14 Records out of 22207 Records
Author: Carroll, T
Awarding University: University College, Dublin, Ireland
Level : PhD
Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;
The majority of Kenya?s poor live on small scale farms and agriculture is the country?s main economic activity. Recent years have seen rapidly increasing population, land fragmentation and as a result increasingly smaller farms in Kenya. There is therefore a need to diversify livelihoods on small scale farms to tackle rural poverty. Beekeeping is a potential livelihood diversification option with ready local and international markets for honey and other bee products and has been widely promoted in the country by government and development agencies. Beekeeping offers many potential benefits including income, health and environmental. Beekeeping has traditionally been considered an activity of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands in Kenya. However, with increasing population there has been increasing environmental degradation and reducing forest cover and an increasing need to adapt beekeeping to small scale farms. As a result there has been a move away from more extensive beekeeping systems to intensive beekeeping. This study examined beekeeping as part of smallholder mixed farming systems in mid-high altitude areas of Kenya. The potential of beekeeping, as an appropriate livelihood strategy for smallholder farm households was examined using the sustainable livelihoods framework. The study was undertaken over a 6-year (2004-9) with over 300 small-scale farmers in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province. Secondary data on Kenyan and African bees and beekeeping was analysed including a number of research studies of significance on Kenya beekeeping. In addition farmer beekeepers were interviewed using a survey questionnaire while case studies were conducted with beekeeping groups and data was collected from research apiaries in combination with an action research process carried out with beekeepers over a two year period. Beekeeping was found to be a valuable and largely unexploited livelihood diversification option for small scale farmers. Important benefits from beekeeping in the study area were income, food, medicine, an improved sense of well-being and enhancement of the natural environment. Honey, the main bee product traded by beekeepers, obtained good local prices and there was a strong local demand for honey. Compared to maize, the staple crop of most Kenyan farmers, it was found that a typical 10-hive enterprise generated earnings equivalent to the average local production from 0.86 ha of maize. While markets exist, honey yields and returns remained low compared with their potential. Beekeepers had many challenges to contend with such as defensive bees, pests, absconding by bees, low hive occupation and low yields. The defensive nature of the bees with potential livelihood risk was found to be a likely deterrent to more small scale farmers keeping bees.
Author: Anyanje, Purity Wanjiru
Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya
Level : MA
Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;
Agriculture like other forms of investment in human capital, can contribute to economic development and social progress. Justification of this investment is that Agriculture is not only the backbone of this country but, it also employers 80% of its people. Beekeeping is a unique primary industry. Honey is medicine, food and a cash income that does not add burden on the land. The crop declines have caused an alarm to experts globally. China, Argentina, Canada, Mexico, Germany and United states has reported high decline in the past decade. Africa countries like Ethiopia. Rwanda and also Kenya has not been unexceptional since it has lost 80010 of its potential. The study was motivated by the fact that despite high level of potentiality in this area to yield 300 metric tonnes of honey, only 10 metric tonnes are produced. There is a world cry in honey decline. Kenya has a potential of producing 100,000 metric tonnes of honey annually, but only 20% of the potential is trapped. The objective of the study was to investigate factor influencing honey production that is: Demographic characteristics of beekeeping farmers; environmental management practices; advisory support given to farmers and training of bee keeping. The study employed the use of descriptive research design. The researcher used Yamane sampling table to select sample size of the whole population, therefore totaling to 90 bee farmers respondents in the whole district. To get sample size in each stratum, Yamane formula was employed. Stratified random sampling techniques was used to select 30 bee farmers each out of the three strata population, 10% of target population in each stratum was deemed proper. Systematic sampling was adopted in this research. The most practical way of sampling was to select every 10th item on a list. An element of randomness was introduced into this kind of sampling, in systematic sampling only the first number is selected randomly and the remaining units of the sample are selected at fixed intervals. The tenth of every 10th item on the list of bee keepers was randomly selected, and then every 10th item from the list of farmers in each stratum was picked. The interview schedule was used to supplement information which may have been left out by questionnaires. Data from office records were analyzed to provide additional information. The researcher sought to ensure content validity with the assistance of the supervisor and other research experts in the university to assess the relevance of the research tools against the objectives used in this study. Data collected was coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentage and then presented in form of frequency distribution tables. The findings releaved that demograpic characteristics influence production of honey since there was sex disparities in honey production as male produced more kilograms than female.Mature farmers aged 36 years and above produced large amount of honey. Environmental magement practices that is,overgrazing and agroforestry influenced production of honey as a result of poor grazing habits and lack of mix farming. Poor timing of pesticides application left bees dead.Most farmers had not received advisory services and training. The study recommended that the government should take intiative through the Ministry of Livestok to employ more personnels in the extentsion to be able reach and serve all bee farmers in the district and as a result dependent variable would influence the independent variables.
Author: Oyuga, Joseph Kere
Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya
Level : MSc
Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;
A competitive market structure is a sufficient condition for the market pricing efficiency. This in tum ensures that price provides producers with the incentives to enhance production depending on available resources. The main objective of this study was to examine the structure of the honey market in the pastoral areas of Baringo in order to characterize its competitiveness and the pricing efficiency resulting there from. Observations, informal interviews and a honey traders' survey in Chepkelacha, Nginyang, Loruk, Kokwototo, Tangulbei, Kolloa and Yatya markets, and Marigat town, identified the categories of traders involved in honey trade as wholesalers who mainly purchased and sold honey in bulk, wholesalers-cum retailers who purchased and sold honey in bulk and occasionally, in small quantities to consumers and retailers who sold honey to consumers in small quantities. The findings showed that the honey market in the pastoral areas of Baringo had about ten equally sized traders who were dealing in a homogeneous product, honey. Poor infrastructure was identified as one of the major barrier to enter honey trade. The demand and supply of the honey in the market determined the price at which the commodity was sold. Honey traders colluded to influence the price at which they purchased honey from beekeepers by easily sharing marketing information. Although competition for honey among the traders was noted to be intense, one trader was identified as dominant, controlling the largest market share. These findings showed that the honey market structure in the pastoral areas of Baringo was of an organised collusive oligopsony form. Honey marketing costs were found to be high at sixty four per cent of the mean gross marketing margins. Personal travel was found to contribute the largest proportion of the marketing costs at thirty eight per cent followed by brokers' fees at twenty seven per cent. Both the honey transport and packaging costs contributed twelve per cent of the total marketing cost. The pricing efficiency of the honey market was found to be low at thirty three per cent with wholesalers-cum retailers recording the least pricing efficiency compared to the other two categories oftraders. The study recommends the promotion collective action among beekeepers to enhance honey market competitiveness; training of honey traders so as to enhance specialization; increasing vertical integration between beekeepers and high end markets; development of a honey market information system that provides up to date price information at the market place to both bee keepers and traders; and studies on the marketing of other beekeeping products such as beeswax, propolis and bee venom.
Author: Ulare, Tobias Z
Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Level : MSc
Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;
Subject Terms: Small business/Entrepreneurs/Agribusiness/Honey Care Africa (HCA)/ ;Abstract:
Honey Care Africa (HCA) is among the few private companies that try to foster Public-Private Partnership in Agribusiness. Operating in 18 Districts in 5 provinces it partners with Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), community Based Organizations (CBOs), Grass-root Based Organizations (GBOs) and self-help groups in what is known as Triple-Bottom -Up Approach. Tripartite Model is a unique partnership between Private Sector, Development agencies, and rural Community (Beekeepers). This is a new paradigm shift in development. However, the company faces many challenges, one of which is its inability to cope with high growth rate, it has experienced in its recent past. This tremendous expansion in production from 4.98 to 52.75 metric tonnes requires change in operational strategy to accommodate changes in her functional responsibility. The purpose of this study was to identify weaknesses in the field operations and propose effective method of enhancing operational efficiency of the company. The study qualitative methods of data analysis, in particular, Value Chain Analysis, and Stakeholder Analysis to evaluate on; the field operational efficiency; value chain partners and supplier networks; and the work load of project officers in the field. The results of the study indicated that by providing structured management procedures and identifying the most important stakeholder, the company could enhance its operational efficiency. It also gave recommendations on the most effective entrepreneurial strategy to manage growth.
Author: Maundu, Eliud M
Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya
Level : PhD
Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;
Royal jelly is a creamy, milky white, strongly acidic and highly nitrogenous substance secreted by the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of worker honey bees at the ages of 5 - 15 days of age. The jelly is fed to queens through out their life and also to drone and worker larvae of less than 3 days old. The principal constituents of royal jelly are water, protein, lipids, sugars and mineral salts. Due to differences in climate, Apis mellifera races have evolved in response to the local environmental conditions, with each race acquiring a different potential for production of honey and other hive products and even pollination of crops. In Kenya, new generation commercial hive products like royal jelly, propolis and pollen are insignificantly produced or utilized due to lack of knowledge on production skills, awareness and undeveloped marketing systems and also due to the nature of hives used. The aim of this study was to develop a royal jelly production system and breed for high honey production and reduced defensiveness using the East African honey bees. Royal jelly production was done in queenright colonies following the procedure of Laidlaw and Eckert, (1962). Defensive behavior was evaluated following the procedure of Stort (1974) and Collins et al., (1984). The bred queens were mated by instrumental insemination and their honey production and defensive behavior compared to that of colonies headed by non-selected queens. There were no significant differences between Apis mellifera scutellata and Apis mellifera monticola in the cell reception rates and mean royal jelly yields. Grafting larvae at the age of 24 hours significantly increased queen cell reception and royal jelly yields compared to those of larvae grafted at the ages of 36; 48 and 60 hours. Supplementary feeding significantly increased colony cell reception, mean royal jelly yields per queen cell and colony royal jelly yields. Harvesting royal jelly 2 days after grafting resulted into a higher number of harvested cells compared to harvesting in a 3day cycle. However, cells harvested 3 days after grafting yielded more royal jelly per queen cup compared to that produced by cells harvested 2 days after grafting. However, royal jelly yields were not significantly different in the 2 and 3-day cycle. The major components in the Kenyan royal jelly were found to be moisture, lipids, proteins, sugars and ash and their composition was comparable to that reported in literature. Colonies of Apis mellifera scutellata were found to have variations in both defensive behaviour and honey production. A negative and significant correlation for SN and Tl S was recorded. Variations were noted in honey production with annual honey yields of 27 - 48 kilograms per colony. There were no significant differences in sting number (SN), time to first sting (T1 S) and honey production between colonies headed by selected queens and those headed by unselected queens. Colonies headed by selected queens had significantly higher queen cup acceptance rates and royal jelly yields compared to those headed by unselected queens.
Author: Kikandi, Samuel Nzasi
Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya
Level : MPhil
Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;
Cleaner environment has been emphasized in the recent years. Studies of heavy metals in honey have been used as a bio-indicator of their accumulation in the environment. A study of the concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe in honey, bees, flowers, water and soil samples from Keiyo, Marakwet and Mount Elgon districts is described. Keiyo, Marakwet and Mount Elgon are among the leading beekeeping ditricts in Kenya. Chances of contamination of honey through human activities and I or natural phenomenon are highly likely. Honey consumed locally or exported undergoes little or inadequate screening for contamination with heavy metals. The samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons and digested by wet and dry ashing oxidation methods. The analysis is based on the use of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. All the detected levels of Pb, Cd and Cr in honey were higher than the WHO, FAO and KBS recommended limits in the three districts of study. In Keiyo district the levels of lead were between 10 and 900 times, Mount Elgon (20-90) and that of Marakwet was between 10 and 160 times higher than the WHO and FAO permissible levels. The levels of cadmium in honey obtained from Keiyo district were between 3 and 70, Mount Elgon was between 10 and 70 while that of Marakwet was between 7 and 120 times higher than the allowable WHO and FAO maximum limit. Similarly the levels of chromium in honey samples collected from Keiyo, Mount Elgon and Marakwet districts were between 3 and 25; 3 and 30; 2 and 30 times respectively above the same WHO and FAO recommended maximum leveis. However, the concentrations of copper, zinc and iron were on average within such permissible levels. Honey sampled from Biretwo during dry season and Kaptama during wet season stations gave copper concentrations being less than 2 and 7 times respectively higher than the WHO and FAO permissible level. Similarly, the levels of zinc in honey collected from Keiyo and Marakwet districts were less than 6 times above the WHO and FAO permissible levels. The highest detected levels of zinc in honey obtained from Mount Elgon were slightly higher but less than 10 times above the same limit. Generally all the honey samples from all the stations studied contained some levels of copper, zinc and iron most of, which was witr.in the WHOIF AO and KBS recommended permissible levels. Investigation on the possibility of correlation between the levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe in honey, bees, flowers, water and soil samples by Pearson correlation revealed some significant correlation (-0.5 ~r ~ 0.5); suggesting transmission of heavy metals in the environment but with no distinct pattern A comparison of the effectiveness of the wet and dry ashing oxidation procedures in the extraction of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe from honey matrix was investigated and two-tailed paired t-test performed at P=0.05 and P=O.Ol with the null hypothesis held true. The ItI value ofPb was 2.15, Cd (1.1), Cr (1.28), Cu (1.76), Zn (1.51) and Fe (0.80) compared to the tcritical (2.26) .It was concluded that the extraction results of the two methods did not differ significantly. Investigation on seasonal variation of concentration of the selected heavy metals in honey showed that the levels varied from place to place but with no distinct pattern.
Author: Lagat, David
Awarding University: Australian National University, Australia
Level : Msc
Holding Libraries: Kenya Forestry Research Institute Library ;
Honey production is an established non-timber forest product in Australia. It faces competition and challenges from other forest uses, particularly from logging and conservation. The continued logging and the declaration of native forest areas as conservation reserves, which exclude beekeepers, are having a direct impact on the beekeeping industry. Beekeeping has relied on native forests since l820s and the continued reduction in the area of forest available for apiary is a concern to the industry. This study examines the economic importance of native forest in supporting the apiary industry and the direct and indirect economic impact of the apiary industry. The study relied mainly on secondary data and the argument is based on these sources and discussions with some industry and government representatives. The study indicates that native forests contribute over 50% of the total honey production (50-90%) besides providing build up sites for pollination of agricultural crops. The value of incidental pollination for agricultural crops is more than the value of apiary products. The apiary products have a gross value of about $64 million and $ 100 million if spill - over effects are considered. New South Wales contributes about 45% of the value. There are about 1,000 people directly employed in commercial apiary production activities and additional 500 jobs are possibly generated indirectly in other sectors. Further research is recommended on the economics of honey industry, especially on production and marketing. The beekeeping industry, though small, is important in the economy. The continued survival of the industry is dependent on the availability of floral resources in public lands and in private hands. The significance of the industry is not only in the direct and indirect impacts in other sectors but the positive externality of honey industry in the agricultural sector. The beekeeping industry will continue to provide this benefit if there is support and recognition as one of the important uses of forests.
Author: Wamwangi, Muturi Daniel
Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya
Level : MSc
Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;
Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) is a proven technique for trace element analysis. The analytical technique is fast non-destructive and enables simultaneous determination of many elements with high sensitivity. In this work, EDXRF technique used utilised a radioisotope source109 C d (T 1/2 =453 days) for the sample excitation. The spectrometer as calibrated for quantitative analysis of environmental, biological and geological samples after optimization of the following: the pulse shaping time constant and the pole zero (P/Z) cancellation of the spectroscopy amplifier. Other parameters which were determined prior to calibration for quantiative analysis included the dead layer thickness of the Si(Li) detector. This was from measurements of spectral intensity ratios of the Ka lines for sulphur (S), potassium (K), chlorine (CL) and chromium (Cr) of thick pellets of analar compounds KCI, K2 SO4 and K2 CrO4. The dead layer was determined to be 0.28?m. Pollen, honey and its products constitute environmental samples. They were collected from selected areas in Kenya-Kibwezi, Kitui, and Nyeri because they are major sources of honey production in the country. Samples of pollen and bee tissue were prepared in pellet form of about 0.05g/cm2, while honey samples were analyzed directly without any prior preparation. Honey samples from industialized countries-Australia and U.K were also analysed and the results compared to local samples. Spectral data analysis was done using the following software: QXAS and AXIL while Canberra S100 was used for data acquisition. Significant differences in the results of analysis of the pollen, bee tissue and honey is shown for samples from these areas. Results indicate that rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) ratios vary from 2.69 to 4.39 for Nyeri and 0.36 to 0.99, for Kitui and Kibwezi areas respectively. In addition, the correlation matrices of the trace elements in these samples has been presented. Results of lead (Pb) levels are high in pollen; bee tissue and honey samples collected near major highways (3~7ug/g). The levels of iron (Fe), (8-15) ?g/g, copper (Cu), (8-10) ?g/g and zinc (Zn), (4-12) ?g/g are in refined honey samples from Kenya, Australia and U.K and are essential to human health. Arsenic (As) levels in some samples from Nyeri are (2-9) ?g/g and are possibly from fungicides, insecticides and pesticides used for agriculture purposes. Calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), Zinc, Bromine (Br) and strontium (Sr) are identified as the main constituent elements in the raw honey samples from Nyeri, Kitui and Kibwezi. Iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) levels are reportedly lower in refined honey samples by a factor of two than in the honey samples from the same region. In addition, high iron (Fe) values (20-30) ?g/g and (2773-4090) ?g/g are reported in all the bee tissue samples than in the pollen and honey samples from the corresponding are. Iron (Fe) values represent the highest concentration levels in pollen and bee tissue samples from all areas in the range (108-600?g/g) and (57-4090?g/g) respectively. Similar trends in the variations of strontium (Sr), bromine (Br), copper (Cu), rubidium (Rb) and manganese (Mn) are reported in all the bee tissue samples from Nyeri, Kibwezi and Kitui areas. High correlation (r=0.964) between pollen and honey samples are reported for the following elements; iron (Fe), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) for samples from Nyeri. In addition, the colour of honey has been found to correlate with the levels of trace elements in some samples from Kibwezi. High levels of trace elements in all the samples from Nyeri than those from Kibwezi and Kitui could be due to the geology of Nyeri which is characterised by volcanic soils compared to that of Kibwezi and Kitui which are regions of metamorphic rocks. The accuracy of the analytic results has been verified by analysing some of these samples u
Author: Mutungi, Elijah Musembi
Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya
Level : MSc
Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ; University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;
ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE