106 Records out of 22207 Records

Family planning and women's unmet needs in Kibera slums, Nairobi

Author: Abeka, Seith Odiwuor

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Family planning ; Women ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Implementation of the disability policy : views on physical accessibility, economic empowerment and vocational training by members of Tujiinue Support Group

Author: Wambugu, Anne Wanjiru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kenya Disability Act/Disability/Legislation/Handicapped accessibility/Socioeconomic factors/Vocational education/Tujiinue Support Group/Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

People with disability, have often been marginalized and faced difficulties as a result of their disability. The government of Kenya recognizes that disability cuts across all sectors of development and should be an integral part of all national planning. The government has therefore continued to create a conducive environment for different players to enable them incorporate disability issues into policies and programmes. The purpose of this study was to establish the views of persons with disability on the implementation of the disability policy. The research objectives were to find out the accessibility of the physical environment, the availability of economic empowerment programs and availability of vocational training services to persons with disability. The target population was the persons with physical disability, characterized by mobility limitations. The respondents were drawn from Tujiinue support group in Kibera. Snowballing sampling technique was used in selection of study respondents. Four key informants were used to supplement the study findings. Two were from the ministry of Gender and Sports, Culture and Social Services while two were from the national council of persons with disability. The data collection methods that were used were schedulestructured interviews, a focus group discussion and case studies. The study findings showed that most of the respondents felt that accessibility of the physical environment to persons with disability continued being a challenge with a majority of the respondents (92%) saying that they experienced problems while trying to access buildings that had not complied with the adjustment order cited in the disability act. The study revealed that persons with disability were yet to be economically empowered. The 5% job reservation stipulated in the disability act for persons with disability was yet to be achieved. The financing institutions also were yet to begin advancing loans to persons with disability as capital to create self employment hence lead to self reliance. The study also showed that a high proportion (90%) of the respondents indicated that they had not gone through any form of vocational training to help them gain skills in starting own business or securing employment. The findings indicated that there was need for increased access to technical, vocational, entrepreneurial and professional training opportunities for persons with disability as stipulated in the disability act. The study concluded that despite the Disability Act having been enacted in 2004, persons with disability felt that the implementation of the policy needed to be fasttracked especially concerning the physical accessibility, economic empowerment and provision of vocational training for the persons with disability. It is recommended that the government should ensure adjustments and modifications are implemented as the Disability Act stipulates in order to have a physical environment that will be more disability friendly. Secondly, 5% of job opportunities stipulated in the Disability Act should be availed to the persons with disability to ensure that persons with disability are able to earn a livelihood and help themselves. The study finally recommends that vocational training should be more accessible to persons with disability as this will promote gainful employment and self-employment.

Assessing the role of micro finance services on the reproductive health of women in Kibera, Nairobi

Author: Kithure, EllyJoy Karimi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Women/Microfinance institutions/Reproductive health/Low income groups/Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This was a cross sectional study of the role of microfinance services on the reproductive health of women in Kibera informal settlement. In specific, the study spught to examine the extent to which micro-finance services empower women to access reproductive health services and the forms of micro insurance packages for women of reproductive age offered by micro finance institutions in Kibera. The study was guided by the women's empowerment theory in the inquiry process. The study informants numbering thirty (30) were purposively selected based on their membership to microfinance institutions. Key informants and. FGD participants were purposively selected. Data collection was carried out through in-depth interviews, Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and focused group discussions (FGDs). Analysis of the collected data was thematically done and verbatim approach used alongside discussions to amplify the informants' voices across the themes. The study findings reveal that cumulative cash obtained through micro finance services has a net effect on women's empowerment. Particularly, women who gain control over their financial resources reported independence in decision making on healthcare expenditure, increased access to health unlike when they would rely on their partners to provide the money towards their healthcare needs. Additionally, the study established that microfinance institutions in Kibera support provision of health services through client fees, operational revenues and health loans or healthsavings accounts that present an appealing option to women of reproductive age in Kibera. The study concludes that microfinance institutions that provide grants, skills training, health education, credit facilities and financial assistance for reproductive health care of women have more clients than those micro finance institutions that provide standalone services and products. The institutions with the former packages attract more women in the slums with a remarkable utilization of reproductive health packages amongst women enrolled under the same. The study recommends a robust government policy intervention that would see microfinance institutions integrate their products with those of reproductive health for women in the slums. This needs to be complimented with the provision of financial resources and support to providers of women's health services. The micro finance institutions also need to be linked to health providers in the slums for enhanced cross reference in emergency reproductive health needs. There is a need for a study on program approaches that can reach the vulnerable groups within the informal settlements who are still facing obstacles to both health and economic participation through microfinance institutions. The outcome will inform microfinance investments aimed at intervening amongst poor people in the informal settlement under the global health achievement program.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS behaviour change campaigns among Kenyan male populations : a study of voluntary male circumcision campaign by Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (Nairobi)

Author: Kituu, Jacqueline Mbula

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: HIV infection/AIDS (Disease)/Health education/Social conditions and trends/Males/Circumcision/Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (Nairobi)/Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya/Reproductive health/Low income groups ;

Abstract:

The focus of this study was on HIV IAIDS behaviour change communication. The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS behaviour change campaigns among Kenyan male populations of 15 years and above through voluntary circumcision by the Nyagza Reproductive Health Society (Nairobi). The study set out to specifically investigate the environmental factors that have promoted or inhibited the uptake of voluntary male circumcision by the target population, assess the impact of the campaign in shaping the attitudes of the target population towards voluntary male circumcision and HIV infection, and to examine the impact of the campaign in influencing perceptions of HIV risk and the role of voluntary male circumcision in HIV/AIDS prevention among the target population. Previously, HIV communication interventions mostly targeted women and the youth. Voluntary male circumcision by Nyanza Reproductive Health Society is one of the most recent HIV/AIDS preventive interventions, targeting men from the traditionally non circumcising Luo community. No comprehensive scholarly assessment has been done on the effectiveness of the HIV behaviour change campaign on voluntary male circumcision to establish whether the success was attributable to communication initiative by the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society or because of intervening variables that led to the desired change to address this gap. This research sought to address this gap by evaluating the effectiveness of the HIV behaviour change communication strategy on voluntary male circumcision by the NRHS. Even though Kibera residents represent all the major ethnic backgrounds, some areas are specifically dominated by people of one ethno-linguistic group. Purposive sampling was used to select three villages namely; Mashimoni, Lindi and Gatwikira from Kibera sub location in Nairobi, which are predominantly occupied by the Luo ethnic community. The respondents comprise of a purposive sample of 60 males, 15 years and above. This is estimated to be the age at which the youth become sexually active and most vulnerable to HIV and AIDS infection. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing both structured and unstructured questions and key informant interviews. Data was analysed through simple statistics. The findings of this study established that environmental factors playa crucial role in the success or failure of a behaviour change campaign. The findings of the study showed that, majority of the respondents underwent male circumcision because it was offered at no cost. Further, the key informants pointed out that, social and political factors played a major role in the success of the voluntary male circumcision campaign by the NRHS.The role of relatives, friends and political leaders cannot be downplayed in the success of a behaviour change campaign. The study established that, cultural factors inhibited the success of the campaign. The study revealed that, perceptions of risk of HIV infection among the target audience was low. Most of the respondents said that, they were not at the risk of being HIV infected. The campaign was successful in influencing the attitudes of the target population towards male circumcision and HIV infection. The target audience understood the importance of male circumcision and its role in reducing the chances of HIV infection. The study concludes that, more awareness campaigns are needed to enlighten the target group on the enormity of the disease. Environmental factors such as economic, social, and political factors and the cultural context of the target group should be factored in designing and implementation of future behaviour change campaigns. The study recommends further research on the factors that inform the attitudes and the perceptions of the target audience. The study als'o recommends that, in future, campaign planners should involve health experts in designing of campaign messages to give their expert view on the importance

Influence of prefabricated houses on the city housing problem : a case of Kibera slums in Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Oranga, Beryl Sylvie

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Housing ; Low income groups ; Prefabricated buildings ;

Abstract:

The question of housing is the most fundamental of social problems relating to the environment. All over the world people are trying to find ways of reducing the city housing problems so as to provide its people with decent housing for living and upgrade their living conditions. This study sought to investigate the influences of prefabricated houses on the city housing problem, a case of Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya. The research objectives outlined were to: investigate the influence of cost of prefabricated houses on city housing problem; establish the influence of sanitation of prefabricated houses on the city housing problems and the impacts of security of prefabricated houses on the city housing problems. The literature review has an overview of Kibera slums as well as a detailed review of the variables under study. The literature review also highlights how prefabricated houses have been used to address the city housing problems around the world with the use of affordable locally available materials. Conceptual framework has also been discussed and illustrated indicating the variables under study which include sanitation, cost and security of prefabricated houses against the city housing problems. The conceptual framework has also illustrated the moderating variables (enforcement of building codes, Iso standards and government policies) and intervening variables (socio economic activities and perception of the residents) and their effect on the main variables under study. The study adopted a mixed mode research approach with a descriptive research design. The target population under study was the households of Kibera in the following villages; Makina, Mashimoni, Laini Saba, Silanga, Kambi Muru, Katwekera, Kianda, Lindi, Kisumu Ndogo, Kichinjio, Raila and Soweto. Data was collected from a sample of 50 households out of the target population of 1,214 households by use of questionnaires for the residents. Focus group discussions based on the variables under study was held with a sample of four key people from each village. The data collection instruments were pretested using the key informants from the villages in Kibera before full application was done. Triangulation was done to ensure validity by asking the same question in different ways to ensure validity. A pilot test was also done with the key informants before conducting the study to ensure reliability. Operationalization of variables was presented to show the overview of the study. The data collected was processed through tabulation and tallying, thereafter it was coded and analyzed by use of measures of central tendencies, dispersion, percentages as well as content analysis. The data was presented using tables and frequency distributions. The summary of the findings have also been outlined and discussed based on the variables under study. Conclusions have been made based on the information obtained. Finally study recommendations have also been made and suggestions for further research recommended as such will add great value to this research project.

Transportation as a determinant of small and medium enterprises performance : case of Kibera Division of Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Ndiang'ui, Joshua Maitho

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Low income groups ; Small business ; Business conditions ; Transportation ;

Abstract:

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are important for the growth of the economy and job creation in any Country. However, the performance of SMEs is a function of various determinants both external and internal. In order to realise full benefits from SMEs, both the external and internal determinants need to be favourable. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of selected transportation factors on SMEs. Transportation is one of the external determinants of performance of SMEs. This research endeavoured to meet the following objectives: To determine the impact of transport cost differentials on performance of SMEs, to establish the relationship between transport infrastructure development and performance of SMEs, to determine the impact of transport insecurity on the performance of SMEs and to assess the impact of enforcement of public roads and access act on performance. of SMEs. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. The target population comprised of 3000 traders in Kibera involved in general retail businesses. The researcher selected the sample from the population by considering the 10 villages in Kibera to be clusters for the purpose of this study. The study then used simple random sampling to pick a sample of 350. The researcher analyzed data using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Data was analyzed using statistical packages. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that there is significant relationship between transportation factors (of cost of transport, infrastructure development, and transport related insecurity, enforcement of roads and access act) and performance of SMEs. The study recommends that further related studies on the impact of transportation on the performance of SMEs should be done.

Impact of guidance and counselling on school going children affected by armed conflict : a case of PEV victims in Kibera, Nairobi County

Author: Opijah, Diamond P

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Counseling ; Children and youth ; Post election violence ; Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Armed contlict and violence take a heavy toll on children's lives in different parts of the world. Not only do children suffer from the direct consequences of war and armed violence, they are indirectly affected by displacement, loss of relatives and the trauma associated with witnessing acts of violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of guidance and counseling on school going children affected by armed conflict. The study sought to learn from the experiences of the post election violence victims in Kibera slums, Nairobi County. The study established the psychosocial and post-traumatic disorders on school going children as a result of armed conflict. The study further sought to determine the extent to which guidance and counseling is undertaken for school going children in armed conflict situations and ways in which guidance and counseling could be-undertaken during such times. The study employed a descriptive survey design to gather data. 65 respondents of which 48 children who had been affected by the post election and 17 participants were key informants. The study found out that though guidance and counseling could have a great impact in addressing the needs of children during periods of violence and armed conflict, there are no mechanisms, structures or Institutions that have been set up to address this. As a result of conflict children suffer from post-traumatic disorders and the psychosocial implications of armed conflict on children is severe. The researcher recommends that there be measures put in place to ensure that guidance and counseling for children affected by armed conflict is undertaken for children during times of violence. Follow up measures should also be undertaken to ensure that children are well prepared in handling the psychosocial and posttraumatic disorders that arise from armed contlict. In promoting psychological recovery for the traumatized children, the caregivers who might be teachers, social workers or children officers should assure the children that all measures are being taken or have been taken to prevent re-occurrence of the event that caused the trauma. The researcher recommends a participatory research be undertaken to determine how capacity building in children can be enhanced after conflict situations. A study should also be undertaken to determine how governments can be encouraged to improve systems of law enforcement and justice and bring an end to impunity for the perpetrators of violence and violations of children's rights.

Gender quality and empowerment of women in poverty reduction : the case of the local links project in Kibera Division, Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Omondi, Charles Paul

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gender ; Women's studies ; Low income groups ; Local Links Project, Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The study sought to explore the situation of Kibera informal settlement in regard to promoting gender equality and empowerment of women in poverty reduction. The study took the case of the Local Links Project in Kibera which was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the President's Emergency Plan ~or AIDS Relief. The project was implemented by CARE Kenya in all the 13 villages in Kibera in partnership with 20 CBOs, 20 FBOs, 15 youth groups and 70 learning institutions. The aim was to improve . the quality of the lives of OVCs and their families in the poor and marginalized informal settlement of Kibera. The study was anchored on MDG Number Three which seeks to promote gender equality and empower women. The objectives of the study were; to examine the proportion of literacy levels between men and women within the age bracket of 15 to 24 years; to assess the role of economic empowerment in promoting gender equality in Kibera slums; to establish the influence of women leadership on promoting gender equality and empowering women and to determine the ratio of boys to girls enrolled in various levels of education in Kibera slums. Literature review focused on works of various scholars and development agencies in the areas of gender and the MDG Number Three. A critical in depth analysis of previous studies was done and the discussion divided into the following sections; progress on MDG 3, ratio of girls to boys in institutions of learning and literacy levels, women in non-agricultural wage employment, women in political leadership and decision making, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and finally the researcher's analysis of the literature review is contained in the summary. The study used cross-sectional survey research design. The target population included CBOs and youth groups under the Local Links Project in Kibera. Through the use of random stratified sample, the study ended up with a sample size of 30 respondents. 20 respondents interviewed were from CBOs and 10 were from youth groups. Data was collected using various tools such as questionnaires, key informants guides as well as focused group discussion guide. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social science and analysis involved; cross tabulation and use of measures of central tendency. The findings of the study revealed that Kibera slum is making a progress in regard to achieving MDG 3. Gender parity in school enrolment has been achieved and economic empowerment plays a big role in promoting gender equality. The influence of women leadership on promoting gender equality and empowering women is still being hindered by retrogressive cultural beliefs. Literacy level of the girl child is also low compared to that of the boy child. The study recommends gender mainstreaming in programs, introduction of gender studies in lower levels of education and incorporation of men to champion women empowerment.

Challenges faced by the boy-child in education in Kibera Informal Settlement

Author: Ooko, Josephine Akinyi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Boys ; Low income groups ; Education ; Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; School dropouts ;

Abstract:

This was a cross-sectional study on challenges faced by the boy-child in slum education in Kibera informal settlement. Specifically, the study sought to describe the socio-cultural challenges and economic challenges facing boy-child in education. The study was guided by the empowerment framework originally developed by Freire (1973). Sampling was purposively done to reach boy-child drop-outs in Kibera and to identify key informants to the study. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, and case narratives and analyzed thematically. The study findings indicate that drug use and abuse, HIV / AIDS and, boy-child bereavement, emphasis on girl-child at the expense of boy-child, family background and lack of role-modeling for boy-child are major socio-cultural factors leading to drop-out. Similarly, the economic causes of boy-child drop-out include: preference for a trade, quest for money, parental decision, and lack of employment opportunities, hawking/street trading, and long process of education to realize the returns. This study concludes that challenges to boy-child's education in the informal settlement do not operate in isolation but combine to deny the boy-child education opportunities leading to drop-out. This is because economic vulnerability of the boy-child's family background is seen as a precursor to social delinquency that eventually leads to drop-out from school. The study recommends that the government through city education department should seek collaboration with development partners in providing scholarship for the boy-child just like their female counterparts. This effort should be complimented with fair considerations in the disbursement of the constituency bursaries to cater for the boy child's vulnerability and lack of school fees. Finally, the study recommends that mentorship programs should be introduced around schools in Kibera and boy-child and their parents target with information to prevent parents from pulling their children out of school.

A study of the prevalence of intestinal parasites, in preschool children in Kibera, Nairobi

Author: Oyiengo, Laura Bonareri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MMed

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth ; Babies ; Parasitaemia ; Epidemiology ; Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Ascaris lumbricoides ; Hookworms ; Entamoeba histolytica ; Giardia lamblia ;

Abstract:

Background: Intestinal parasitic infections have been described as diseases of poverty and underdevelopment because they have been linked to lack of sanitation, lack of access to safe water and improper hygiene. These parasitic diseases deprive the poorest of the' poor of health thus contributing to their economic instability and social marginalization. They experience a cycle where under nutrition and repeated infections lead to excess morbidity that can continue from generation to generation. Objectives: This study was primarily aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pre-school children aged two to five years living in Kibera. Secondary objectives were to determine the relationship between intestinal parasitic infections and nutritional status and blood hemoglobin level of the same children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2011 in Kibera, Nairobi. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select five villages from the area, from each of these villages, thirty-one households were selected. A total of 155 children aged 2-5 years were recruited. The study used structured questionnaire surveys, anthropometric tools and laboratory methods (stool test to obtain geohelminths and protozoa and total blood count to obtain hemoglobin levels). Approval to carry out the study was obtained from the KNH Ethics and Research Committee. Results: 151 children took part in the survey. The results showed the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 41.1 %. Ascaris lumbricoides was the commonest geohelminth with a prevalence of 14.6%, followed by Hookworm (2.6%). The prevalence of pathogenic protozoa was 23.2% namely Entamoeba histolytica 15.2%, Giardia lamblia7.3% and multiple infestation 0.7%. The overall prevalence of severe wasting, severe stunting and severe underweight was 3.3%, 31.5% and 11.9% respectively. The prevalence of anemic children (Hb<9g/dl) was 27.2% with 3.3% found to have severe anemia (Hb<7g/dl). Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the pre-school age children living in Kibera is very high at 41.1 %, however there was no significant association found, between the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the child's nutritional status. Socio-demographic characteristics of the household found to influence the children's nutritional status were the education level of the primary caregiver and the weekly food expenditure amount.