9 Records out of 22207 Records

An investigation into the role of radio broadcast in using behaviour change communication to deal with hate speech in Kenya; the case of Nation Media Group

Author: Gikonyo, Geoffrey Kamau

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nation Media Group ; Radio broadcasting ; Journalistic ethics ; Hate speech ; Negative ethnicity? ;

Abstract:

In partial fulfillment of a coursework in M.A Degree in Comn:unication Studies at the University of Nairobi, I come up with the idea of tackling Hate Speech. Thus hatched a topic entitled, An investigation into the role of radio broadcast in using Behavior Change Communication to deal with hate speech in Kenya; the case of Nation Media Group. The study was worth doing as problems related to hate speech have continued to increase since . postcolonial era. The emerging results have been harsh, as witnessed during the Post Election Violence (PEV) after the disputed 2007 General Elections (Waki Report; 2008). During PEV after PEV the economic growth rate in Kenya dropped, coupled with lose of lives and properties, as well denting the Kenyan image internationally. Behavior change Communication (BCC) is one of the most essential components of solving problems related to humanity. When planned well, BCC can be a very effective intervention to bring appropriate changes in behavior, especially among populations with high risk behavior. The research used secondary analysis and key respondent research to collect the data for the study. Thus this research project aimed at achieving the following objectives; assess the root causes of hate speech in Kenya, explore ways radio broadcast media can use BCC to eradicate hate speech in Kenya and establish the role of radio broadcast media in dealing with Hate Speech. The study found that Negative Ethnicity is one of the key causes of hate speech in Kenya, as well as politicians, journalists and ordinary Kenyans. Social-cultural aspects and legal features can be very crucial in enhancing behaviour change in regard to hate speech. Radio broadcast can play key role in handling hate speech in Kenya through its role of mobilization, entertainment and information. The results of the study will be used to engage the broadcast media in enhancing proper speech in Kenya, by involving all stakeholders notably the radio audiences, Non Governmental Organisations, international community, Kenyan government, media owners, foreigners, journalists and policymakers.

A critical analysis of the role of Kenyan Print Media in Conflict Management : Using 2007 Post Election Violence as a case study

Author: Ajowi, Sarah

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflict resolution ; Media coverage ; Journalistic ethics ; Post-election violence ; PEV use Post-election violence ; Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya) ;

Abstract:

The coverage of the pre- and post-election violence phases is negligible at best and only a few armed conflicts are covered in the violence phase. In Kenya, the media has been accused of exacerbating conflicts in most of the cases by mostly presenting their information in favor of some players in the political arena and exaggerating the ethnic and political divides in the country. The Post-Election Violence (PEV) that rocked the country in 2008 was as a result of the disputed 2007 Presidential Elections. This research focusing on print media in conflict management was a modest attempt to bridge this gap. It was an effort to bring to light the influence and insights into print media operating in Kenya and the role they play in conflict management where the Post-Election Violence of 2007/2008 was the context of focus. This research was a descriptive study aimed at analyzing the role of Kenyan print media in conflict management with particular reference to the Post Election Violence of 2007-2008. The target population of this study was the staff working in the Nation Newspaper. This involved the top, middle and low level management staff since they are the ones conversant with the role of Kenyan print media in conflict management with particular reference to the Post Election Violence of 2007 -2008.

An assessment of partiality, bias and accuracy in Kenya's mainstream print media in the 2002 and 2007 General elections

Author: Waga, Fred

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Elections/Media coverage/Journalistic ethics ;

Abstract:

This study was informed by mounting concern about the dysfunctional processes of content generation, gathering and presentation which has fueled the growing perception of media bias in the coverage of elections in Kenya. The research documents media bias in political coverage-specifically the 2002 and 2007 General Elections-after a painstaking review of published material. It measures the degree of skew by the press and comes out with far reaching recommendations to inculcate best practices among journalists and media managers. Key among them is the development of a systematic roadmap in the selection of. editorial content that caters for all parties. It concludes that stakeholder participation is key in making the media more accountable as they play their surveillance role. It fmds that with standardised training and rigorous application of ethical principles, true balance can be obtained through the active promotion of diversity of opinion that reflects a dynamic and multi-faceted society. The study helps to define how the media can reclaim their agenda-setting role as watchdogs of society, even as they contribute to sustain and promote social and national development.

Kenyan Print media and National cohesion : a comparative study of the Daily Nation and the Standard Newspapers

Author: Wasike, Edward Musungu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya)/Standard (Nairobi, Kenya)/Media coverage/Conflict resolution/Socialization/Journalistic ethics ;

Abstract:

National cohesion underscores need to rebuild relationships. Subtly acknowledged, conflicts erode cohesion and leaves indelible memories for the affected. In the melee the social fabric of the nation is destroyed. Rebuilding such relationships in communities traumatized, displaced and lost loved ones is a process. It is a process that cannot be rushed nor prescribed a timeframe. Establishment of durable peace is critical, yet most difficult to achieve. It begins at an individual level and finally between communities. To take root, mutual trust and a sense of community has to be cultivated through dialoguing. Media offers such a platform where such conversations take place. The mission of the media should be to inform the audience with clarity and objectivity. It is prudent to reiterate, sufficiently utilized, print media reaching critical mass, can significantly mobilize public opinion. Media can help bring a nation's diverse people together in a collective experience after conflicts. As an agent protector of human rights, promoters of democracy and moderator of conflict, media can also become instruments of negative message and propaganda. Disintegration among communities is blamed on political competition, social economic disparities as a result of marginalization, endemic corruption and impunity among the custodians of civility. Media a great relating tool has come under scrutiny, often accused of fueling hate, negative ethnicity and inciting communities. The same media is an important instrument of conflict resolution, a stakeholder that can help wield communities into a single integrated system by constantly implanting strong sense of nationalism, promote social peace and encourage social solidarity among members of the society. Media are custodians of society's memory. They have a role in transforming society towards a collective memory and enhancing reconciliation. Journalists should look for common good, question inaccurate statements and avoid malicious language. The media should seek to confirm official accounts, level official deceit; and correct errors of omission. This academic paper examined the extend of coverage by print media on the crusade of national cohesion. The consequence however, news is a perishable commodity. Information becomes stale more rapidly than ever, unless freshened up regularly. The appetite for current stories means an issue like cohesion drops swiftly out of the news cycle. It is also true, frequent focus by media on issues confers them status and legitimacy. Reportage should be accurate, impartial and in the interest of the public. A comparative analysis of the Standard and Daily Nation, leading dailies with wide distribution network and readership, provided much needed data for analysis and recommendations therein in this project. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Content analysis, a technique for data gathering was instrumental to systematically and objectively choose issues that were at core of research. Purpose sampling was employed to identify the most critical editions that had relevant characteristics suited for analysis. The findings provide a stark illustration of media's failure to prioritize cohesion. The newspapers did not accord prominence to deserving cohesion stories. All cues on agenda setting were either unavailable and in circumstances, where used, were significantly inadequate to cause opinion formation among the public. However, editors and reporters in general showed will to encourage discourse pertaining to national cohesion and considering the number of stories they generated. Recommendations for this important research include; need to facilitate dialogue for individuals and communities, media to ensure they minimize destructive debates and violence, government should create opportunities to alleviate conflict resulting from competition for scarce resources and finally ensuring justice prevails by bringing to account all the perpetrators of

Role of effective communication in conflict resolution : a case study of Post-Election violence in Kenya

Author: Kamiri, Agnes W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Post-election violence/Conflict resolution/Mass media/Journalistic ethics ;

Abstract:

The mass media plays a key role in society. Traditionally, the media was thought to have a direct and powerful effect on the people. For instance, the Magic Bullet Theory holds that the media broadcasts directly shape the opinions and actions of the viewers. Opinion on the effect of the media on the society is now divided, however, what ought to be understood is that regardless of the type, the role of the mass media to the society is of primary value for any electoral process and needs to be facilitated and analyzed more keenly. The media plays a critical role in reporting events in the lead up campaigns. Thus, it can contribute to conflict by inciting violence, failing to highlight emerging conflicts, delaying to report conflicts, biased reporting when journalists take sides in the conflict, highlighting hate speech, downplaying genocide, acting irresponsibly,and deliberately misrepresenting the events. But the media also has the potential of positive impact based upon professional standards, combined with diverse access to information and adherence to ethical codes. Such media can contribute to societal reconciliation, alter misperceptions and broaden understanding of the cause and consequences of conflict. Communication has a big role to play in conflict resolution. It has been observed that poor communication always results in misunderstanding and eventually conflicts. The mass media is the most important channel of communication that exists between sides in a conflict. Whereas several studies have been conducted to establish the role the media played during the 2007 elections, little has been done to establish the role of the media in facilitating the resolution of the post election violence in Kenya. This study seeks to seal this information gap by ascertaining whether the media played a role in the post-election conflict resolution, how effectively it was done, and recommends how the media can be used effectively in conflict resolution in Kenya and elsewhere. Using the Post-Election Violence (PEV) in Kenya as a case study, the researcher investigated the role media plays in conflict resolution. The researcher used the interpretive research paradigm to attach meaning to the events, information and documents surrounding the 2007/2008 post election violence. The researcher used documentary analysis and key informant interviews to collect data for the study. The data was analyzed through content analysis. The test-retest method involving administering the same instrument twice to the same group of respondents was used to ensure reliability. The validity of the data was assured through the use of accurate measures, instruments and standardized data collection procedures. Specifically, cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review were applied to ensure validity. The results of the study indicates that the media initially did not provide comprehensive reporting on the unfolding post-election violence and also, knowingly or unknowingly, fuelled it through the promotion of hate speech, partisan management of news, incompetent journalism and dramatization of conflict situations. Fortunately, the situation changed afterwards and the media then set the agenda of healing and peace immediately after the eruption of post-election violence. The researcher concludes that the media, especially. radio, has both positive and negative effects on the election process. She recommends that journalists should guard their profession from subjective individual agenda particularly during electioneering.

Media and Peacebuilding : analysis of print media reporting on peace initiatives of the 2007/2008 conflict in Kenya

Author: Kahuthu, John

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media/Post-election violence/Conflict resolution/Journalistic ethics ;

Abstract:

Media in any given society occupy a unique position owing to its power to the audience consciousness and its ability to bring to public attention issues that would otherwise have gone unnoticed. It is capable of shaping the people's perceptions and agendas through presenting an opportunity to communicate to either a large number of people or target a particular group of people. On December 30, 2007, when ECK declared President Mwai Kibaki the winner of a hotly contested presidential election Kenya witnessed an unprecedented degree of post election violence and stared on the brink of a disastrous disintegration. The high magnitude of the violence put Kenyan media under intense scrutiny with questions being asked about the role the media played during the period. It is in this background this study was designed to establish the role the mainstream print media had in peace building initiatives during the PEV period. In particular determine the extent to which the media covered the initiatives, how they framed and primed them and also established whether they were covered in a particular trend during the period. To achieve these objectives the study employed a content analysis research design that permitted the researcher to systematically analyze data obtained from archival records and documents, in this case from the two leading newspapers, the Daily Nation and The Standard for the period, from December 1 st, 2007 to March 31 st 2008, that were purposively sampled. From the findings the media not only covered stories that were dedicated to peace building issues but also allocated space to other initiatives that supported the same such as advertisements and letters to the editor that gave organizations and general publics' an avenue to air their views. However despite such positive move to inform the Kenyans the media overemphasized on news items. Among the news that was given more emphasis was the peace talks initiated after the violence broke. The print media also disregarded the importance to have the same coverage before and after the skirmishes. Further the media devoted less attention to detailed write-ups on peace issues hence failing to effectively informing the Kenyans of other underlying issues to the skirmishes. The media also did not forewarn the members of the public of any impending violence prior to the disputed presidential election. The study therefore recommended for more attention to be accorded to investigative journalism in order to carry out detailed articles on issues rather than over relying on covering events as they unfold. This demands a further training of journalists in the field. Also since the study only concentrated to print media, there is need to carry same research on the electronic media in Kenya.

Media and conflict in Kenya : an analysis of the print media reportage of the post election violence

Author: Barasa, Christine Naswa

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Post-election violence ; Media coverage ; Newspapers ; Journalistic ethics ; Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Standard (Nairobi, Kenya) ; Nairobi Star (Nairobi, Kenya) ;

Abstract:

This is a content analysis study that set out to examine the print media reporting of the post election violence in Kenya. It was limited to the period January 2008 and the Nation, Standard and Nairobi Star newspapers. The objectives of the study sought to examine how newspapers covered the 'Violence including framing, and its contribution to the escalation or mitigation of the conflict, and the capacity of journalists to adhere to the set ethics and code of conduct when reporting conflict and particularly when they are involved in it. In order to achieve this, news items, editorials, analyses and opinion pieces were analyzed. The study was guided by the agenda setting, personal influence, decision making and information processing theories of mass communication in its interpretation and discussion of the findings. The study found that inasmuch as newspaper reporting of the post election violence influenced readers' attitudes and contributed to' the escalation of the same, the print media also played a signifIcant role in mitigation and reconciliation. Further, the media was influenced by external forces and this was reflected in a lapse in keeping to the expected journalistic standards.

Role of private media in international peace and security : a case study of Kenya 1992-2008

Author: Okwach, Douglas Agumbi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflict management ; Mass media ; Media coverage ; Journalistic ethics ;

Abstract:

This study analyses the role of privately-owned, independent media as a factor in international peace and security. It examines the role the media has played in major international conflicts towards the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of this century and the extent to which their involvement shaped public and policy makers' perceptions towards these conflicts . The study illustrates the power of the media as an instrument of conflict management. Like many tools used by human beings this study shows that the media can serve good or evil purposes by manipulating the truth, and exaggerating or playing downs facts. It uses Kenya as a case study and covers the period 1992 to 2008. To this extent it focuses on the ideological orientation of those who own and control the media and how this shapes editorial policy. Overall, the study seeks to determine the extent to which ideological interests of media owners and the dominant political class influenced reportage during Kenya's post-election crisis. And the extent to which this affected the quest for peace and security in Kenya and the region.

Media and Social responsibility : an investigation into Post-Election violence coverage by Kass and Musyi FM stations

Author: Mutua, Ezekiel

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kass FM ; Musyi FM ; Radio stations ; Post election violence ; Media coverage ; Social responsibility ; Journalistic ethics ; Conflict management ;

Abstract:

The 2008 post-election violence left the Kenyan media sullied. Unprofessional media coverage by Kass FM fuelled the post-election violence in Kenya. Musyi FM had more professional coverage of post-election violence compared to Kass FM. When covering conflict, media usually violates the principle of social responsibility and therefore aggravating the conflict situation; as people develop negative perceptions towards each other. To a greater extent, this was the case with the media coverage of2008 Kenya's post-election violence. It is worth noting that there is talk among media experts on the strategic role media could play in conflict resolution. For instance, media may highlight widespread human rights violations, it can also serve as an early warning system or correct stereotypes in society leading to peace and harmony. However, Media critics have suggested that media coverage is in fact counterproductive in conflict management especially when it de-contextualizes violence or depicts the parties to a conflict as a duel. Fair, balanced and decent coverage would result in conflict control and vice versa. The broadcast industry should, to this end, strive to provide ethical, balanced and professional frameworks to guide the media in program formulation and delivery. The Government should endeavour to provide on a regular basis guidelines to prevent mass media from violating professional code of ethics 'especially in the coverage of conflict.