57 Records out of 22207 Records

Mobility of science teachers from Kenyan secondary schools to other employment.

Author: Wafubwa, Cecilia Namenge

Awarding University: Queen's University, Canada

Level : MEd

Year: 1991

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Educators/Science education/Labour economics/Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Not only is there a shortage of qualified science teachers in Kenyan secondary schools, teachers are leaving the profession to take up non-teaching employment. This loss of qualified science teachers from the profession affects Kenya's economic development, particularly in the scientific, technological and professional sectors. Post-secondary education institutions in Kenya that offer scientific and technological education and training are not getting enough qualified science candidates to fill the available places. This foretells problems in technological advancement and eventual economic growth of the country. This study attempts to uncover factors that affect science teacher mobility. Eight current teachers from three different public schools within Nairobi and eight former teachers all working with the Kenya Posts and Telecommunication Corporation were interviewed. Tape recordings, observations and field notes were used for data collection. Through interviews with both former and current teachers the study provides insight into teaching as a profession in Kenya today. The study looks at attitudes towards teaching as a career, motives for entering teaching as a career and reflections on the actual teaching of science in secondary schools as factors related to decisions to leave the profession. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Women and children's labour in rural economy : a case study of Western Province, Kenya, 1902-1985 (women workers).

Author: Nasimiyu, Ruth

Awarding University: Dalhousie University, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1991

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics ; Women's studies ; Child Labour ; Rural development ; African history ; Western Province ; Feminist studies USE Women's studies ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines women's and children's labour in Kenya's Western province, a rural economy, in the colonial and post-colonial periods. It begins with an examination of African patriarchal forms of the division of labour between the sexes in the pre-colonial period. The thesis analyses the impact of colonial rule and the introduction of white settler farming and the effects of this on the use of technology in the production of subsistence and cash crops in Western Province, not itself an area of White settlement, but one profoundly influenced by migrant labour outflows to settler areas. A discussion of colonial policy reveals that policies which ostensibly should have controlled this process and protected both women and children were in effect never applied seriously, given a tacit alliance between european and African patriarchs who were in control of policy implementation and who stressed its impracticality. Finally, the thesis analyses women's responses to their own marginalisation and the forms of their strategies for survival. At the individual level women were able to use markets and the cash economy to carve out niches for themselves as traders and a few of them achieved outstanding success. At a collective level, the emergence of organised and ably led women's groups developed from pre-colonial traditions of women's cooperative labour gangs. These new groups have become one of the most important forces for self-reliant development in Kenya.

Determinants of female time allocation in agricultural households in Southwestern Kenya.

Author: Cook, Kristy Doreen

Awarding University: Cornell University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1990

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Luo (African people) ; Agricultural economics ; Labour economics ; Women's studies ; South Nyanza ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines the determinants of women's time allocation among the Luo people in South Nyanza, Kenya where economic opportunities have been changed with the establishment of a sugar factory. A model of time allocation is developed which is based on the household economic model: household members contribute time to produce goods for consumption and for sale. Women choose to allocate their time over three types of activities: time in household production, time in agricultural production, and time in market work. The household economic model is adapted to take account of the complexity of the household composition among the Luo people: the woman-child unit, the ot, is selected as the primary decision-making unit. A utility-maximizing model indicates that wages, non-wage income, prices of goods consumed, and demographic variables are appropriate determinants of women's time allocation. Although all women have positive hours in household production activities, not all women work in agriculture or in market activities. Non-participation introduces two problems which are resolved in the thesis: limited dependent variable regression with sample selection correction is necessary, and missing wages must be predicted. Reservation wages are predicted for women in two activities using a two-step procedure. Single equation time allocation equations are estimated using ols and tobit procedures. Economic variables are significant in predicting women's time allocation. Increases in non-wage income enable women to specialize in a primary income-earning activity. Preschool children consistently increase time in household activities for all women; whereas, older children encourage time in income-earning activities. Market work is an income-earning activity for women with limited resources such as land. Entry into sugar production does not affect the amount of time women allocate to selected activities, but in the long-run, increases in income enable women to concentrate on household and agricultural production activities.

Child and female labour in Kiambu District 1902-1960.

Author: Kinuthia, S M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1990

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kiambu District/Labour economics/Women's studies/Child Labour/Female employees/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Labour, land and sectoral linkages in an African context

Author: Horsnell, P H

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 1989

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics/Agricultural economics/Tea/ ;

Abstract:

Available from UMI in association with the British Library. Requires signed TDF. The thesis provides a critique of the dualistic basis of structural adjustment programmes in Africa. Through a series of studies on the Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Kenya it argues that the categorisation of labour market behaviour and sectoral linkages in such approaches is seriously flawed. Chapter 2 uses a standard one sector model of an urban labour market, which is applied to the C?te d'Ivoire. This framework is extended in chapter 3, where we decompose employment into private and public sectors, and allow for the simultaneous choice of participation, sector and unionisation. The presence of numerous forms of intra-urban substitution possibilities is stressed in chapter 4, to demonstrate that the modelling of an homogenous urban sector will have little explanatory power. We consider the effects of urban decline in urban areas of Nigeria and also in rural areas with survey data on return migration. In chapter 5 we consider intersectoral flows with an analysis of migration. Our approach is rather different to previous studies in that we focus on the determinants of return migration and the duration of migration. The dynamics of migration are shown to be far richer than the income gap hypothesis suggests. Chapter 6 considers the relationship between inter-sectoral labour flows and agricultural expansion, within the context of a study of tea growing in Kenya. We consider whether African agriculture is land or labour constrained, and state the case for the relevant constraint to be land, particularly as agricultural diversification progresses. Tea production technology is modelled with a translog function, and the results are corrected for spatial correlation. The weakness of the labour to cash crop production mapping is demonstrated with an analysis of the determinants of the adoption and scale of tea growing.

An investigation into the cause of variation in labour productivity in construction sites.

Author: Nyagah, Jedida Muthoni

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1989

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Thika District ; Labour economics ; Productivity ; Construction industry ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Earnings, experience and skill formation : two East African case studies.

Author: De Beyer, Joy Antoinette

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : DPhil

Year: 1988

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics ; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ; Nairobi, Kenya ; Labour economics ; Wages and salaries ;

Abstract:

Available from UMI in association with the British library. Requires signed tdf. The relationship between earnings and skill formation in the labour market is studied, using unusually rich (1980) survey data on more than 1,700 wage employees in Dar es Salaam and in Nairobi. Although the link between education and earnings has received much attention, the effects of labour market experience, job tenure and mobility, and training provided by employers have been largely neglected. The thesis does not aim to falsify or adduce support for any single theoretical position. The analytical tools and insights of human capital theory are used, mindful of the institutional and historical background to urban wage employment in Kenya and Tanzania. The analysis begins by investigating the extent to which the structure of earnings has encouraged stabilization of the urban labour force by rewarding experience, a proxy measure of skills acquired on-the-job. If jobs involve substantial amounts of firm-specific skills, and especially if employers have financed their acquisition, additional years in the current job may be associated with larger wage increments than years in previous jobs. The evidence for seniority-based wage premiums, which could be intended to reduce turnover, and the incidence of job mobility, are examined. The characteristics associated with mobility and the effect of job moves on earnings are explored, distinguishing between voluntary and involuntary mobility. The data on formal training, although incomplete, allow the incedence of training and the difference it makes to earnings to be estimated. Individual and job-related factors affect workers' probabilities of being trained. Occupations differ in the level of skill they require, and in the opportunities they offer for acquiring skill, either in formal training of on-the-job. The relationship between human capital and earnings depends on occupational characteristics, and education (and other attributes) affect earnings partly by influencing occupational attainment. The thesis demonstrates that the usual neglect of occupation and job-based skill formation leads to oversimplified explanations of the determinants of earnings.

The labor organization of Samburu pastoralism (Kenya).

Author: Sperling, Louise

Awarding University: McGill University, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1988

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Ethnology/Samburu (African people)/Pastoralists/Labour economics/ ;

Abstract:

This study considers the labor organization of a group of northern Kenyan pastoralists. Since 1960, the Samburu have experienced substantial cattle loss and land circumscription and the work focuses both on herding and non-herding labor responses to a changing regional economy. The viability of Samburu pastoralism rests on specific labor forms which permit intensified production and economic diversification. Based on twenty-four months of fieldwork, primarily during the 1983-84 drought, the study emphasizes the interplay between the social and technical organization of labor. Social institutions of descent and age guide natural resource and delineate work roles, while encouraging the varied forms of cooperation which greatly extend the family workforce. The diversity of technical strategies, which are strongly shaped by cultural preferences, contrasts with the paucity of production materials. Several key findings have applicability to a range of pastoral locales, particularly proof of the positive relationship between labor input and animal output and of the higher efficiency of labor in larger versus smaller- scale herding units only under stable production conditions. Further, the quantitative material on dry season versus drought labor use as well as evidence for differential livestock survival rates represent unique accounts in themselves. Beyond insights into pastoralism, however, the analysis is structured so as to contribute to several important issues in small-scale rural production. The accounts of the interconnection of technology and social forms and of the integration of 'on-farm' and 'off-farm' enterprise have implications for defining the scope of any labor investigation. The discussions of the terms 'labor' and 'technology' pose wider questions of the content of such basic concepts. Finally, the methodological discourse on labor measurement should assist those similarly trying to distinguish between 'use' and 'demand' in predominantly noncapitalist societies.

A study of labour productive time in the maintenance of public buildings

Author: Kamancha, Mbucha

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 1988

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics/Labour force/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Determinants of female labour force participation in Kenyan urban areas.

Author: Ongile, Grace

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1988

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics ; Women's studies ; Labour force ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE