57 Records out of 22207 Records

Performance and dynamics of African firms : a comparative analysis of garment firms in Kenya and Bangladesh

Author: Fukunishi, T

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2013

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, England ;

Subject Terms: Labour ; Exports ; Clothing industry ; Labour economics ; Bangladesh ;

Abstract:

This thesis attempts to understand the causes behind the stagnation of the African manufacturing sector based on comparative case studies. We specifically compare the garment industries in Kenya and Bangladesh, which have similar endowments including income per capita and business environment, but contrast in the development of the typical labour-intensive industry. Our comparison between countries with similar endowments simplifies the causes of the divergent performance, since it effectively controls possible reverse causation. Additionally, the focus on a labour-intensive industry demonstrates obstacles at the early stage of industrialisation. The fact that the Kenyan industry had growth opportunity in the period of analysis, from 2002 to 2008, makes the comparison meaningful. Using firm data and in-depth interviews, the comparison is based on a microeconomic perspective so that it incorporates firm heterogeneity. The main analysis is extended in three chapters. Sources of the competitiveness gap between the two industries are explored in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 demonstrates the dynamics of non-exporters in Kenya, while the dynamics in the export market, namely export participation, are analysed in Chapter 6. We found that the most influential source of the competitiveness gap is labour cost rather than productivity; the wages in Kenya are far higher than those in Bangladesh. Due to the large cost gap, the Kenyan garment industry experienced a drastic contraction in the liberalized local and export markets. Consequently, Kenyan local firms specialised in the local uniform growth and discouraging participation to the export market. High labour costs relative to income per capita can be an important cause of the stagnation of the manufacturing sector in some other African countries where the labour cost is as high as it is in Kenya.

Essays in development and labor economics [Kenya].

Author: Mbiti, Isaac M

Awarding University: Brown University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Essays ; Labour economics ; Development economics ;

Abstract:

Chapter 1 examines the relationship between labor markets and marriage markets in India. Using a unique panel dataset that is representative of rural India, I estimate the effect of increases in the value of female labor on women's marriage market outcomes. Female labor is more valuable in rice farming than wheat farming. I exploit rainfall shocks across rice farming households and wheat farming households to identify the effect of female labor productivity on the marriage market. Consistent with a model of imperfect markets for female labor, I find that increases in female labor productivity decrease the marriage rate of females and decrease the dowries paid out by the bride's family, indicating a rise in the bargaining power of the bride's family during dowry negotiations. Chapter 2 examines the black-white employment gaps during recessions. Previous research has shown that unemployment rates of blacks are substantially higher than that of whites, especially during recessions. However, the extent to which these differences reflect unobserved skills or other factors such as discrimination remains a matter of debate. We use wages earned in the previous year as a measure of a worker's productivity. Conditioning on wages, we find that the unemployment gap between blacks and white falls slightly, consistent with the view that some of the difference arises from unmeasured productivity difference between the races. Chapter 3 investigates the effect of school quality on student achievement in Kenya. I utilize data from the Kenyan secondary school system to obtain causal estimates of the effects of school quality on student achievement. The placement of students into government secondary schools in Kenya is based primarily on primary school test scores. I utilize the random variation induced by this system to isolate the treatment effect of school quality on subsequent student performance in the national high school examination. I find that boys attending Elite Public schools achieved significant increases in their test scores, especially in Mathematics and Sciences. However, I did not find any significant effect for girls. I argue that this disparity is driven by differential resource allocation to boys schools relative to girls schools.

The efficacy of human resource management in enhancing organizational performance.

Author: Gitoho, Salome W

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: United States International University-Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics ; Human resource management ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Essays in development and labor economics

Author: Ilias, Nauman

Awarding University: University of Pennsylvania, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2001

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics/Educators/Children and youth/Juvenile offenders/ ;

Abstract:

My dissertation consists of three unrelated chapters. The first chapter studies the presence and effect of a serious labor-market distortion in the Surgical Instrument (S.I.) industrial network of Sialkot. The problem arises due to the non-perfect substitutability between family and hired managers. In particular, the firm owners are hesitant to hire managers who can potentially steal their business. As a result, the owners prefer to engage mostly close family relatives into management positions i.e. those who are considered trustworthy. This restriction prevents the firms from optimally choosing the management size. The distortion is manifested by a significant positive correlation between family size of the founder and firm output; firm founders who have more brothers end up with higher output. The second chapter evaluates a teacher incentives program conducted in Kenyan primary schools in 1998 and 1999. Out of 100 randomly selected schools, 50 were chosen to participate in the program, while the remaining 50 were treated as the control group. The impact of the program on various teacher and student outcomes is studied. We find a positive and significant effect of the program on extra (out of class) coaching by the teachers, but no effect on teacher attendance, homework assignment, and pedagogical practices. We also find a positive impact of the program on student test scores. The third chapter uses a human capital approach to model juvenile participation in criminal activities and/or legitimate labor market activities. In a two-period setting, the individual decides how to allocate time to crime and labor market in each period. We endogenize skill formation by assuming that the time spent in criminal and labor market activities in the first period determines the investments in the corresponding stocks of human capital. The investments lead to a larger stock of human capital for these activities in the subsequent period, and therefore affect the second-period returns from these activities. The model is tested using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY 97). We implement the model using a multinomial logit framework and find that the data match the predictions fairly well.

An assessment of the degree of employees' receptivity to strategic change : a case study of Block Hotels Limited.

Author: Gatundu, James Jomo

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: United States International University-Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Block Hotels Limited ; Labour economics ; Economics ; Labour USE Labour economics ; Strategic management ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Political economy of education and health in Kenya.

Author: Miguel, Edward Andrew

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Economic development ; Labour economics ; Education ; Public policy ; Public health ;

Abstract:

This research is motivated by the current economic development challenges confronting Africa. sub-Saharan Africa has experienced a dramatic economic collapse during the past two decades, with average per capita income falling sharply in most African countries. This thesis contributes to the literature on African growth by providing original evidence on important and previously examined links between public policy formation, health, and education in Kenya. The region of Kenya that forms the backdrop for this study is typical for Africa in terms of income levels, social divisions, and disease burden, suggesting that the results may have broader implications for other African countries. Chapters 1 and 2 examine the impact of ethnic diversity on local public good provision in rural Kenyan primary schools. The identification of a causal relationship of ethnic diversity on school funding relies on the fact that local ethnic diversity is largely exogenous: ethnic settlement patterns were determined by wars in the l9th century and have since remained stable. Chapter 1 presents the first micro-level evidence that higher levels of ethnic diversity are negatively related to local public goods funding in sub-Saharan Africa. The change from complete ethnic homogeneity to average local ethnic diversity is associated with 30 percent lower average school funding in western Kenya. The theoretical model suggests that pupil sorting among schools introduces an upward bias in ordinary least squares estimates of the relationship between ethnic diversity and school funding, which is found in the data. Chapter 2 (co-authored with Mary Kay Gugerty) discusses the politics of Kenyan local school committees and identifies mechanisms through which ethnic diversity affects schools. We find that parent participation in school activities and teacher attendance are sharply lower in ethnically diverse areas. In the theoretical model, the inability to sanction and contract across ethnic groups implies that public good provision is lower in diverse communities. The important role of social sanctions in sustaining public good provision is supported by evidence from school committee meeting records. Chapter 3 (co-authored with michael kremer) evaluates the impact of an inexpensive public health intervention-a school-based deworming project-on educational outcomes in rural Kenyan primary schools. Medical treatment was randomly assigned across schools. After one year, deworming is associated with large average school participation gains of 5 percent (pupils are considered participants if present on the day of an unannounced visit). The result points to the important role that tropical disease may play in reducing school attainment and labor productivity in Africa.

Comparison of informal indigenous metalwork enterprises in an industrial area and an estate area in Kenya.

Author: Ofafa, Gorretty Awuor

Awarding University: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1999

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ; University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Entrepreneurs ; Labour economics ; Small business ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to identify and compare factors that affected business growth and job creation among indigenous industrial group and estate group metalwork enterprises in an urban informal sector. The study identified and compared the similarities and differences of entrepreneurs and enterprises, the constraints the enterprises encountered and the strategies for business growth and job creation in the informal metalwork industry that were located in the two areas in Nairobi. The study was exploratory and descriptive. The sample in the study consisted of a total of 40 entrepreneurs: 20 industrial group entrepreneurs and 20 estate group entrepreneurs from metalwork enterprises in the urban informal sector. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews. Observations of the workplaces and activities were also recorded during the interviews. Data were summarized, categorized and grouped into major categories. The results indicated that both the industrial group and the estate group businesses and entrepreneurs were similar in many of their personal as well as business characteristics. However, the differences were found in the types of workplaces where they operated their businesses, the locations of their businesses, the products manufactured, sources of markets, the level of technology used and the presence of essential infrastructure. The results of this study can only be generalized to metalwork businesses in Nairobi. Although there were differences in some aspects among the two groups of businesses, both groups appeared to have potential for growth and job creation. However, the industrial group businesses appeared to have greater potential for growth and job creation.

Essays on labor markets in two African economies.

Author: Dabalen, Andrew Lebugoi

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics ; Labour economics ; Wages and salaries ;

Abstract:

Empirical studies of labor markets of developing countries, particularly those in Africa, to date have been few and unreliable. They are unreliable because they fail to control for self-selection biases that are common to most labor market participation data. My dissertation, essays on labor markets in two African economies, uses econometric methods that utilize sources of exogenous variation in the data to credibly identify the true causal effect of individual choices on wage inequality in South Africa and Kenya. In the first paper, returns to education in Kenya and South Africa: new estimates, I resolve the problem of sample selection due to endogeneous choice of education by using sources of exogenous variation in schooling levels to identify the true causal effect of education on wages. The main finding of this study is that rates of return to an extra year of education are in the order of 15 percent for Kenya and 19 percent for South Africa. These rates are higher than the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimates found for these markets. They are also higher than iv estimates found for us. The second paper, the effect of unions on wages in South Africa: repeated cross-section estimates, explores the controversial hypothesis that wage inequality in South Africa is partly due to wage setting practices of unions by measuring the true wage gap due to trade unions. The study measures this gap within population groups and for workers with different observed skills. The results show that the average change in union and nonunion wage gap in South Africa is about 10 percent per annum. Starting from a consistent estimate of the gap for a given base year the gap widens by 10 percent annually. In our case, a union and nonunion wage gap of 4.20 percent in 1993 increases to 5.04 percent in 1995. The estimates implied by these changes are closer to european rather than us union wage effects, and are lower than the estimates found by moll (1993) for South Africa. I also find that workers at the low end of observed skill distribution benefit the most from belonging to unions, although the sizes of within-skill wage differentials differ significantly across races. The third paper, employment patterns of female workers in South Africa, examines factors that continue to hamper full participation of married Black South African women in the labor market whether as self-employed or formal wage sector workers. Identification of the parameters of the wage equation are obtained through the parametric 'single index' method with exclusion restrictions. Simulations of the effects of these variables on the probabilities of employment choices show that although fertility and age of motherhood are influential, they are not as strong as expected market wages and education levels of women workers. Furthermore, there is no clear evidence of significant labor supply response from coresident family arrangements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gender physiology and the allocation of labor in subsistence households.

Author: Coleman, Susan Long

Awarding University: University of Hawaii, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics ; Women's studies ; Metabolism ; Farming ;

Abstract:

This dissertation is a study of the inter-relationships between human physiology, the calorie costs of labor, and food production in the subsistence household with special emphasis on gender differences. Two economic models depicting the above relationships are formulated--one a cost minimizing model and the other a profit maximizing model. An empirical analysis follows which explores the effects of physiological and household characteristics on labor and calorie allocations using data from subsistence households in Kenya. The results of the study suggest: (1) physiological characteristics influence subsistence household labor and calorie allocation. (2) differences between males and females in the allocation of subsistence household labor and calorie allocation can be explained by physiological differences. (3) households may exhibit cost minimizing behavior that could lead to the perpetual overwork of women.

Cash crop economy and family labour organization : a case study of the Mumias Sugar Outgrowers Scheme.

Author: Rakama, Brenda

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1996

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mumias Sugar Outgrowers Scheme/Labour economics/Agricultural economics/Sugar industry/Farming/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE