107 Records out of 22207 Records

From Rendille to Samburu : a language shift involving two mutually unintelligible languages of Northern Kenya

Author: Ngure, Kenneth Kamuri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Rendille language ; Samburu language ; Linguistics ; Marsabit District ;

Abstract:

This study is an investigation of the factors responsible for the linguistic shift from Rendille to Samburu by persons who claim a Rendille identity and are, therefore, expected to speak Rendille language. The two languages belong to different language classification groups; the former is Cushitic while the latter is Nilotic. The study had four objectives: to investigate the motivation(s) behind the Rendille Samburu language shift; to identify discemable stages (phases) in the Rendille-Samburu language shift; to assess the impact of the language shift on the structure of Rendille language; and to establish whether or not ability to speak Rendille language is a useful factor in determining the Rendille identity. In order to address the research questions and the objectives of the study adequately, we adopted an eclectic approach that comprised of Giles, Bourhis and Taylor's (1977) Model of Language Shift and Vitality and Fishman's (1980) Bilingualism vs. Diglossia Model. Each of these models played an indispensable role in the study. The study took the form of a field work survey with a mixed research design. Six settlements located within the Rendille territory in Marsabit District were identified from which we picked respondents mainly through stratified and judgement sampling techniques.The settlements included Hula-hula, Karare/Songa, Log-logo, Laisamis, Kor and Kargi. Data collection was done using questionnaires, interviews, observations and focused group discussions and analyzed by use of simple frequency tables and thematic analysis.

Communicative effectiveness of newspaper headlines using lexical pragmatics and relevance theory : a case study of the Standard and the Daily Nation Newspapers

Author: Ongalo, Joyce Atieno

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Communication ; Newspapers ; Linguistics ; The Standard (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya) ;

Abstract:

This study presents the results of a linguistic study on the language of newspaper headlines in two Kenyan newspapers; The Standard and the Daily Nation. The aim of the study was to look at communicative effectiveness of the language of the headlines of these two newspapers. In doing this the study investigates how lexical adjustments are used by headline writers to communicate. The study also sought to establish the role of context in the interpretation of ad hoc concepts in headlines using lexical pragmatics within Relevance Theory. The proponents of Relevance Theory are Sperber and Wilson (1986). This thesis is organized into five chapters. Chapter one focuses on introduction to the study which includes: the background to the study, statement of the problem, hypotheses, theoretical framework, rationale, scope and limitation, literature review and research methodology. Chapter two focuses on context in which headlines are written. An in-depth explanation of explicatures and implicatures from Relevance Theory is given in this chapter to show how context can affect one's understanding and interpretation of headlines. Chapter three is on the lexical adjustment processes in the language of newspaper headlines. These processes include narrowing and broadening, approximation and metaphorical extension. Lexical adjustment helps the reader to understand the headline writer's intention. In the same chapter other concepts like metonymy, neologism and assonance have been explained. In chapter four we look at linguistic features that characterize headlines. Some of the features explained are figures of speech and ambiguity in headlines. Also explained are rhetorical questions, synecdoche, alliteration and loaded words in headlines .Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further research in this area.

A lexical pragmatic analysis of the sense relations in Ekegusii

Author: Omoke, Josiah Nyaosi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gusii language ; Linguistics ;

Abstract:

This study aims at analyzing the sense relations in Ekegusii using the Lexical Pragmatics Theory. The study attempts to establish the role of context in comprehending the sense relations in Ekegusii and above all the type of milieu required in their comprehoosion. The interface between semantics and pragmatic is also investigated. This project is structured in six chapters. Chapter one introduces the subject matter under investigation, the introduction to Ekegusii, the statement of the problem, objectives, hypotheses, the rationale, scope and limitation, the literature review, research methodology and the significance ofthe study. Chapter two focuses on the analysis of antonyms in Ekegusii. The antonyms' identified are classified into six classes: gradable, complementary, reversive, relational, and directional antonyms and taxonomic sisters. The role of context in the meaning of antonyms in the language is also examined. Chapter three describes the homonyms in Ekegusii. The chapter discusses homonyms which are further divided into homophones, homographs and heteronyms. The occurrcnce of homophones, homographs and heteronyms in Ekegusii is explored in this chapter. The role of context and tone in differentiating the meaning of homonyms in Ekegusii is also explored. In chapter four, an analysis of polysemy as realized in Ekegusii is given. Polysemy arising due to shift in application, semantic borrowing, metonymy and register is discussed. The impact of tone is explored besides the role of context in disambiguation of polysemous words in Ekegusii. Chapter five discusses the sense relations in Ekegusii in sa ' lexical pragmatics theoretical perspective. Narrowing and broadening processes of the theory are used to discuss the various sense relations discussed in chapter two, three and four. Finally, chapter six gives the summary of the issues covered in the whole thesis. The chapter ends with a set of suggestions and recommendations for further research.

A lexical phononology study of modern standard Arabic (MSA)

Author: Mohammed, Abdulmajid Akidah

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Arabic language ; Phonetics ; Linguistics ;

Abstract:

This is a descriptive study of the phonology and morphology of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) spoken in Cairo, Egypt. The study, conducted within the framework of the Lexical Phonology (LP) theory, aims at examining and describing, in detail, the nature of the relationship between the phonology and morphology of the MSA lexicon with a view to determine what role morphological and phonological rules play in the word formation processes and organization of the MSA lexicon. In view of the arguments presented by proponents of the LP theory with respect to the supposedly universal phonological and morphological principles of language, this study sets out to investigate and determine, the extent to which these universal principles are applicable in MSA. The study is guided by our research problem, which is to investigate the nature of the relationship between phonology and morphology in the organization of the MSA lexicon. It seeks to achieve several objectives; key among them being, to conduct a descriptive analysis of the phonology and morphology of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), using the parameters of the Lexical Phonology (LP) framework. To be able to answer the specific research questions raised in the study, we obtained data by recording a series of conversations in various settings while focusing on specific issues and concerns that had a bearing on the objectives of the study. Through the data collected and analyzed, we were able to identify various phonological and morphological processes in MSA as well as test the application of the various principles laid out in the LP theory. Motivated by our study objectives, we identified severall hypotheses which we tested and provided the results of the tests in the conclusion section of the study. Our data comprised both written and oral texts. The written texts were prepared and read orally by one of our informants to enable us analyze the phonological component. They consisted of prepared texts and excerpts from Egyptian newspapers. We also recorded three discussion programs aired on the Egyptian TV Channel I, three lessons recorded on the Arabic by Radio program as well as four oral interviews by one of my informants. We transcribed the data and analyzed it focusing on the various morphological and phonological aspects of MSA that we intended to investigate. After a comprehensive analysis of the data, and in view of the postulations of the LP theory, we established that with the exception of the stress neutral and non-neutral affixes principle, the other major principles of LP are indeed applicable to MSA. We therefore conclude that notwithstanding the limitations of the LP theory manifested in its inability to account for certain aspects of the MSA grammar, such as stress placement, the LP theory is, by and large, a useful tool in the description of the phonology and morphology of Modern Standard Arabic.

Ungesteuerter Deutscherwerb in Kenia und seine Auswirkung auf einen gesteuerten Erwerb : Ein Beispiel anhand zwei Fertigkeiten; sprechen und Schreiben

Author: Mburia, Jean Avis Makena

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: German language ; Linguistics ;

Abstract:

In dieser Arbeit wurden einige Aspekte des Spracherwerbs untersucht. Der ungesteuerte Spracherwerb und die Faktoren, die dabei cine Rolle in Kenia spielen. Danach wurden die Auswirkungen dieses Erwerbs auf die Daf-Unterrichtssituation in Kenia diskutiert. Die Hauptfrage dieser Arbeit ist: Welche Rolle spielt der ungesteuerte Erwerb des Deutschen fur den spateren Besuch des Unterrichts des Deutschen als Fremdsprache? Zur Beantwortung dieser Frage wurden Datenanalysen von den Ungesteuerten- und GesteuertenZweitspracherwerb durchgeftihrt. Bei del' Forschung und der Analyse wurden solche Faktoren, die eine Rolle beim Spraeherwerb spielen, berucksichtigt: die Motivation, der Sprachverrnogen & das Sprachverstehen, der Kontakt mit der Sprache, die kommunikativen Bedurfnisse, das Alter beim Zweitsprachenlernen, der Unterricht sowie die Identitatsentwicklung, Dabei wurden die DaF-Methoden, Lehrerlnnen- und Kandidarenbefragung, Interviews und Beobachtungen eingesetzt. Diese Methoden wurden im Feld bel Kenianerlnnen mit einem DaF Hintergrund und einigen Daf'-Lehrpersonen durchgefiihrt. Die Ergebnisse der Umfrage, Interviews und Beobachtungen wurden analysiert unci interpretiert, Die erhaltenen Daten wurden ebenfalls qualitativ analysiert, Die Ergebnisse del' Analysen zeigten, dass ungesteuert und gesteuert Sprachlemenden unterschiedliche Voraussetzungen und Bedingungen haben, unter denen sie die Zweitsprache lernen. Das gemeinsame Lemen diesel' Gruppen wirkt sich negativ auf den gesamten Unterricht aus. Sic sollten daher nicht zusammen unterrichtet werden, um die Unterschiede im Unterricht berucksichtigen zu konnen. Dies wurde auch den Lehrkraften die Chance geben, auf die besonderen Bedurfnisse der jeweiligen Gruppen einzugehen.

Morphophonemic processes of Igikuria

Author: Maroa, Rebecca Ghati

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kuria language ; Phonetics ; Linguistics ;

Abstract:

This study investigates the morphophonemic processes that are evident Igikuria. It uses a synchronic approach in analyzing Igikuria phonemes and eventually lays down phonetic inventory for all the phonemes. The intention of the study was to explore the sound changes in Igikuria phonemes and to investigate the environment. under which such changes occur. It also aimed at investing aspects of Igikuria phonology and morphology relevant to the discussions on sound changes. The research also aimed at exploring the sound adjustments that affect borrowed vocabulary and appreciate how the adjustments relate with Igikuria morphophonology. The study hypothesized that consonant changes that occur in Igikuria are caused by other consonants. Further, vowel changes that occur in Igikuria are caused by other vowels; more so, the study hypothesized that Igikuria morphophonemic processes can be represented using the rule formalisms of Natural Generative Phonology which reveals motivation without overgeneralization. The study also hypothesized that loanwords in Igikuria undergo morphophonemic adjustments in consonants and vowels to commensurate with the native Igikuria vocabulary. This is a segmental study which focuses on analyzing Igikuria sound segments. It has limited itself to Igikuria as used in Kenya although much of the language is spoken in Tanzania. The study has used Natural Generative Phonology (NGP) Theory. A lot of literature was reviewed during the research. Much of it was to do with morphology, phonology and phonological theories as well as a few books in and on Igikuria. This research was largely library based. Most of the data was drawn using what is known as naturalistic observation technique and purposive sampling. Introspection was also used. The results were tested using native speakers of Igikuria. The study also engages in comprehensive exploration and analysis of both consonants and vowel processes. It shows the environment under which the various changes occur. The study further posits both general and formal rules that govern each process. These rules enable the understanding of both surface realizations and underlying forms of various items. It has been demonstrated that each change is governed by a certain rule; be it morphological, phonological or via rules. The consonant processes that are discussed include weakening and strengthening of consonants, palatilization and consonant deletion. The vowel processes studied are: coalescence, vowel harmony, glides formation and deletion. It is noted that loanwords borrowed by Igikuria from different languages are nativised but, never the less; some structures alien to Igikuria are brought into the language through the borrowing. Nativisation is achieved through processes like substitution, insertion and deletion of both consonants and vowels. After nativisation in most words, the native Igikuria phonological processes mentioned above become applicable to the various items so nativised. This study of Igikuria morphophonemics lays phonemic inventory and matrices and posits rules for the various processes. It may help in understanding of the loanwords. It sets a paradigm and provides a comparative scale for other Bantu languages.

Tugen word order a minimalist perspective

Author: Jerono, Prisca

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tugen language/Dialects/Linguistics ;

Abstract:

This thesis embarked on the quest for the basic word order in Tugen within the Minimalist Program. Tugen is classified as one of the dialects within the Kalenjin macro-language with a VSONOS word order. Earlier attempts at the typology of languages by Greenberg (1963) proposed languages with VSONOS word orders as having SVO as the alternative word order. Work on related dialects by Creider (1989) within the Extended Standard Theory analysed Nandi as having SVO as the basic word order with VSONOS being derived from the basic word order. The Minimalist Program gives prominence to the role of morpho-syntactic features of the verb phrase in the determination of word order. The inflectional features of agreement subject, agreement object, tense and aspect together with the derivational features such as the benefactive, passive, antipassive, instrumental/locative etc determine the number and ordering of heads within the structure. These features have a relation of head- head with the arguments having a relation of spec-head. The verb moves through each of the heads to check for the relevant features through the Principle of Feature-Checking. Feature checking therefore forces verb movement. The various arguments move to the relevant specifier positions for case checking. The Principle of Full Interpretation ensures that all the features of sentence are checked and no extra features or steps are allowed in the derivation of a sentence. In Tugen the feature of tense which heads the verb phrase is responsible for the verb-initial word order unlike in verb-second languages where agreement subject heads the verb phrase.This thesis also analysed the role of discourse-pragmatic features of topic and focus in Tugen word order. Topic which is readily available information is presented in Tugen by pronominal arguments while focus which is new information or topics which are re invoked or emphasized are represented by lexical and pronominal arguments. The thesis found out that the Tugen verb heads the sentence with a VO as the basic word order. VSO word order is the default fous word order in isolated sentences with VOS occuring in constructions with focus. Tugen marks case by the use of tone and is a marked nominative language. The discourse-pragmatic aspects of topic and focus changes the word order from the basic VO to SVO, VSO and VOS.The analysis of the various word order shows that Tugen is pragmatically a topic-comment language. The Minimalist Program (1995) was adequate in guiding the problem under investigation. the interplay of syntax and pragmatics with feature checking is responsible for the basic word order being VO.

First language's interferences on the second language in the syntactic structure of the second learner's writing : a study of Kikuyu and Kamba secondary school students in Kitui S.D.A school

Author: Ciira, Mary Wangari

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Secondary school students ; Linguistics ; Bilingualism ; English as a second language ; Kitui S.D.A.School, Kenya ; Kikuyu language ; Kamba language ;

Abstract:

Transfer is a pervasive term and this has led to diverse interpretations and research practices of it. This study looks at the related literature and studies on L 1 interferences on the syntactic structure of the L2. It also makes a survey about approaches in transfer studies, with the aim of unfolding the mystery behind poorly written English essays by secondary school students often blamed on L1 interferences on the learning of L2. More so, this investigation too aims at edifying the assumed positive transfer that could ease learning of L2, plus dig out other probable remedies to the Negative transfers to be noted to interfere in the learning of L2.The research will focus on Form 2 and Form 3 students from Kitui S.D.A School. Key theories to guide this study will be Contrastive Analysis (CA) and Error Analysis (EA). Data for the study will be collected through interviews, participant observation, use of archival documents and feedback sessions. Students' composition scripts will be used as the main tool together with oral skills exercise sessions. Data collected will be analyzed by simple statistical procedures of accumulating the errors, finding their mean, mode and medians, then making conclusions and classifying them according to the speculated classifications given in the conceptual framework. Keywords: transfer or interference, linguistic transfer, second language acquisition, positive transfer, negative transfer, contrastive analysis(CA),error analysis (EA),mother tongue(Ll ),target language or second language(L2), and interlingual transfer.

Matatizo ya kisarufi miongoni mwa wanafunzi wa Kikipsigis wanaojifunza Kiswahili sanifu : mtazamo wa lugha kadirifu

Author: Chepkwony, Leonard Cheruiyot

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi LIbrary ;

Subject Terms: Primary education ; Swahili language ; Kipsigis language ; Bomet District ; Linguistics ;

Abstract:

Lengo kuu la kazi hii ni kuchunguza matatizo ya kisarufi miongoni mwa wanafunzi wa Kikipsigis wanaojifunza .Kiswahili Sanifu. utafiti huu ulifanywa kwa kutumia. misingi ya nadharia za Lugha Kadirifu na Uchanganuzi Makosa. Nadharia ya Lugha Kadirifu hurejelea maumbo ya muda mfupi ya kisarufi yanayoundwa na wanafunzi wa lugha ya pili wanapojaribu kujifimza lugba hiyo. Nadharia hii huchukulia kuwa, lugha ya mwanafunzi hupitia viwango kadhaa kabla ya kufikia kwenye ukamilifu wa ujuzi wa lugha ya pili. K wa kutumia misingi ya nadharia bizi, tumebaini ehanzo, aina na kiasi eha kutokea kwa makosa ya wanafunzi wa Kikipsigis wanaojifunza Kiswahili Sanifu na kupendekeza mikakati ya ufundishaji inayoweza kutumiwa iIi kupunguza au kuondoa makosa hayo. Katika utafiti huu, mbinu zifuatazo zilitumiwa kukusanyia data: Hojaji, mahojiano na utazamaji. Majaribio manne yalitumiwa. Jaribio la kwanza lilihusu kutafsiri sentensi za Kikipsigis kwa Kiswahili. Jaribio hili lilijaribu kuehunguza iwapo kuna athari za Kikipsigis katika matumizi ya Kiswahili. Jaribio la pili lilikuwa ni kujaza mapengo yaliyoachwa wazi katika sentensi. Jaribio hili lilifaa iii kudlubiti wanafunzi kwa kuwalazimisha watoe majibu kulingana na matakwa ya mtafiti. Jaribio la tatu lilihusu uandishi wa insha. Wanafunzi walihitajika kuandika insha ya ukurasa mmoja juu ya 'Kijiji ehetu.' Jaribio la mwisho lilihusu kusikiliza na kumngumza. Mwanafunzi alihitajika kusimulia kwa kifupi hadithi anayoipenda huku mtafiti akinasa kwa kanda. Utafiti huu unahusu ujifunzaji wa lugha ya pili na unapatikana katika taaluma ya Isimu Tumikizi. Tumejikita tu katika matatizo ya kimofolojia na kisintaksia. Sampuli zilitolewa kutoka wilaya ya Bomet. Jumla ya wanafunzi sitini walichunguzwa kutoka shule nne za msingi na Wanafunzi wa darasa la sita, saba na nane walihusika. Matokeo ya utafiti huu yanaonyesha kuwa makosa mengi ya kisarufi yanatokana na athari za lugha ya Kikipsigis. Makosa hayo pia yalihusu ujumlishaji mno wa baadhi ya maumbo ya sarufi ya Kiswahili.

Issues of language structure in machine translation : a case study of English and Kiswahili

Author: Ngesu, Sarah Ndanu Mwangangi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Machine translating ; Linguistics ; Swahili language ; English language ;

Abstract:

This study is an investigation into the aspects of language structure in machine translation (MT) and their effect on translation of texts from English into Kiswahili. It is a linguistic exploration of aspects of morphology, syntax, and semantics in machine translated texts. The primary aim of the study is to establish whether structural differences between English and Kiswahili contribute to mistranslation in machine .translated texts. The study had three objectives: to determine some of the mismatches in the source text (ST) and target text (TT); to identify some of the linguistic structural differences between English and Kiswahili; to discuss effectiveness of machine translation in relation to consumer satisfaction. The data was collected from two sampled texts from the internet using purposive sampling. Cases of mistranslation were classified into three categories namely; morphology, syntax and semantics. Data was also elicited through human translated texts. Two texts were each given to a human translator who translated the two texts already translated by machine, which were then used to compare with machine translated texts. A questionnaire was formulated and tested on twenty (20) respondents. These translations and the responses from the respondents were analyzed, interpreted and discussed. The findings indicate various types of linguistic mismatches that result into mistranslation. Structural differences between English and Kiswahili account for the mistranslations. Aspects of the structural differences include; word order, noun classes (con-cordial agreements), noun modification, equivalents, tense marking and meaning. This study shows translating from English into Kiswahili by machine is a tasking process and the quality of machine translated texts from English into Kiswahili leaves much to be desired. The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives the concept and historical background of translation and Machine Translation, states the problem of the study in which issues that are related to the problem under study are discussed and synthesized. This chapter also gives the methodology used in eliciting and analyzing the data used in this study. Chapter two presents a comparative description of some aspects of linguistic properties of English and Kiswahili. Chapter three gives the presentation and analysis of data from the sampled texts. Chapter four presents data and analysis of responses from the questionnaires given to respondents. Chapter five gives the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.