18 Records out of 22207 Records

A framework for adoption of open source software (OSS) by organizations in Kenya

Author: Gichira, Charles Macharia

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Open source software ; Information and Communication Technology ;

Abstract:

Information Communication Technology has come a long way and is still being adopted hugely as a way of improving organizations in output as well as improving the quality in organizations. Open source software (OSS) over time has emerged as an alternative to commercial and closed-source in many spheres of influence of software usage. OSS has gained and is still gaining substantial attention across the world and more so in the third world economies. Nevertheless, how and why OSS is being adopted and implemented within organizations in Kenya in particular is not a well understood or a well documented issue. This research attempts to advance this understanding so that organizations may make better informed decisions about adoption of information technology and open source software in future. A qualitative grounded theory approach is used in order to explore the extent of open source software adoption by organizations in Kenya as well as the factors facilitating and inhibiting adoption. Surveys and interviews are used to acquire the extent of usage of open source software by organizations in Kenya. First, a survey was used to explore and distinguish the types of open source software products adopted by organizations and the level to which they have been adopted. Following the survey, semi-structured interviews were conducted with organizations information communication technology managers in the organizations in order to attain a deeper understanding of the factors that are assisting or restraining the adoption and usage of open source software by organizations in the country. The findings on extend of adoption of open source software showed 60% adoption and 40% non adoption rate. The results showed that that organizations tend to adopt general purpose more than domain specific open source software. Results also show that companies prefer open source software over closed source software due to control over the software and cost as opposed to benefit factors. Open source and closed source software are at same level of preference in terms of scalability, reliability, security features, functionality, and integration of systems. Closed source is preferred over open source software due to quality of support from vendors, ease of use and fashion trends. A framework describing the adoption of OSS in organizations, based upon these findings is presented to illustrate the factors facilitating and inhibiting the adoption of OSS.

Health information systems reform in Kenya : an institutionalist perspective

Author: Bernardi, Roberta

Awarding University: University of Warwick, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Information and Communication Technology ; Health ; Health information ; Donors ;

Abstract:

The development outcome of ICT and information systems in developing countries is often influenced by international development policies and the action of international actors such as donor agencies. In particular, ICT adoptions and implementations in developing countries may be influenced by the contradictions arising mainly from the tension between international managerialist development policies and the main rationalities of actors in the local implementation context. Based on the case study of health information systems in Kenya, the objective of this thesis is to increase the understanding of how these contradictions may affect the development and change potential of health information systems and ICTs in developing countries in relation to international development policies. Drawing on a dialectical perspective on institutional work, the thesis argues that the change and development trajectories arising from the implementation and usage of health information systems depend on how actors involved in the restructuring of health information systems i.e. donor partners, national decision makers and local health information systems managers and users respond to the ongoing dialectic between global and local pressures of institutional change and stability. The main findings of the research presented in this thesis point to the importance of analysing political donor relations and the institutional entrepreneurship of local actors in order to understand the change and development outcomes of health information systems and ICT in developing countries.

Globalization and communications policy : the role of the media in communications policy development in Kenya between 2002 and 2009

Author: Malila, Vanessa

Awarding University: University of Leeds, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Media ; Information and communication technology ; Kenya Communications Amendment Act ; Press ; Policy ; Policy making ;

Abstract:

This thesis is a case study analysis of the role of the media in communications policy development in Kenya. The aim of the research was to investigate whether the press in particular could play a role in policy-making as policy stakeholders, moving beyond the traditional role of the media in policy as agenda setting agents. This was done through a case study analysis of two policy-making processes, namely the process of developing the National ICT Policy and the process which resulted in the Kenya Communications Amendment Act. While traditional studies of the media?s role in policy have examined the manner in which media coverage has influenced policy-makers and the public, this thesis aims to investigate whether the media can play a more direct role in policy processes as stakeholders in policy discussions and debates. The media?s role in communications policy in Kenya was examined within the context of globalization and the potential of multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) to create an enabling environment for the participation of diverse stakeholders, including the media, in the policy-making process. The findings have shed light on the political, social and economic context within which policy is made in Kenya and within which the press in Kenya operate and the obstacles that this has posed to their participation in policy-making processes. What has emerged from this thesis is that although there is some engagement by policy stakeholders other than the government, it is of a superficial nature and fails to ensure real diversity and participation by a range of different stakeholders from different sectors. Furthermore, the press failed to take advantage of avenues for debate and discussion to engage in policy discussions, and instead in the case of the KCAA used their agenda setting power to influence the policy negatively. Through biased, subjective and misleading reporting, the press were able to influence policy-makers to the point where the passed Act (KCAA) was returned to parliament for further amendments.

A communication audit of the internal publics of ELRIS Communication Services Limited

Author: Pokumensah, Justice Boffah

Awarding University: Daystar University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Daystar University Library ;

Subject Terms: Communication/ELRIS Communication Services Ltd/Information and Communication Technology/Systems design/Systems management/ ;

Abstract:

The subject of effective internal communication has gained attention among corporate communication scholars in recent years; particularly focusing on the effectiveness of the networks and channels that are used to communicate within corporate organizations. This study sought to carry out a communication audit so as to establish the effectiveness of the internal communication networks and channels of ELRIS using the Systems Theory as a theoretical framework. Being descriptive, the study used the survey method to collect data from a total of 55 employees of ELRIS. The data collection instruments were the questionnaire, in-depth interviews, walk-around observation to understand some aspects of the corporate culture of ELRIS. The study established that the internal publics of organizations used both formal and informal approaches to communicate task-oriented and non-task-oriented information through upward, downward and horizontal networks. The study also found that different channels, including emails, memos, face-to-face, telephone calls, SMS, and group meetings were used to communicate across the upward, downward and horizontal channels that were similar to that of other organizations. The study also revealed that the current operational communication networks and channels were effective in meeting the task-oriented and non-task-oriented needs of the organization. Most of the communication challenges of ELRIS were found to be due to the fact that the organization had no communication policy. Communication policies are tools that effectively guide internal communication of organizations by providing the operational guidelines on how access information, the protocols to observe, the communication dos and don?ts and other communication related issues. The study recommends that the management of organizations in consultation with all the publics (internal and external) design communication policies that meet the needs of all stakeholders.

Challenges that affect participation of women in accessing and using information communication technologies : a survey of women professionals in information technology departments in Universities within Nairobi

Author: Ributhi, Leah Nyokabi

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Colleges and universities/Women/Nairobi, Kenya/Information and Communication Technology/ ;

Abstract:

The overall objective of this study was to identify the challenges that affect effective participation of women in accessing and using ICTs and the measures to overcome these challenges. The women here refer to the women professionals working in Information Technology (IT) departments of Universities within 50kms radius of Nairobi. A census would be appropriate in this case because the population is small. The research instrument that was used in the study was a questionnaire which comprised of open and closed ended questions. The data was analysed using quantitative techniques. From the findings we conclude that information communication technologies have or can create economic opportunities for women. However, more women should be encouraged to venture into entrepreneurial activities which make use of information communication technologies. ICT can be used as a tool for socio-political empowerment to bridge the gender socio-political digital divide. Women should be directly involved in the content development process. On the basis of the findings from this study the following recommendations were made: The government should get into partnerships with telecommunications companies to encourage or promote universal access. The government should subsidize costs of ICT technologies both hardware and software. Encourage private-public partnerships between government, donors and corporate sponsorships for ICT programs to train women through seminars and forums. Women in the ICT sector should mentor girls through mentorship programs e.g. Junior achievement mentorship programs. Further research should be carried out on how women can be directly involved in the content development process. That way they may be more responsive. Content should be developed in the appropriate language used' by women and this can be made possible through education and training. Further research is necessary to find out if promoting universal access translates to reduction of costs to access these technologies by women and how training costs can be reduced to act as an incentive to attract more women.

The perception and extent of using information communication technology in micro small and medium-sized enterprises in Hurlingham, Nairobi

Author: Kisinga, Timothy Kitheka

Awarding University: Daystar University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Daystar University Library ;

Subject Terms: Information and Communication Technology/Micro and small enteprises/Small business/Hurlingham, Nairobi, Kenya/Kilimani ward, Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

In today?s dynamic business environment, it is necessary for businesses to keep abreast of the changes that affect them both positively and negatively in order for them to prosper and survive. Information Communication Technology (ICT) has experienced continuous rapid development and advancements that are designed to improve a wide range of life spheres. The integration and use of ICT within businesses varies due to various perceptions and needs; as a result, the purpose of this study was to establish the perception and extent of usingICT on Micro Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (MSMEs) in Hurlingham, Nairobi. The problem necessitating the research was established and objectives developed which clearly showed the technologies available to MSMEs, the importance of ICT especially to MSMEs and captured user?s perceptions towards the use of ICT. The research methodology used and methods of data collection presented a systematic approach to searching to obtain results relevant to the problem at hand. A descriptive research design method was applied to describe the situation and bring about an understanding of the same. The main area of study focused on MSMEs within Nairobi, and particularly sampled businesses within Hurlingham area of Kilimani Ward, an area comprising a diverse range of business types. The research made use of questionnaires as the main instrument of data collection and used quantitative methods of analysis to arrive at the findings.The findings indicated the widespread use of ICT by MSMEs within their operations, and illustrated a high rate of business-to-customer interaction through ICT. Business owners and employees showed a high rate of motivation for and towards the use of ICT. The results essentially showed the reality on the ground and the resulting information would aid the small enterprise community to know the importance of ICT to their business functions and operations and enable relevant stakeholders appreciate the recommendations to boost MSME businesses.

An analysis of ICT policy development and practice in teacher education in Kenya between 1997 and 2007.

Author: Ogange, B O

Awarding University: Open University, London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Information and communication technology ; Education ; Teacher education ; Educators ;

Abstract:

This is a qualitative study that uses a historical interpretive approach involving documentary analysis, interviews and case studies, to document the evolution of ICT policies relevant to teacher education in post independence Kenya, and explore the practices among teachers and teacher educators with ICT between 1997 and 2007. It examines the policy-practice relationship in the context of teacher education. The thesis draws from the work of Elmore and also Fullan to understand the change process with educational ICT policies. The ICT policy process for teacher education in Kenya takes place in a 4-Tier framework that involves international organisations at Tier 1, the Ministry of Education, other ministries and associated bodies of Tier 2, private or public sector organisations at Tier 3, and pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes at Tier 4. There is lack of co-ordination within and between these Tiers, which results in varied practices that portray differential understandings and interpretations of policy in regard to the place of ICT in teacher education. Despite the exposure to ICT training programmes, availability of computers in various institutions an in some instances, a national ICT curriculum, teacher educators? and teachers? practices in subject teaching do not reflect the policy provisions on ICT pedagogic practice. The national ICT policy, therefore, is hyperationalised and not necessarily policy in action as seen in the Case programmes. The policy discourse disjunction and stratification in the 4-Tier ICT policy development and implementation framework is responsible for the slow pace of change in training and teaching practices in Kenya. This thesis proposes that teacher needs and competences with ICT should be identified in a backward mapping approach. This will ensure transformative practices in teaching and teacher education reduce the occurrence of hyperationalisation and allow for consensus building regarding the place of ICT in teacher education programmes.

An Exploratory study on the determinants of internet access penetration in Kenya

Author: Matimu, Nancy Waithira

Awarding University: Strathmore University, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Strathmore University Library ;

Subject Terms: Information and Communication Technology ; Internet Access ; Internet ;

Abstract:

This study was undertaken using primary and secondary methods to provide gainful insight on those factors that have shaped internet access penetration in Kenya and hence make conclusions on the determinants thereof. Internet access is viewed as a key enabler for operational efficiency, economic growth and knowledge dissemination world over. It has been the key driver for eliminating cross-border barriers and a catalyst for reducing knowledge asymmetry through the global village concept realization.The core objective was to establish the determinants of internet access in Kenya and how they have influenced market penetration with a view to providing an informed direction on priority areas of contribution and considerations by the academic community, policy makers and the business community respectively in achieving universal access objectives and business growth and profitability objectives. These determinants were organized along the following key themes; socioeconomic determinants (affordability, income levels, demographics, literacy levels), infrastructure (mobile subscriptions, electricity consumption and ICT goods imports) and regulatory factors (regulatory policy and competition). Other factors explored included speed of access, security and locally relevant content availability.The findings of the study showed that a strong positive linear relationship exists between number of internet users and income levels, 15-65 years age set population, literacy level, mobile subscriptions, electricity consumptions and competition. They also showed that a positive linear relationship also exists between internet users and ICT goods imports albeit weak. Affordability (price of internet access) was found to have a strong negative linear relationship with the number of internet. The findings which were subjected to descriptive and inferential analysis concluded that the key factors that determine internet access penetration in Kenya includes income levels, affordability, mobile subscriptions and efficient competition arising from effective regulations. A regression model with a high predictive capability was also developed which suggests that 95% of internet access penetration can be explained by income levels and mobile subscriptions.

Role of supply chain relationships in the growth of small firms in Kenya

Author: Mwirigi, Fred Mugambi

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Information and Communication Technology ; Local government ;

Abstract:

Effective penetration and utilization of ICT in the public service for high-end value adding operations in local government is crucial to enhance effective and efficient services that satisfy the citizens and other stakeholders. ICT penetration and utilization in the local government has not reached the levels necessary to reap the benefits of ICT in service delivery. Effort must be made to identify the factors responsible for the slow penetration and utilization of ICT in the local government and develop practical solutions for improvement. This study sought to find out whether the institutional management systems; ICT policy, regulation and strategy; managers' attitude, awareness and skill and ICT resources affect ICT penetration and utilization and make recommendations towards improvement in local authorities. Three councils were purposively selected for this study. Stratified random sampling was employed to obtain respondents within the councils. Eighty respondents were obtained with a ratio of proportional allocation being used to allocate proportionate samples to the councils and their departments based on the respective staff populations. An ICT penetration and utilization index was developed based on a custom-made weighting. Pearson Moment of Correlation Coefficient and test of statistical significance were used to compare the strength of linear relationship between the index and the independent variables with descriptive statistics being used to analyze the results. ICT penetration and utilization was found to have a significant linear relationship with ICT resources, ICT awareness, attitude and skill as well as the level of education, age, length of service and the job scale of staff. leT policies and institutional management systems were found to have no significant linear relationship with ICT penetration and utilization. Great investment in ICT resources, ICT awareness, attitude and training as well as better educated staff with the government playing its policy role effectively were recommended towards improved ICT penetration and utilization in local authorities

Examining the adoption, usage and outcomes of mobile money services : the case of M-PESA in Kenya

Author: Morawczynski, Olga

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Money ; M-Pesa ; Information and Communication Technology ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This thesis will examine the adoption, usage and outcomes of a mobile money service called MPESA. Since being launched in 2007, the service has seen phenomenal growth in Kenya. Over 7.5 million users, or 34% of the adult population, have registered with M-PESA. Such growth is impressive as it has surpassed other ICTs in the country. This includes the mobile phone, which has been hailed as the fastest growing ICT in Africa. It has also surpassed the growth of mobile money in the North, where many services have been discontinued because they failed to attract a sufficient number of customers. M-PESA thus provides an interesting case of an ICT growing rapidly in the South, and ?failing? in the North. In this context, the first part of the thesis examines why such rapid growth occurred. This analysis is presented from two perspectives. First, the socio-technical systems framework is used to present M-PESA as a complex system rather than an isolated application. This perspective makes clear that M-PESA grew rapidly because it had a dedicated team of system builders. These individuals took numerous strategies to enroll the elements and maintain the stability of the entire system. They further worked to engineer the social, economic, legal and political environments of the technology. Growth is also explained from the perspective of the user. The thesis makes clear that M-PESA was widely adopted because it fit into existing social practices and systems of logic. In other words, it helped users to do what they were doing before the technology was introduced. This includes money transfers back home. It also includes savings. The thesis further reveals that financial practices began to change as M-PESA became integrated into daily life. For example, users began to send money home more often. They also increased the number of their savings transactions. Such changing practices engendered a variety of consequences to daily life. This includes rising household incomes in the rural areas. It also includes new struggles over limited resources. The impacts, or wider-scale implications of usage, are also discussed. The analysis shows that a whole industry for mobile money developed as a result of M-PESA?s success. The thesis makes a contribution to knowledge in several ways. It presents a case of domestication in the South and highlights the unique factors that shape this process, from wide-scale political violence to structures of debt and obligation. It further makes the relationship between technologies and impact more clear. It shows that the technology itself does not engender the outcomes. It does, however, have a role in shaping the practices that do.