9 Records out of 22207 Records
Author: Ramser, Tobias
Awarding University: University of Bern, Switzerland
Level : Masters
Holding Libraries: University of Bern Centre for Development and Environment Library ;
Subject Terms: Laikipia, Kenya/Ecotourism/Conservation/Socioeconomic factors ;Abstract:
Goals Tourism, one of the world's largest industries, is a frequently cited tool of development for developing economies. Economic benefits to destination countries however often tum out to be below expectations due to structural deficiencies such as poor planning, profit leakage and foreign ownership. Ecotourism, the fastest growing sector of tourism, is a fOhn of tourism that addresses some of the adverse outcomes of conventional tourism. Ecotourism strives to benefit the local economy and the host communities and minimizes detrimental impacts on the local culture and environment. The concept of ecotourism further assumes that support for tourism and conservation is high among communities that benefit from tourism. The goals of the present study correspond with these principles. On the one hand, the present study aims at assessing the socio-economic impact of ecotourism on the regional economy and on local communities and livelihoods. On the other hand, conservation attitudes among stakeholders are investigated to discover potential conflicts of stakes. A combination of these two areas of investigation can provide evidence on the hypothesis between benefits from tourism and conservation support. Study area The study was carried out in Laikipia District, in central Kenya. Kenya adopted tourism as development strategy shortly after independence. Kenyan tourism revenues grew steadily until the late 1980s. In recent times, the tourism sector is recovering from a decline in the 1990s and is re-estab1ishing its high importance within the Kenyan economy. Today, Kenya is a high profile ecotourism destination. Tourism development in wildlife rich Laikipia did not systematically start before the 1990s. At present, Laikipia counts around fifty, mostly wi1d1ifebased tourism operators and annual revenues reach US$ 11.7 million. Compared to destinations such as Maasai Mara National Reserve, Laikipia follows a strategy of tourism that offers a high quality product and low visitor numbers. Tourism in Laikipia largely takes place on semi-arid rangelands. Unlike in the case of National Parks, tourism in Laikipia takes place on privately owned land outside of formally protected areas. Laikipian ecotourism is frequently cited a model of success. It is thus worth evaluating. Methods The study adopts a multiple case study research design. Within Laikipia, five tourism operators have been selected not randomly, but in a way to maximize the inter-case diversity in respect of size (guest volume and tum-over) and ownership (from community-based to private). Between November 2006 and February 2007, a total of 114 interviews have been conducted. Besides five experts, the following stakeholders were considered for interviews: management, employees and local communities. Respondents were chosen selectively, respective to gender, age, occupation, geographical dispersion and rank, in order to identify key respondents and to cover the whole community. In all study sites, the respective communities were identified. This study notably paid attention to the fact that all measured impacts are correctly attributable to their cause. For data analysis, different sources of information (interviews, informal con and observations) and different types of data (quantifiable and qualitative) are cor. mostly employ descriptive statistics for quantifiable data' and content analysis for q data (data and method triangulation). The socio-economic impacts are analysed case Conservation attitudes are analysed stakeholder-centred. Results The study results suggest that ecotourism in Laikipia is benefiting the regional economy ( as the host communities. Combined, the studied ecolodges provide over 100 jobs and ge nearly US$ 900'000 in expenses in Laikipia District. Profit leakage, originating in spe. outside Laikipia District and in losses through travel agent commissions, is a serious prol Local communities benefit in terms of community infrastructure, whereas education
Author: Ekdahl, Dawn Rise
Awarding University: Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, USA
Level : PhD
Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;
During a 16-month field study of vervet ( Cercopithecus aethiops ) and patas ( Erythrocebus patas ) monkeys on Segera Ranch in Laikipia, Kenya, I examined the natural repertoire of intestinal parasites that infect these two sympatric species and the variables that potentially influence the parasites' maintenance and transmission. The prevalence of pathogenic gastro-intestinal parasites in these primates has not yet been established for this region of Kenya or the extent to which they could serve as a reservoir for potential zoonotic and anthropozoonotic disease transmission. The results of microscopic examinations of fecal samples demonstrated the presence of 12 endoparasite species, including two trematodes, 10 nematodes, and two protozoan species. Overall, 40% of the 527 fecal samples (211/527) exhibited at least one parasitic ovum or larvae. A strong difference between species infection rates was evident; 52% (180/346) of the vervet samples contained at least one parasite while only 17% (31/181) of those from the patas did. The vervets had a higher percentage of positive samples for helminths (28%) than did the patas monkeys (13%) and had a greater diversity of helminths present in the samples. Protozoan intensity and presence was also determined to be significantly higher in the vervet populations. The differences in parasite presence, intensity, and abundance were assessed by group size, season, age, sex and rank in both species through behavioral observations and systematic fecal collection and analyses. A strong effect of the season, when established by the amount of rainfall, is indicated in parasite presence and abundance. Significant differences in parasite presence were also established by age and vervet group size. No significant differences in the presence of helminth or protozoan parasites were established between male and female vervets or according to the dominance hierarchy. The analysis of pollens, spores and phytoplanktons from the fecal samples provided additional baseline information on environmental and seasonal changes. An evolutionary approach to studies on the ecology of disease systems and host-resistance mechanisms may provide more insight into the persistence and effects of long-term host-parasite associations.
Author: Mwakima, Margaret Wawuda
Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya
Level : MES
Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ; Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ;
Rangelands constitute about 80% of the land surface in Kenya. They are mainly used as pasture for both livestock and wildlife. The presence of wildlife has led to the development of several ecotourism enterprises such as 11 Ngwesi Communal Ranch and Sweetwaters Game Sanctuary in the Laikipia Ecosystem. hereas the presence of ecotourism activities in the rangelands is considered an economic success, overall benefits to the local communities are questionable. Thus there is need to establish the linkage between economic benefits accruing to local communities and natural resource management. This study, therefore, assesses opportunities and constraints towards attaining sustainable ecotourism in 11 Ngwesi Communal Ranch and Sweetwaters Game Sanctuary in order to determine whether it is better achieved through privately owned or community based enterprises. Household surveys, informal interviews and observations were the main primary data collection methods. Secondary data was obtained from documented and un-documented literature such as government and non-governmental organization reports, bulletins, articles, institutional brochures, academic journals, specialized magazines and the internet. Data analysis was performed using both descriptive (Percentages, means, standard deviation) and inferential (t-test, and x2-square test) statistics. Quantitative data was processed and presented using figures and tables. This was achieved through the use of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Microsoft Excel spreadsheet while, the respondent's perceptions were measured using a 5-point Lickerttype of scale. Results from the attitudinal scale in both study areas indicate that ecotourism through wildlife activities contributed significantly to the well being of the local communities (2.17) in general as well as to specific individuals (3.91). These economic benefits to the local communities instill a positive response towards natural resource management, hence the sustainability of ecotourism in rangelands. This was more evident in It Ngwesi Communal Ranch compared to Sweetwaters Game Sanctuary. In It Ngwesi, 96% of the respondents indicated that there was equitable distribution of income from ecotourism activities; while in Sweetwaters 48.5% cited that there was a lop-sided trend in this distribution. Despite the presence of human wildlife conflicts in the two study areas, 98% of the respondents felt that the benefits received from wildlife far outweighed the losses caused by wildlife (1.89) and that these benefits had led them to appreciate wildlife better (1.46). The respondents' support of ecotourism development and natural resource management in Il Ngwesi Communal ranch relative to Sweetwaters game Sanctuary was found to be significant at (x2?65.14; df = 1; P<0.05). This means that ecotourism is more likely to be sustainable in communally owned ecotourism enterprises than those are that are privately owned. On the whole, this study has underscored the value of community participation in ecotourism activities as a prerequisite for improved natural resource management in the rangelands. In order to encourage this participation, the study recommends increased government and private sector support for the local communities. In addition, there is need for improvement of infrastructure, regularising of the land tenure system, provision of capital and increased capacity building for the communities in Kenya's rangelands.
Author: Pruetz, Jill Daphne
Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA
Level : PhD
Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;
I investigate the effects of food availability on adult female contest competition and dominance relationships in Vervet and Patas monkeys at Segera Ranch, Laikipia, Kenya. I test hypotheses derived from models that use patterns of food availability to predict the nature of female primate social relationships within groups (Isbell 1991; Van Schaik 1989; Sterck et al. 1997; Wrangharn 1980). Food availability was measured throughout the study, specifically concentrating on the monkeys' main food source, Acacia drepanolobium. I take into account the feeding behavior of the primates, and the abundance, distribution, nutritional content, and processing costs of foods. The dominance hierarchy of female Vervet and patas monkeys was similar when both used an A. Drepanolobium woodland habitat. Foods here were randomly and closely distributed in space and less abundant per feeding site compared to foods in the A. Xanthophloea riverine habitat, a second habitat used by Vervet monkeys. The hierarchy exhibited by female Vervet monkeys in the woodland habitat was not significantly linear, and the hierarchy of female patas monkeys was significantly linear only when females who had recently entered the hierarchy or had been observed for only a few months were deleted from analyses. In the A. Xanthophloea riverine habitat, the dominance hierarchy of female Vervet monkeys was statistically linear. Food-related competition also produced a significantly linear hierarchy among female Vervet monkeys, but only when all food-related agonism was considered, including interactions that occurred in the A. Drepanolobium habitat. In the riverine habitat, almost half of all female agonism among Vervet monkeys was not food-related. The link between ecology and behavior at the level proposed by models of female primate social behavior (i.e., relationships) is more complex than these models ascertain. The models adequately predicted when adult female dominance relationships in patas and Vervet monkeys would be nepotistic or egalitarian in a superficial sense only. Gross categorization of patterns of food availability are not adequate to explain female primate social behavior.
Author: Muruthi, Philip M
Awarding University: Princeton University, USA
Level : PhD
Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;
I investigated one of the causes of variation in reproductive success: differences in the amounts of care that females offered their young. Time spent in maternal care, delay in subsequent reproduction and maternal mortality, reflected differences in habitat quality and maternal social status, in a non-linear manner. Infants in the richest foraging condition (lodge group, Amboseli, Kenya) spent more time suckling and in physical contact with their mothers than their wild-feeding counterparts. Wild-feeding mothers in the intermediate foraging condition (Mpala group, Laikipia, Kenya) spent less time in maternal care than those in the poorest foraging condition (Hook's group, Amboseli, Kenya). As their infants grew older, wild-feeding mothers reduced resting time to increase feeding time. Hook's group mothers also reduced social time when feeding time increased. Improved food availability was associated with shorter daily travel and less infant carrying. Low-ranking mothers spent more time caring for their infants than high- ranking mothers. Due to interaction effects, the amounts of maternal care varied from one condition to another. Infant development might occur earlier in richer than poorer habitats. Increased maternal care resulted in reduced ability to return to estrus and reconceive. Mothers whose infants spent more time suckling (Hook's group), experienced longer interbirth intervals than mothers whose infants spent less time suckling (Mpala group). Females whose infants died recycled sooner than those successfully rearing their infants. Maternal mortality was highest among wild-feeding mothers. Low- ranking mothers experienced longer delays in subsequent reproduction than high-ranking mothers. Food-enhanced mothers sustained the suckling demands of the current infants as well as part of their new pregnancies without increasing infant mortality. The decision to lower maternal care may be influenced by the probability of the next conception without increasing infant mortality. Improvements in habitat quality led to shorter interbirth intervals, higher rates of natality, survivorship, earlier age of first reproduction and increases in group size.
Author: Wachira, John Gathungu
Awarding University: Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya
Level : MA
Holding Libraries: Catholic University of Eastern Africa Library ;
Subject Terms: Kinship/Kikuyu (African people)/Laikipia, Kenya/ ;Abstract:
This thesis is a result of research work carried on kinship system. The main concern of the research is to explore the religiosity behind the kinship. In order to do this, religion as such is treated as a social phenomenon. -The research is further narrowed down to the study of Kikuyu communi ty living in Laikipia. It has involved, a lot of reading while the researcher is trying to find out what has been put in record concerning the issue. This is suplemented by the findings got from the field research. The respondents have been selected from among the Kikuyu people living in the area. While trying to find out why the kinship phenomenon has taken various adaptations, we can now understand its implications. Consequently kinship would not be hastily judged as nepotism, sectarianism, tribalism, or bribery. In this case some of the traditional practices, customs, and rituals which have ensured the survival of kinship to this day are expounded with an open mind. The first chapter is meant to provide background material, while the second chapter gives the social-religious situation of the people. The third chapter is the analysis and the highlight of changes that the kinship system has undergone. The fourth chapter is the conclusion of the work. The main theme in chapter one is the history of the Kikuyu (Laikipia). By tracing their origin, it has been established that the community is very conscious of their history. The myths and legends that are used to explain the past are quite fresh in the mind of the people. The establishment of the British rule towards the end of 19th century is seen as a disturbance of the traditional way of life of the Kikuyu people. With this in mind, we can now understand the movement of a section of the Kikuyu community to Laikipia. In spite of the experience that the community has undergone, they have endvoured to retain their identity as Kikuyu. Thus the chapter ends by showing that a new kind of Kikuyu have come up as the ~Kikuyu of Laikipia'. The second chapter is mainly concerned with the traditional customs that the Kikuyu have cherished from time immemorial. Here kinship is explored thoroughly in order to show its presence in social life. Therefore all the various celebrations which enhance kinship relationship are analyzed. This includes the celebration of birth, initiation, marriage, and death. In the third chapter, the main factors that have been responsible for the change, has been pointed out. They are understood as social-political forces and religious forces. As regards the former, the most remarkable moment is during the 'Mau Mau' warfare. As regards the religious forces, it is portrayed as a contest between the traditional religion on one hand and .the Christianity on the other. And finally the fourth chapter has given a reflection on implications and suggestions.