144 Records out of 22207 Records

Performance and dynamics of African firms : a comparative analysis of garment firms in Kenya and Bangladesh

Author: Fukunishi, T

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2013

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, England ;

Subject Terms: Labour ; Exports ; Clothing industry ; Labour economics ; Bangladesh ;

Abstract:

This thesis attempts to understand the causes behind the stagnation of the African manufacturing sector based on comparative case studies. We specifically compare the garment industries in Kenya and Bangladesh, which have similar endowments including income per capita and business environment, but contrast in the development of the typical labour-intensive industry. Our comparison between countries with similar endowments simplifies the causes of the divergent performance, since it effectively controls possible reverse causation. Additionally, the focus on a labour-intensive industry demonstrates obstacles at the early stage of industrialisation. The fact that the Kenyan industry had growth opportunity in the period of analysis, from 2002 to 2008, makes the comparison meaningful. Using firm data and in-depth interviews, the comparison is based on a microeconomic perspective so that it incorporates firm heterogeneity. The main analysis is extended in three chapters. Sources of the competitiveness gap between the two industries are explored in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 demonstrates the dynamics of non-exporters in Kenya, while the dynamics in the export market, namely export participation, are analysed in Chapter 6. We found that the most influential source of the competitiveness gap is labour cost rather than productivity; the wages in Kenya are far higher than those in Bangladesh. Due to the large cost gap, the Kenyan garment industry experienced a drastic contraction in the liberalized local and export markets. Consequently, Kenyan local firms specialised in the local uniform growth and discouraging participation to the export market. High labour costs relative to income per capita can be an important cause of the stagnation of the manufacturing sector in some other African countries where the labour cost is as high as it is in Kenya.

Perceived factors influencing settlement of industrial disputes by Kenya National Union of Teachers, Nairobi Branch

Author: Ayega, Emily

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kenya National Union of Teachers, Nairobi Branch ; Labour disputes ; Labour relations ; Communication skills ;

Abstract:

Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modem industrial society. Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labors and harmonious relationships. Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees and management. Organized labor exerts a strong influence upon the individual organization and upon the economic, social and political climate of a country. Due to the understanding of need to settlement of industrial disputes to the organization, this study aimed to establish factors affecting settlement of industrial disputes at Kenya National Union of Teachers, Nairobi branch. The target population of this study was 99. Due to the population SIze of KNUT employees, the research took the census approach. This research study used primary data using questionnaires. Data collected was mainly quantitative in nature and was appropriately analyzed using descriptive statistics. This study found that study training among union officials affects settlement of industrial disputes among union officials at KNUT to a great extent. The study also found that effective communication skills, basic skills necessary for mediation and alternative dispute resolution were influencing settlement of industrial disputes to a great extent. The study also revealed that leadership styles among the top management affects settlement of industrial dispute at KNUT to a very great extent. Workers participation and communication affect settlement of industrial dispute at KNUT to a very great extent. The study recommends that KNUT should be offering regular trainings to its employees so as to reduce disputes in the organization. The study also recommends that KNUT should use transformational leadership style in its management so as to prevent or reduce disputes. The study further recommends that the management of KNUT should involve the employees in decision making processes so as to enhance democracy in the organization. KNUT should also review its communication structure. KNUT can improve this by including more features to its websites and enhance the use of internal memos.

Factors influencing the presence of women in labour force in Garissa District, Kenya

Author: Ebla, Haji Aden

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Garissa District ; Labour force ; Women ; Female employees ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Determinants of school enrollment among public day secondary school students in Butula district, Kenya

Author: Were, Andrew Isaya

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Secondary schools/Enrollments/Child labour/Gender/School finance/Butula District/School dropouts/Education policy/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the enrolment of students in public day secondary schools. Four objectives guided the study: establishing how child labour affects children's enrolment in day secondary schools; determining the extent to which gender inequalities influence children enrolment in public day secondary schools; and determining how school safety and hygiene standards influence enrolment, and establishing how tuition free secondary education has affected children's enrolment in public day secondary schools in Butula District. The literature review revealed that students who are orphaned ,inadequate funds to cater for tuition, infrastructure and school safety items, sanitary items, inadequate funds under the free secondary education and teaching / learning materials were the main factors affecting enrolment of student in Public day secondary schools. The study was guided by the human capital theory and a conceptual framework presented the relationship between educational resources, educational policies and enrolments in public day secondary schools. A descriptive survey design was used to guide this study. Students, class teachers and principals in the public day secondary schools in Butula District filled and returned questionnaires and the analysis was made using both quantitative and qualitative methods and presented in form of frequency tables. The findings of the study show that secondary education is still heavily in the hands of parents although the Ministry of Education pays tuition fees. Parents are responsible for the payment of development fund, uniform, caution money, and harambee fund. This situation has put pressure on the parents as most schools sent home students who could not afford to pay the required amount of fees. Measures adopted to improve the security and hygienic environment in schools include the acquisition of the relevant security and hygiene facilities like water, lighting, waste disposal facilities, school gate, school fence, lockable classrooms, first aid kits, grills on windows and security officers. Many secondary schools have invested heavily in the creation of a friendly learning environment. In the line with the gender policy in education many schools provide girls friendly latrines, boys' urinal pits and boys' latrines. The schools readmitted girls who dropout due to pregnancy after guidance counseling and medical checkup. The education system is strongly affected by students' participation in child labour. The main reasons for children participation include the need to meet basic needs, pay school fees and supplement income. Poverty is the main factor pushing the students out of school into the work. This study concluded that schools need to work closely with the government in enforcing the ban on child labour; diversely their sources of income in order to keep the poor and vulnerable students ion schools; provide a secure schools environment through the provision of facilities like the fire extinguishers and promote gender friendly learning environment through the provision of gender friendly learning facilities.

Gender differences in unemployment and undemployment in Kenya

Author: Vuluku, Gayline Migide

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gender/Unemployment/Underemployment/Labour market/ ;

Abstract:

Unemployment and underemployment in Kenya have been increasing as the working age population increases. The economy has not been able to create adequate jobs to absorb the labour market entrants in gainful employment. This study analysed the determinants of' open unemployment and underemployment by gender. The gender gap in both these labour market outcomes was decomposed to identify factors that explain it. A pro bit regression model for each outcome was estimated separately for male and female using data drawn from the Kenya Integrated Household Labour Survey 2005/06. The descriptive statistics indicate that under employment and unemployment was higher among female than male. The probit regression shows that after controlling for differences in personal and household characteristics, the probability of being unemployed or underemployed was still higher among females. Both household and individual characteristics such as human capital, marital status, region of residence, non-labour income and age were found to be significant determinants of unemployment and underemployment. The decomposition results show that 88.8% of the unemployment gap between women and men is accounted for by difference in individual and household characteristics while 11.2% is accounted for by difference in the coefficients. In addition, 5.4% of the underemployment gap is accounted for by individual and household characteristics and 94.6% is by difference in the coefficients. The key factors determining this gap are region of residence, age, education level, marital status and effects of shocks. Policy makers are bound to benefit from this study in making policies that bridge the gap between men and women in the labour market.

Influence of socio-cultural and socio-economic factors on primary school pupils' discipline in Kilifi District, Kenya

Author: Karuke, Emmanuel Mwambaji

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kilifi District/Primary school students/School discipline/Educators/Child labour/School attendance/Families and family life/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the socio- cultural and socioeconomic factors influencing pupils' discipline in Primary schools in Kilifi District, Kenya. The study involved 78 head teachers and 418 standard 8 pupils from the district who were randomly selected to participate in the study. The study was guided by four objectives which looked into how pupils discipline is influenced by child labour, tourism practices, cultural ceremonies and child rearing practises. The study was guided by the Reinforcement theory by Skinner(1993).Descriptive survey design and data was collected through the use of questionnaires. Data of the study was both qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative was analysed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). The computed data was then presented using descriptive statistics. The study established that all the primary schools in Kilifi District experienced discipline problems, which were influenced by community socio-cultural and socio-economic activities. The study found out that staffing in the primary schools was gender imbalanced with more male head teachers 80% than female head teachers who were only 20%. The professional qualification of the head teachers was also noted to be low with most of them having PI certificates. The study also revealed that the education level of the parents was low especially the mothers who majority of them 60.3% have managed up to primary level. The type of child activity which mostly influenced pupils' discipline was noted to be tapping of palm wine 34.4%. The study also noted 25% of the tourism activities along the beaches which made pupils' to sneak from school and home was entertaining of tourists . The study also found out that majority of the parents 72% are not bothered by their children sneaking out during the day or the night to attend ceremonies. The study also noted that absentism was the most discipline problem experienced in the primary schools. The study also noted that majority of the head teachers 90.9% use disciplinary committees in dealing with discipline problems. The findings of the study also revealed that the major home based factor which influences pupils' discipline is unstable families 95.7%. The study recommended that Parents should embrace education of their children and be strict on the discipline of their children. The head teachers, teachers, pupils' and parents should work harmoniously and co-operate effectively on the discipline of children. The Ministry of Education should equip and strengthen guidance and counseling desks in the schools.

Perception of leadership effectiveness of officials of Kenya Union of Post Primary Education Teachers (KUPPET) by members in Bomet District, Kenya

Author: Korir, Charles Kiplang'at

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Perceptions/Leadership/Effectiveness/Labour unions/Kenya Union of Post Primary Education Teachers/Educators/Bomet District/Primary education ;

Abstract:

This project is Human resource management project. It is a survey carried out in Bomet District. The objective of the study was to establish the perception of the effectiveness of KUPPET representation by its members in Bomet District. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was all KUPPET members in the same District. The same members were given all opportunity to rate the effectiveness of their union representation by being availed with a set of items capturing the sub-set qualities of their welfare on a likert scale. The results from KUPPET member responses were used to generate both qualitative and quantitative data. It is from the analysis of the same results that the study was able to make decisions. The study concludes that KUPPET as so far done well in representation of 6 welfare sub-sets items, by being rated above average, namely; number of work hours (75%), medical allowance (63%), House allowance (68%), timely pensions and death benefits (57%) award of study leave (66%) fairness in recruitment (54%). While it was rated below average in the realization of 8 sub-sets of welfare namely: disturbance allowance (12%), fairness in deployment and transfers (32%), on merit promotions (42%), legal assistance on disciplinary issues (20%), leave allowance (5%), training and development of teachers (10%), recognition of HIV / AIDS infected teachers (30%) and finally commuter allowance (48%). It also emerged that a scheme for post graduate teachers does not exist. Majority equally agree with KUPPET' sadvocacy of salary harmonization of its members with those of civil servants.

Youth time allocation in Kenya : Education and work

Author: Kitonyi, Ruth Kanini

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth/Young adults/Education/Child labour/Families and family life/Social conditions and trends ;

Abstract:

This paper examines the factors that determine youth participation in either work or schooling or work and schooling or none of the two activities in Kenya. A multinomial logit model was specified and then estimated using data drawn from the 2005/2006 Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey. The factors examined include youth's characteristics, parental and household characteristics and area characteristics. It was found that area of residence, gender, marital status, household headship and parental education influence the youth's participation in education and work. Young men are more likely to participate than young women in education and work related opportunities. Married youth are more likely to be working and less likely to be in school or combining both school and work. Parental education increases the chances of youth schooling and reduces the probability of youths working. Results from different regions show that the extent of youth combining work and schooling differ from one region to another. Therefore the government can use these results to formulate policies which can best fit the unique conditions of the youth in the country. This will also address labour force challenges which are region specific affecting the youth. This paper has extended the existing literature on youth labour participation by examining youth schooling and work jointly in Kenya.

Influence of child labour on pupil's performance at the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Tiriki Division, Hamisi District, Kenya

Author: Omega, Hudson Mavale

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tiriki Division, Hamisi District ; Primary school students ; Academic achievement ; Child labour ; Absenteeism ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

Child labour is a problem faced globally for there is no region in the world which is completely free of the problem. This was the perspective at which this study is based. The general objective of this study was to investigate the influence of child labour on pupil's performance at the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Tiriki division, Hamisi district, Kenya. The specific objectives were to establish the influence of domestic child labour on pupil's performance at the KCPE, to determine whether absenteeism could influence pupil's performance at the KCPE in relation to child labour, to examine the influence of commercial child labour on pupil's performance at the KCPE, to examine how household poverty influences pupil's performance at the KCPE in relation to child labour and to establish the influence of social roles in child labour on pupil's performance at the KCPE in Tiriki Division. This study adopted a descriptive research design. The theoretical framework was based on Karl Marx theory of historical materialism. The sample sizes of this study were 10 schools, 10 headteachers, 45 teachers, 112 learners and 112 parents. This study utilized questionnaires and interview schedule for the parents to collect data. Reliability of the instrument was done by performing a Pearson's product correlation. The validity was done by conducting a pilot study on four schools that were not included in the actual study. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to analyze data. The Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) software package were utilized in analyzing the data. There were 148 filled questionnaires and 112 interview schedule for the study. The data was presented in frequency tables, pie charts and bar graphs. The study was intended to benefit the policy makers in the Ministry of Education, other Ministries, academic scholars, researchers and pupils. The findings showed that the pupils are involved in domestic chores, commercial child labour and household poverty affect their academic performance. The parents do not adequate provide for their pupils' schools needs. A majority of the teachers do not enhance their pupils' socialization to facilitate their performance in the school. It can be concluded that in the examining of the influence of commercial child labour in pupil's performance at the KCPE in Tiriki Division, many pupils participate in commercial agriculture. This affects their academic performance since they do not attend the school. A majority of the pupils involved in the commercial child labour, affect their academic performance. The findings indicated that work and education playa key role in socialization. This means that according to the teachers, work and education playa key role in socialization and therefore should be encouraged in schools. Teachers indicated that their pupils get to socialize through playing. The schools should therefore be encouraged to allow the pupils to play for socialization. The researcher recommends that parents be sensitized by the teachers on the importance of their pupil's academics so as to understand their role and involvement in their children's academic performance. There should be enforcement of laws by the Ministry of Education and other educational stakeholders to guide the children against child labour that affect their academic performance.

Effects of economic activities on pupils' academic performance at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Lari Division, Kiambu County, Kenya

Author: Ojuodhi, Pamela Awuor

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Lari Division, Kiambu County ; Primary school students ; Academic achievement ; Child labour ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This study investigated effects of economic activities on pupils' academic performance of pupils at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Lari division. The study sought to achieve four objectives. These hoped to: 1. establish the effects of contextual factors such as economic factors, sociocultural factors, parental level of education, attitude and support on academic performance of pupils at K.C.P.E. in Lari division 2. establish the effects of child labour such as herding, milking, working on the farm and transportation of farm produce, on academic performance of pupils at KCPE in Lari division 3. determine the influence of learner -characteristics such as age, gender, and family background on academic performance of pupils at KCPE in Lari Division 4. establish the effects of school related factors such as authoritarian teachers and hidden school charges, on academic performance of pupils at KCPE in Lari division. The study adopted a survey design. The main instrument for collecting data was questionnaire. There were questionnaires for headteachers and standard eight pupils that had been targeted by the study. A pilot study was done prior to the actual study to test on the validity and reliability of the research instruments. Data was analyzed and tabulated using descriptive statistics generated from Statistical Package for Social Sciences (S.P.S.S). The study findings revealed that academic performance of pupils in Lari division was adversely affected by contextual factors such as inadequate support by parents, low income, attitude of parents towards schooling, level of education of parents, initiation practices for boys before completing pnmary education and religious affiliation of parents. Pupils in Lari also participated in child labour, as well as working in their parents' farms and domestic related chores. These activities are deemed to contribute to poor academic performance. Learner characteristics such as truancy, absenteeism and indiscipline also cause poor academic performance among pupils. Besides, school-related factors such as insufficient learning resources, irregular disbursement of FPE funds, the impact of leadership offered by headteachers, school levies for study tours, examination charges and support staff and tuition fees were found to contribute towards poor academic performance. On the basis of the findings, the study recommended review of the existing policies and laws on child labor with a view of eliminating child labor. In addition more comprehensive and regular country-wide survey on various factors that affect academic performance of children in other districts should be carried out.