for anemia, a clinical history and physical exam, and a 24-hour dietary recall. Energy expenditure was estimated using an Actical? activity monitor. Variables were compared across groups using t-tests. All analyses were gender specific and the effect of length of orphanhood was also investigated. Few differences were found between orphaned and nonorphaned Luo children. No significant differences were found between anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin level, or health between orphans and nonorphans for either gender. Orphans had significantly higher BDI-Y raw scores than nonorphans (p<0.001). This was true for males (p<0.001) and females (p=0.005). Male orphans consumed significantly less fat (p=0.01) and protein (p=0.001) than male nonorphans. No significant differences were found between the two groups of males for the other food intake or the energy expenditure variables, and similar results were found for the females groups. Length of orphanhood was not correlated with any of the variables. This was true for both males and females. Overall, the Luo orphans who participated in this dissertation research do not appear to be disadvantaged when compared to nonorphans.