135 Records out of 22207 Records

A study of opportunities for improved rural pig farming in Western Kenya : feeding, productivity, marketing and public health

Author: Mutua, Florence Kanini

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Hogs ; Busia District ; Kakamega District ; Farming ; Western Kenya ; Feeding practices ; Marketing ; Public health ;

Abstract:

An integrated study to investigate rural pig farming practices was conducted in selected sublocations ofBusia and Kakamega Districts, Western Kenya from June 2006 to October 2008. Six Focused Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted in Kakamega District before beginning farm visits. A total of 288 pig farms were visited three times in the course of the study period. Data on pig management and feeding were gathered using questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews. Pigs were weighed and length and girth body measurements were taken using tape measures (em). Pigs were tested for Cysticercus cellulosae cysts using the lingual palpation. Two sets oftraining workshops were conducted after the initial farm visit. Discussions during the FGD were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Data were analyzed qualitatively using MaxQDA software; analyses involved identifying common themes. Women were responsible for the care of pigs while men played a key role in the selling. Pigs were the easiest animals to sell because they do not need to be transported to the market since buyers come to the farms. Poor market channels, poor breeds, inadequate government support, inadequate animal health support, diseases, and cultural and religious differences were some of the challenges identified during the discussions. From the study it was found that more women (69 %; 512 / 735) than men were interviewed during the farm visits. The interviewees' age distributions were: <30 yrs 34 % (250 / 735); 30 - 50 yrs 44 % (327 / 735) and >50 yrs (23 %; 158 / 735). Only 2 % (12 / 735) of the respondents had completed college education and approximately half (54 %; 400 / 735) were Catholics. Farmers owned on average 2.33 (?2.01) acres of land; this ranged from 0.125- 10 acres. The mean Number of nursing, growing and breeding pigs owned per farm were 5.0 (?3.4), 1.8 (?1.2) and 1.5 (?O.9), respectively. Pork was consumed by 74 % (212 / 288) of the farmers. It was the most preferred of all the meats by 39 % (49 / 124) and 27% (42 / 154) (p=0.003) of the farmers in Kakamega and Busia Districts, respectively. Most (73 %; 209 / 288) farms had no pig house because: they believed this was not necessary (8 %; 16/209); there was no time to build a pig house (13 %; 28 / 209); the farmer lacked the skill (11%; 23 /209); the farmer lacked money to buy construction materials (45 %; 93 / 209). More pig houses were observed in Kakamega than in Busia District (OR=5.4; CI 3.1-9.7). Pig-level and household-level prevalence of porcine cysticercosis were 4 % (52 / 1290) and 15 % (43 / 288) respectively. A total of 840 pigs were weighed during the study, including 363 young ts 5 months), 305 market age (5.1-9 .9 months) and 172 breeding age (2: 1 0 months) pigs. Separate weight estimation models were developed for each category of pig using a random sample of 75% of the data and then validated with the remaining 25 % of the data. These analyses were completed using Stata? statistical software. The young, market and breeding pigs weighed on average 12 (?6), 30 (?11), and 42 (?17) kg, respectively. The ADG for young, market and breeding pigs were 93 (?52) g, 125 (?58) g and 101 (?80) g, respectively. The weight estimation models were as follows: young pig weight = [0.18 (length) + 0.36 (girth) - 16]; market-age pig weight = [0.39 (length) + 0.64 (girth) -48]; breeding pig weight = [0.36 (length) + 1.02 (girth)-74]. The length and girth explained 88% - 91 % of the total variation in pig weight. The mean age at which sows farrowed for the first time was 12 months (?5.4) while the mean number of litters born to a sow before she was sold was 1.04 (?0.21). Average number of pigs born alive and weaned per litter were 7.85 (?2.55) and 6.61 (?3.25) respectively. Pigs were at:S 4 weeks (56 %; 182/324),5 - 8 weeks (36%; 117/324), or >8 weeks (8 %; 25 / 324) of age. The average price for weaned piglets was Ksh 619 (?174); however, this price was lower in Bu

The impact of high-stakes testing in primary and secondary schools in Kenya

Author: Khanyaha, Florah Shivonje

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kakamega District/Academic grading/Tests/Educators/Educational evaluation ;

Abstract:

High stakes testing involves attaching consequences (stakes) to test scores .This in education implies that the teacher and students will automatically be held accountable of their performance. Globally high stakes testing is the operational system because most states have resorted to standards which are only achievable with monitoring of education operations. The danger however could be the effects it might have on teaching and learning. This researcher set out to establish the context, form or nature of high stakes testing, what educators and even the student think about it. The research further determined the implications it has on teaching and the Kenya education process. In a nutshell, this study was to determine how high stakes testing affects what the teachers teach and how they teach. This research design was quantitative and qualitative, targeting teachers in both primary and secondary schools in the Kakamega district and also expost facto to establish the cause and effect of high-stakes testing to the entire system in Kenya. Secondary data included literature on high stakes testing from researches by the American Research Association (2002) and other relevant studies in the area of testing. The results were such that the teachers indicated that tests were used for accountability purposes causing them to teach to the test in the later classes. However, most teachers agreed that high-stakes tests were necessary to maintain standards. The students argued that the test is the best measure of performance for mobility purposes. There is need to review the global trends as well as nature of assessment in Kenya so that tests are not used as a mechanism in a single defined assessment and a consequence for pass and failure, it is time to tailor exams to contribute to performance towards socio-economic equitable and performance related conditions.

A study on the prevalence of endo-parasites in indigenous chicken and the activity of crude extracts of Aloe secundiflora against Ascaridia galli in-vitro in selected districts in Kenya

Author: Kaingu, Fredrick Baraka

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Poultry/Parasites/Aloe secundiflora/Ascaridia galli/Coccidia/Kakamega District/Bondo District/Narok District/Bomet District/Turkana District/West Pokot District/ ;

Abstract:

Indigenous Chicken(IC) form the majority of the poultry industry in Kenya. Several constraints facing the IC include diseases such as viral, bacterial, protozoan and helminthiasis. Prevalence study of helminthes was conducted in six selected districts in Kenya. In Western (Kakamega and Bondo), South rift (Narok and Bornet) and North rift (Turkana and West Pokot). A simple floatation method for qualitative analysis and the use of modified McMaster method for quantitative analysis were used. A total of 710 Indigenous Chicken were examined from the six districts, 27.04% were infected with coccidia (protozoa), 25.63% with Ascaridia galli, 13.24% were found with Raillietina echinibothrida, 8.45% with Capillaria annulata, 5.21% with Capillaria retunsa, 1.41% with Heterakis gallinae, 0.3% with Syngamus trachea, 2.96% with Raillietina tetragonal, while '15.8% were found to be negative. The prevalence of parasites was significantly different in the districts at p<0.05.There was no significant interaction between parasites and regions; p>0.05.The Inhibition Percent of Aloe secundiflora extracts on Ascaridia galli in vitro was dependent on the method of extraction and the concentration of the crude extract used. Acetone and aqueous extracts were the most larvicidal >90 Inhibition Percent with no significant difference on the inhibition from a concentration of 5mg1ml-50mglml. Phytochemical tests on the extracts revealed the presence of chemical compounds i.e. tannis, terpenoids, and glycosides which are known to have biological activities against helminthes.

Effects of English language proficiency on academic performance in Biology examinations

Author: Oundo, Gladys Alombe

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: English as a second language ; Biology ; Competency tests ; Secondary school students ; Kakamega District ;

Abstract:

The intent of this study was to examine the strength of the relationship between English language proficiency and performance in Biology examinations and tests in secondary school students who do not have English as their first language. The study purposed to determine if students in urban secondary schools had higher English language proficiency compared to their rural counterparts. The research was done by use of questionnaires administered to a sample of teachers of English and Biology in secondary schools and forms three students in the larger Kakamega district. In addition, the students were given Biology and English tests which were marked and scores recorded. The level of the academic performance in the English and Biology tests was measured using the scores obtained in the two tests. The level of English language proficiency was measured by how well the students communicated in writing when answering questions in the English and Biology tests. The results from the study were coded and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS). The analysis revealed a significant positive co-relation between English language proficiency and academic performance in Biology examinations and tests. There was no significant co-relation between performance in English and Biology and school location (rural or urban). The findings from this study can be used by policy makers in the Mirristry of Education to offer recommendations to school administrators and professional organizations about ways to improve the teaching of English language in secondary schools to improve academic performance in other subjects especially biology. The ministry of Education could use findings from these study to restructure its policies on the teaching of English language to develop the academic language proficiency needed to improve on the academic performance in Biology exams.

Factors influencing youth's participation in community development projects in Emuhaya Division, Kenya

Author: Ochilo, George Ogot

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Emuhaya Division, Kakamega District ; Community development ; Project management ; Children and youth ; Young adults ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This study investigated factors influencing youth's participation in community based development projects in Emuhaya Division. It established that the youth's expected and actual participation was influenced by various factors. The research was guided by the conceptual approach, which attempted the explanation of the relationship between the factors influencing the youth's participation in community based development projects such as: youth characteristics, sensitization and advocacy, social cultural determinants economic factors and the actual participation. A descriptive survey design was used and data collected using questionnaires. Stratified random sampling was used to categorize community based development programs/groups into those composed of women, young men and those made up of both men and women. Simple random sampling was used to select 20 groups from the 42 community based development groups in the division. At the group level, the researcher used simple random sampling to select 10 members, while purposive sampling was used to select 3 officials leaders from every youth group and 3 youth development officers from the Division. Approximately 200 youths, 60 youth leaders and 3 youth development officers participated in this study. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics in which percentages, frequencies and tables were used. Through a critical scrutiny of the study's findings, summary of these findings and the conclusions made; this study established the factors influencing the youth's actual participation in community based development projects. Among these factors were: the youth's personal characteristics such as age, gender, marital status and educational level; sensitization and advocacy; economic factors such as unemployment and socio-cultural factors such as leisure. gender related duties and peer pressure. These findings and their respective recommendations are bound to help develop policies and strategies that should be put in place to ensure the youth's effective and productive participation. For example; among the recommendations made both for the potential beneficiaries such as the youth themselves, the government through the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, the general public and any interested future researchers were: the inclusion of studies on the relevance and need for youth's involvement in development projects in the secondary school curriculum, intensified involvement in sensitization and advocacy and the funding of development conscious youth activities by the government, Non-Governmental Organizations and any other interested stakeholders.

Factors affecting the growth of theological education in Kakamega District : A case study of Kaimosi Friends Theological College and Nyang'ori Pentecostal Bible College

Author: Opo, Aggrey Omusugu

Awarding University: Africa International University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Africa International University Library ;

Subject Terms: Education ; Religion ; Colleges and universities ; Kakamega District ; Friends Theological College, Kaimosi, Kenya ; Pentecostal Bible College, Nyang'ori, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Kakamega District is known for its being extremely religious. Mainline churches abound and sects proliferate by the day. Theological schools on the other hand are not as many. There are at least four that have existed for a long time. They are Nyang'ori Pentecostal Bible College, Kaimosi Friends Theological College, Kima International School of Theology and Kaimosi Pentecostal Evangelistic Fellowship of Africa Theological College. The first two are more than half a century old. The purpose of this study was therefore to find out the factors that affect the growth of theological education in this region with a case study of the two oldest colleges in the region- Kaimosi Friends Theological College and Nyang'ori Pentecostal Bible College. The two were chosen for their long existence and on the basis of being 'Evangelical' and 'Pentecostal' respectively. The research was qualitative study which took the grounded theory design. This design involved collecting data through interviews using open - ended questions and studying related documents at the colleges. Observation and informal interactions with the colleges' communities formed part of the data collection. The total number of the interview participants was 14. These included 7 from each college though two of them should have graduated not less than five years ago from each college. The curriculum and the historical documents were studied. All the data collected was transcribed and analyzed. The revelations from the study showed that there are four main factors that affect the growth of theological education in the two colleges. The four factors-were administration, curriculum, missionaries and accreditation. Under these main categories, other categories emerged that contribute to the total scenario of theological education growth. Based on these findings, recommendations have been made to the two colleges that would help them and other colleges that have related growth complexities to have a way to overcome obstacles and utilize the existing opportunities for substantial growth of their colleges. Other recommendations challenge other players in theological education including missionaries and accrediting bodies to take a responsible position and create an environment suitable for growth.

Diversity and abundance of bee pollinators visiting hedgerow plants in the farmlands bordering Kakamega forest

Author: Mwangi, David Kamande

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Kakamega District ; Kakamega Forest, Kenya ; Bees ; Apis mellifera ; Pollination USE Plant reproduction ; Plant reproduction ;

Abstract:

The study was carried out in Kakamega farmland, north of the Kakamega forest, from October 2008 to March 2009, in order to determine the diversity and abundance of bee pollinators that forage on flowers in the hedgerows, and the major bee plant species. Fourty hedgerow transects measuring 50m each were selected and marked in the farmland. Five land use categories i.e, forest, roads, sugarcane, grazing and maize/beans production were used as a criteria for transect selection, hedgerow plant composition was also considered. Each of the transect was sampled twice a month for the bees visiting the flowers from October 2008 to March 2009. During sampling all the bees foraging on the flowers of the plants in the hedgerow were recorded, together with the plant species visited. Each sampling took 40 minutes. All the bees that could not be identified on site were captured using standard sweepnets, kept in killing jars and labelled with a code. Later the bees were pined in the insect pinning boxes for identification at the NMK. Similarly, specimen of the plants that could not be identified were collected and labelled with similar codes for further identification. The results indicate a significant variation both in bee diversity and abundance across the five land uses. A total of 82 bee species belonging to three families, i.e. Apidae, Megachilidae and Halictidae were recorded on hedgerow flowers. Apidae was the most diverse family having 42 bee species with Apis mellifera being the most frequent visitor. The megachilidae and halictidae families had 20 species each. Xylocopa species mostly visited Justicia flava, Caesalpinia decapetala and Solanum incanum plants while most Meliponula species visited Tithonia diversifolia flowers. The plant species/family in the hedges had significant variation both in the number of bee species (diversity) and individuals (abundance) for all the bees except Megachilidae. The most important bee resource plants in the hedgerows based on the number of indviduals that visited the flowers are in the Acanthaceae family represented by Justicia flava, Asystasia gangtica and Acanthus pubescens, Asteraceae family represented by the species Tithonia diversifolia, Craessocephallum vuellinum and Aspillia mossambicensis and the species Caesalpinia decapetala in the Fabaceae family. From the results obtained from this study it can be concluded that hedgerow plants play an important role in providing food resources (nectar and pollen) for various species of bee pollinators, and can be used for their conservation in the farmland.

A survey on birth preparedness and pregnancy outcome in Kakamega District

Author: Inyangala, Hudson

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Births/Kakamega District/Pregnancy ;

Abstract:

Objective: The main objective was to survey birth and emergency preparedness and pregnancy outcome. Emergency preparedness of the health facilities was also assessed. Design: The study design was a cross - sectional survey. Data was collected through intervieweradministered questionnaire and key informant interviews. Setting: The study was conducted in selected health facilities within Kakamega District of WesternKenya, which serve resource poor communities. Subjects: 15-49 year old expectant females from 36 weeks of gestation to within 42 days post delivery. Main outcome measures: The outcome of interest was a healthy mother and a healthy baby on one hand and perinatal morbidity and mortality on the other. Birth weight was used as a measure of outcome; babies weighing 2500g and above were considered favourable, while those weighing less than 2500g, unfavourable. Results: Low levels of birth and emergency preparedness at individual, family community and government level is rife. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in outcome between mothers who were well prepared and those who were no' based on birth weight as a measure of outcome. Conclusion: It is recommended that women be empowered to make their own decisions regarding pregnancy and other reproductive health issues and not to wait for their husbands/guardians which delays management.

A study of students' perceptions of the concepts of genetics and evolution : a case of form three students in secondary schools of Kakamega district, Kenya

Author: Wambasi, Aineah Wang'anya

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPhil

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Kakamega District/Secondary school students/Genetics/Evolution/Perceptions ;

Abstract:

This study was conducted to establish prior perceptions and ideas by students on the topics of Genetics and Evolution. These two topics form major Biology concepts to secondary school students. The students, as used here refers to learners in the Boys', the Girls', Mixed secondary schools and the Genders as independent variables, while the perceptions and ideas characterized the dependent variables. The study particularly sought to establish the perceptions and ideas held by students prior to learning Genetics and Evolution during their secondary school biology education. Bruner's constructivist theory guided this study. The study was conducted through stratified random sampling of the secondary schools; data was collected using two Questionnaires: Secondary School Students Questionnaire (SSSQ) and Secondary School Biology Teachers Questionnaire (SSBQ). Two hundred and sixty nine (269) students were selected randomly from nine thousand four seventy (9470) form three students and Eighteen Biology Teachers out of seventy seven (77) Teachers of Biology in the district. The data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages and chi-square test. The study established that, the ideas and perceptions by the students were mostly from personal construction, Religious and Cultural Education; they were incoherent and vague and there was no influence of Gender on prior ideas about genetics and evolution. Point out the fact that these ideas influence the teaching and learning process of the two concepts under investigation. The study concluded that, the incoherent and vague ideas students have should be starting point for teaching. The ideas that are strongly entrenched in Religious and Cultural education should therefore be handled carefully to avoid resistance from the learners. There was no relationship between perceptions and ideas and the Genders. The study recommended that teachers should establish the perceptions and ideas of the learners, which they come with to the class before teaching new concepts. The teachers should be inserviced on how to handle the vague and incoherent perceptions and ideas which students come with in the classroom for every content area as this affect concept learning.

Syntactic errors exhibited by secondary school learners of Kiswahili : a study of Idakho first language speakers

Author: Mocho, Joy S

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPhil

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Kiidakho language ; Swahili language ; Ikolomani Division, Kakamega District ; Secondary school students ; Grammar ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to find out whether Kiidakho, as one's first language, affects the learning of Kiswahili as a second language at the level of syntax. The study was conducted in Ikolomani Division of Kakamega District in Western Province of Kenya. The study was guided by Edward Thorndike's (1913) Identical element theory of transfer of learning, and supported by Ausubel's (1969) and Cross's (1975) Theory on generalization in learning. The study population comprised of Form Two and Form Three students. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample of the study. Seventy Form Two students and seventy Form Three students from all the six selected schools were involved thus bringing the number of students who participated in the study to one hundred and forty. The objectives of this study aimed at establishing the differences between Kiswahili syntactical structure and Kiidakho syntactical structures with the focus on nouns, to identify cases of interferences of Kiidakho on Kiswahili and finally to find out if this is one of the reasons as to why Kiswahili is poorly performed in Ikolomani Division. The study design was descriptive. Data was collected by means of questionnaire and written tasks. Data collected was described in terms of percentages. It is hoped that the findings would sensitize teachers of Kiswahili on the causes of syntactic errors that students make, and that these findings would enable them to come up with remedial framework on teaching of Kiswahili syntax, and particularly noun classification. The findings will also help various stake holders like curriculum developers and authors of Kiswahili books to put in place appropriate instructional designs that would go along way to curb the problems affecting Idakho students who are learning Kiswahili as a second language.