17 Records out of 22207 Records

Revenue forecasting : a case of import duty

Author: Simba, Jeliah Nyanduko

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Tax revenues/Forecasting/Imports/Tariffs ;

Abstract:

Revenue forecasting is an essential part of budgeting in the public sector and, hence, it is necessary for a government to forecast the revenue it collects for. planning purposes. This study uses the monthly customs data, in particular the Import duty from January 2003 to December 2010 with the general objective of exploring the data and further establish a suitable forecasting model which can be used to predict the amount of import duty to be collected in a certain specified period. The exploration data analysis revealed that the import duty bas an upward/positive trend, has a strong positive correlation over time and that an IMA (1, 1) model was established as a suitable model to forecast the tax.

Establishing the effects of Indian manufactured products on the textile and apparel industry in Kenya

Author: Mutisya, Harriet Mwelu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Effects ; India ; Manufactured products ; Imports ; Textile industry ; Clothing industry ;

Abstract:

This study attempted to explore the effect of India's manufactured products on the textile and apparel industries based in Nairobi and its surroundings, Kenya. The target population of study was all textiles and apparel manufacturing industries that are members of Kenya Association of manufacturers KAM and operate within Nairobi and its surroundings. This study used a purposive sample of 38 respondents. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis techniques were applied. From the findings, the study reveals a number of conclusions. Most of the textiles and apparel manufacturing industries have been in operation for mote than 10 years. A majority of them are engaged in fabric and apparel manufacturing and record an annual turnover of over 100 million Kenya shillings. Product innovation; market development; improvement in technology; aggressive marketing; and changes in customer needs have contributed to the success of the companies to a great extent. Olobalization/regionalization, technological advancement, and improved customer awareness impacted on companies to a great extent. Companies' loss of market share and decline in profits has been affected to.a very extent by the Kenya-India bilateral trade agreement. Moreover, the companies have adopted moderately important strategies like market penetration, market development, and product development in order to remain competitive in the textiles and apparel industry. The study recommends that: textiles and apparel industries should also ensure that cotton production becomes a priority in their development policies in Kenya; and the OoK to intensively and expansively focus its policies extensively on investment in the textiles and apparel industry as well as the so much neglected cotton industry.

Industrial innovation in the face of stiff competition from Chinese imports: a study of small and medium scale garment firms in Nairobi

Author: Gatimu, Caroline Wanjiku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi ; Clothing industry ; Business conditions ; Competition ; Imports ; China ;

Abstract:

The rise of China as a global producer in the late 20th century and its increased openness have led to concerns, not just in the developed world but also within developing countries. Kenya has experienced increased garment imports from China, particularly after opening up its markets in the late 1980s and early 1990s which continues to compete with locally made clothing. Local garment producers have reacted differently to this challenge. Some have closed shops while others have proved to be very resilient, surviving and thriving in the new liberalized markets. This study focused on how garment SMEs in Nairobi have reacted to the increased clothing imports from China. Our overall aim was to investigate the different types of innovations adopted by these firms in responding to the stiff competition posed by Chinese clothing imports. We tried to establish whether there was a link between Chinese competition and firms' innovative behaviour. In order to realize this objective, a case study of fifteen garment firms was chosen. Face to face interviews with managers and/or owners of these firms were conducted. The data collected was analyzed into themes andfindings written on the same. The study established two major sources of competition for garment SMEs, which were, local competition and Chinese competition. Second-hand clothes were not regarded as competitors. The study also revealed that garment firms had adopted various innovations so as to cope with this competition. These innovations were incremental but not radical. They included process, product, market innovations and new sources of supply. Product innovations were the most common among these firms. Competition from other local producers emerged as the strongest driver of innovations among garment SMEs as opposed to Chinese competition. Creativity among entrepreneurs was also identified as a considerable driver of innovations among these firms. The study concludes that even though Chinese competition was not regarded as the strongest driver of innovations, many firms still opted to concentrate on products that were not in direct competition with Chinese imports and/or where Chinese competition was presumed to be low. This suggested that Chinese influence on local producers is strong even though some entrepreneurs did not see it that way. The study recommends government control of clothes importation and strict adherence to quality standards for those imports allowed in and promotion of cotton production and revival of textile ginning mills. Entrepreneurs in this area should also adopt product specialization and value addition as studies have shown that such activities have the potential to boost profit margins of garment firms. In addition, the government together with other stakeholders needs to establish training institutions in fashion design and other specialties relevant to garment industry as they are currently inadequate in the country, among others.

The effect of real exchange rate depreciation on Import Tax Revenue in Kenya, 1970-2009

Author: Ochien'g, Alex Oguso-New

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Foreign exchange rates ; Imports ; Tax revenues ;

Abstract:

Taxation play a critical role in raising the resources needed for financing government activities in developing countries. On the other hand, the volatility of real exchange rate (RERs) has generated significant concern among academics and policy makers in view of its . effects on macroeconomic variables such as tax revenue generation. This study therefore focuses on the effects of real exchange rates on import tax revenues in Kenya. The specific .. objectives of the study were to determine the nature of the real exchange rates depreciations r in Kenya from 1970 to 2009 and to establish the effects of the depreciations on the import tax revenues in Kenya from 1970 to 2009. The study formulated a dynamic specification for the real custom duties function incorporating the error correction term which was then estimated using the ordinary least squares. The results showed that import price indices, inflation rates and lagged real custom duties have a negative effect on the real custom duties. A liberalized exchange rate regime as introduced in Kenya in 1993 was found to have a positive effect on the real custom duties. Results also showed that real exchange rate has a statistically significant negative effect on custom duties. An increase in the real exchange rate (depreciation) leads to imports being expensive hence discouraging imports. Consequently, import volumes decline reducing revenue from the imports. It is desirable to have a real exchange rate devoid of destabilizing effects on the economy.

The inadequacy of Kenya's antidumping law, regulations and administrative procedures under the WTO/GATT 1994 framework

Author: Katasi, Grace N

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Anti dumping/Legislation/International trade/Imports ;

Abstract:

This study seeks to expose the weaknesses in Kenya's domestic legislation against dumping; an unfair international practice that occurs when a country exports a product at a lower price than what it charges in its own home. Kenya is a member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and therefore a party to all WTO agreements including; Article VI of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) 1994 on Anti-dumping measures and Countervailing duties, and the Agreement on Anti-Dumping (ADA). Despite this enormous obligation, Kenya's legislation on dumping is found in only Sections 125 and 126 of the Customs & Excise Act, and Section 117 of the East African Customs and Excise Act (EACMA) of 2004. The EACMA is restricted to dumping within the East African region hence offering no protection against goods dumped from other parts of the world. The Advisory Committee on Dumping and Subsidisation of Goods has not been established as required by the Customs and Excise (Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Measures) Regulations of 1999. In practice, complaints about dumping are handled on ad hoc basis by the Kenya Revenue Authority. Apart from being very shallow in comparison to the ADA, the lumping together of dumping and subsidies dilutes the ADA that is solely dedicated to dumping. This weak legislative framework has resulted in influx of cheap products like sugar, textiles and electronics into the domestic market, occasioning huge losses to the domestic producers of like products. The international and regional legal frameworks embodied in the WTO, COMESA and EAC are used as a guide to demonstrate the weaknesses in Kenya's domestic law. Finally, a proposed Anti-Dumping Bill is annexed to assist policy makers and legislators in designing a specific domestic anti-dumping law, with elaborate regulations and clear administrative structures.

Analysis of factors affecting women in import industry in Kenya

Author: Ndungu, Peninnah Wangui

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi LIbrary ;

Subject Terms: Imports ; Women ; Gender ; Nairobi Province ;

Abstract:

Women in business are facing many problems that are specific to their gender, which has resulted to poverty. Gendered poverty is the recognition that women and men face poverty for different reasons and both experience and respond to it differently. For instance, one of the key factors that have been found to contribute to poverty among women is lack of property rights, which means that women are marginalized from access to traditional credit and savings sources. Establishing the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in the import industry would assist in setting up strategies to deal with such challenges, thereby contributing to the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women. It says that in many parts of the world, poverty is a larger problem for women than it is for men simply because in some places women are not allowed to become educated or work outside the home to provide for their families. Because of this, the third Millennium Development Goal is directed at achieving gender equity around the world. In Kenya, studies show that entrepreneurship is becoming an increasingly popular career choice for women (Munyua, 2009). Most of the Kenyan women entrepreneurs indicate that their main reasons for going into business ventures included the need for achievement, autonomy and flexibility, along with providing for and educating their children (Wanjira, et al. 2008). However, as reported by Kibas and K' Aol (2004), more female-owned enterprises than male close down. The main reasons for women-owned business closure were lack of funds, lack of customers, too much competition, and personal reasons, for example having to take care of children. This study will analyse the factors affecting women in import industry in Kenya. The purpose of this study was to analyse the factors affecting women in import industry in Kenya and propose strategies that can be used to counter such factors. The objectives of the study were to: establish the ex factors affecting women in import industry in Kenya, examine the extent to which internal factors affect women in import industry in accessing businessspecific information needed for business growth, assess the business performance of women in import industry in Kenya and propose strategies that can be employed by women in import industry to counter the external and internal factors affecting their businesses. The study was exploratory and employed a descriptive survey design. The study was carried out in Nairobi Province, Kenya. The target population was all women entrepreneurs in the import industry in Nairobi City. Snowball sampling technique was used to obtain 30 participants for the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire and a focus group discussion guide. Data was assorted first and then analyzed using quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques. Qualitative data was analysed by organizing the responses thematically in line with the objectives of the study. Quantitative data was analysed by using frequencies, means, mode and percentages as well as correlation analysis. The study established that women entrepreneurs could accomplish a lot in the business world if it were not for the challenges facing them, especially in obtaining finances for the expansion of their businesses and being looked down upon because of their sex. The study recommends that the government should lessen the regulations in business registration and shorten the time period for waiting for the license; come up with strict measures to curb corruption at the entry points so that everybody is treated equally in duty payments, among others.

Detection of genetically modified events in foods imported into Kenya and determinaton of public perceptions towards GMOS

Author: Mugo, Lydia Muthoni

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MPHE

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Genetically altered foods ; Food products ; Imports ;

Abstract:

Numerous advances have been made in the development of new varieties of plants including soybean, maize, rapeseed, cotton and potatoes. A number of the world's governments have authorized the marketing of genetically modified organisms. The general public has shown anxiety over this new technology. The development of genetically modified crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Legislation (Cartegena Biosafety Protocol) enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), necessitates the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. The aim of the study was to detect genetically modified foods imported into Kenya. The study also determined the public awareness, attitudes and perceptions towards genetically modified foods. Information on public perceptions was obtained through questionnaires, which were given to consumers to fill. Twenty three seeds and grains were randomly collected from Kilindini harbor in Mombasa. Extraction of genomic DNA was carried out using Pietsch et al., (1997) protocol. To confirm presence of introduced genes in the plants, designed primer pairs were used in the polymerase chain reaction. Out of 400 questionnaires administered, 80% (n=320) of the consumers were aware of genetically modified foods. On identification, 66% (n=264) knew very little about genetically modified foods. This shows there is a very low level of knowledge on genetically modified foods. Women aged between 26 and 36 years of age were more aware of GM foods than men. On further identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CaMV 35S promoter (198bp), Bar gene (301bp) and Gus gene (680bp) sequences were detected in yellow maize imported from USA. Findings from this study showed that PCR method represents a viable method for detecting genetically modified foods.

Strategic responses of petroleum importing and marketing companies in Kenya to changes in government legislation.

Author: Kahira, G Ngige

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Lower Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Petroleum industry/Marketing/Legislation/Imports/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The Kenya import tax regime and its conformity with the ?MAXIMS? of taxation

Author: Kilungya, Stephen M

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Imports/Tariffs/Taxation ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Multinational pharmaceutical firms adaption to the challenge of parallel importation of drugs in Kenya.

Author: Muchelule, S E

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Lower Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Pharmaceutical industry ; Drugs ; Imports ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE