57 Records out of 22207 Records

Patterns of business growth : micro and small enterprises in Kenya (microenterprises, employment creation).

Author: Parker, Joan Chamberlin

Awarding University: Michigan State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Small business/Labour economics/ ;

Abstract:

While it is clear that micro and small enterprises in developing countries provide an important source of employment and income, two questions remain unanswered: once opened, to what extent and under what conditions are enterprises able to absorb additional employment; and what is the nature of this employment creation process? This thesis explores both the characteristics and process of micro and small enterprise growth, based on the case of Kenya. It first examines the determinants of employment growth based on cross-sectional national data, then analyzes the process of enterprise growth, by transforming a small-sample retrospective survey into a time-series data set. The thesis is based on data collected by the author in two sets of surveys. The first surveys, undertaken in a low-income settlement in Nairobi, Kenya in 1990-1991, included rapid appraisal subsector studies and intensive retrospective interviews with a random sample of subsector participants. The second survey was a national baseline of all micro and small enterprises in 1993, based on a stratified cluster sampling method. The analyses use multiple regression techniques, both for the cross-sectional analysis of extent of growth and for the analysis of the panel data developed from the retrospective survey. Analysis of the extent of growth shows the influence of business starting size, sector, location, and proprietor gender and skills on business growth. Examining the process of growth, the effect of business age on growth is discovered to be highly variable, a finding which contradicts previous research. The process of enterprise expansion is smoother if undertaken in small increments and if the proprietor has more formal education. Enterprises show positive, but small, growth in employment accruing to expanding national incomes or improved community services. Larger growth effects are related to type of industry, human capital endowments, and level of mechanization. In addition, negative external shocks affecting the enterprises cause significant declines in employment, pointing to the high level of risk facing enterprises in the sector.

Essays on education and labor market failure in rural East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania).

Author: Quinn, Michael Joseph

Awarding University: Princeton University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1995

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics/Labour economics/Education/Socioeconomic factors/ ;

Abstract:

This dissertation examines the labor and time allocation behavior of small-holding farm households in Kenya and Tanzania. Chapter 1 uses an agricultural household model to test for separation of a farm household's labor usage from the labor supply of its resident household. Applying this test to a data set of 700 Kenyan households, I find that both household size and household composition are strong determinants of family farm labor usage. Both findings are robust to a variety of empirical specifications. This rejection of separation implies that modelling the consumption side of a peasant household's behavior and assuming the production side to be perfectly competitive may be improper and lead to erroneous conclusions. Chapter 2 posits a two period model of educational investment decision-making by farm households. I test whether the ability of households to freely hire in and hire out labor affects the amount of schooling children receive. Using a Kenyan survey of rural households (the same survey as in chapter 1), I find that the amount of land a household farms is negatively correlated with the level of schooling obtained by the household's children. This finding implies that human capital investment decisions are not independent from farm production decisions, and is contrary to the theory of producer- consumer separation. Chapter 3 analyzes the labor allocation behavior of 'mostly-autarkic' farm households throughout Tanzania. I find that, in general, farm labor markets are not well- functioning, but that the presence of communal farming and efforts by village councils to allocate landholdings among households does have some positive effect upon the workings of private labor markets.

Kwame Nkurumah's theory and practice of labour and their manifestation in the Kenyan trade unionism to 1966.

Author: Kagwanja, Mwangi Peter

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1994

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics/Nkrumah, Kwame/Labour unions/ ;

Abstract:

The main intent of this study is to trace the influence of Kwame Nkrumah's ideas of labour in Ghanaian, Pan-African and Kenya trade union movements in the 1950s and 1960s. Nationalism and post-independence social-economic reconstruction benefited enormously from the veritable role played by Africa workers. It is now clear that a sizeable of leading nationalist were either trade unionists or relied heavily on their respective labour movements to attain their objective. African labour movements continued to serve as crucial instruments of social economic reconstruction and to a large extent, as vehicles of the respective ideological predilections of various countries. This study on Nkrumah, a foremost African nationalist, pan-Africanist and advocte of non-alignment brings out these aspects vividly. Chapter I addresses the methodological and theoretical issues underlying the study, exposes existing epistemological gaps that it attempts to fill and outlines its main contentions and objectives. Chapter 2 and 3 examines Nkrumah's influence upon Ghana's labour movement during the era of nationalist struggle and after independence. Chapter 4 analyzes his contribution to the field of pan-African trade unionism in the light of his views on non-alignment, imperialism and African unity in the Cold War epoch. Chapters 5 and 6 analyse his involvement and impact on the Kenyan labour movement from the late 1950s to about mid 1960s. The study is an effort to probe with considerable circumspection the ideological under pinnings of Nkrumah's involvement in trade unionism especially his conflict with western labour organisations over the question of affiliation of African trade unions to labour internationals. In Africa, as elsewhere in the Third World, the labour movement was a crucial instrument of imperialist penetration, a system that Nkrumah calls 'non-colonialism'.

An analysis of open urban unemployment in Kenya : a job search approach.

Author: Kahuthu, Patricia Wambui

Awarding University: Dalhousie University, Canada

Level : MA

Year: 1994

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics/Unemployment/Labour economics/ ;

Abstract:

Approaches that have been utilised to explain why real wages fail to fall sufficiently to clear the labour market include job search, contract, efficiency wage, bargaining and general equilibrium models. In this study, the job search approach to analysing open urban unemployment in developing countries was utilised, with particular application to Kenya. Since data were not available to fully apply job search theory, a reduced form approach (utilising duration data obtained from the urban labour force survey, 1986) was applied to test the null hypothesis whether certain key exogenous variables, namely the means of subsistence out of employment, age, education and labour market variables exert a significant effect on the conditional probability of leaving unemployment in Kenya's urban labour markets. Although the empirical model utilised has only been applied in the context of a developed country, the results indicate that individual behaviour is similar irrespective of whether an individual is operating in a labour market in a developed or a developing country. Indeed, the model generally duplicated evidence in the literature both in the signs of the estimated coefficients and their significance. Although the model does not explain the level of open urban unemployment in Kenya, it sheds light on the distribution of this phenomenon by indicating that certain categories of labour force experience greater difficulty in securing jobs than others. It also indicates the significance of demand side factors. The results suggest that policies to resolve the problem of open urban unemployment in Kenya should not only address the qualitative aspect for certain categories in the labour force, but should also address the issue of creating jobs.

Structural change in rural Kenya.

Author: Julin, Eva Monika

Awarding University: Goteborgs Universitet, Sweden

Level : EKONDR

Year: 1993

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics/Socioeconomic factors/ ;

Abstract:

The most important structural change has probably been the increasing relative importance of the industrial sector. However, especially in Africa, it seems as if agrarian dominance persists. We have concentrated on the case of Kenya. Since the country is faced with a fast- growing population, and no surplus of arable land, there will be a future need for sectors other than agriculture to absorb the growing labour force and a need to understand the kind of factors that influence the diversification process. The main object of this study was to identify the variables that influence the pattern of labour diversification within smallholder households. In our empirical analysis, based on a Tobit model, we tested the influence of educational, social and economic variables on labour supply in farm work, rural non-farm work and urban work. It is also important to be aware of the gender issues related to labour supply. Women provide most of the agricultural work and the number of female-headed households is increasing over time. We, therefore, analysed female- and male-headed households separately. We also analysed female-headed households separately by type in order to analyse differences within this group. Our results gave a clear indication of ongoing structural changes in rural Kenya. Many households have one or more persons active in off-farm work. We found that households allocate increased amounts of labour to off-farm rather than farm work. Push variables such as land scarcity insignificantly affected hours of work, while pull variables measuring 'off-farm possibilities' significantly increased off-farm work. We also confirmed the importance of education for access to off-farm work especially for female-headed households. We also found a willingness among smallholders to allocate labour to both farm and off-farm work. The creation of rural alternatives to farm work thus seems to be essential since rural non-farm work and farm work could more easily be combined than urban and rural work.

Child labour on the streets of Mombasa : its nature, underlying factors and consequences.

Author: Zani, Agnes P

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1993

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mombasa, Kenya /Labour economics/Child Labour/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

A microeconomic analysis of the urban labour market in Kenya (urban economy).

Author: Neitzert, Monica C

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 1993

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics ; Labour economics ; Urban development ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The fundamental question this research investigates is the extent to which the informal sector can become a partner in development in urban Kenya. A test for segmentation in the urban labour market is undertaken using a nation-wide urban labour force survey from 1986. The role of microenterprises in development is probed through a survey of small scale establishments conducted by the author in Nairobi in 1990. The work contributes to the body of literature on labour markets in sub-Saharan Africa by generating additional empirical tests of the segmentation hypothesis based on data sets not previously used for this purpose and by offering additional insight into the determination of wages in small establishments. The results of the test for segmentation suggest that wages in the formal labour market are protected to some degree from full competition. This conclusion stems from the finding of significantly higher probability weighted wages in the formal sector, and of a higher probability of unemployment in the informal sector for men. Together these findings imply that workers will invest in higher levels of human capital than they would if they were to receive competitive returns to their investment. The result may be that the formal sector employs human capital intensive technology and economizes on labour because of its relatively high cost which then leads to an over supply of workers in the informal sector. The findings of the small establishment survey indicate that while current returns to human capital are lower than in the formal sector, skilled labour is certainly rewarded. Nevertheless, the sector is very heterogeneous in terms of earnings, and access to employment appears to be determined by socioeconomic status as well as by merit. The current price of human capital in the informal sector is found to vary between different employment contracts and when these returns are allowed to vary, there is some evidence that women receive lower earnings than equally productive men. These results indicate that the informal sector shows promise in the area of employment generation, although informational asymmetries may inhibit mobility within the sector to some extent.

Youth unemployment : its effects on hosts in an urban setting, Nairobi.

Author: Wambua, Serah M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1992

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi, Kenya/Labour economics/Unemployment/Young adults/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The realities of the informal sector in Kenya and its economic implications.

Author: Onchwari, Erastus Ondieki

Awarding University: University of North Texas, USA

Level : MS

Year: 1992

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Labour economics ; Small business ; Economic development ; Employment ;

Abstract:

This thesis is focused on informal sector establishments in Kenya and how they contribute to employment creation, income generation and economic development. The research examines how the informal sector has developed between the years 1986-1989. The study indicates that the informal sector can absorb those people who are unemployed and cannot find jobs in the formal sector. The first chapter describes the definition and interpretation of the informal sector. The discussion of the related literature, development of the informal sector, politics of the urban informal sector and controversies are described in chapter ii. Chapter iii describes the regional and sectoral analysis in employment generation. Chapter iv focuses on projections and promotion policies. Concluding remarks and the importance of the informal sector are represented in chapter v.

Socio-economic differentiations, agriculture, and labour : implications for diet and nutritional status of pre-school age children in South Marama, Butere.

Author: Wandera, Donald Oluchina

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 1991

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition/Children and youth/Socioeconomic factors/Labour economics/South Marama, Butere Division, Butere District ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE