4 Records out of 22207 Records

Health information systems reform in Kenya : an institutionalist perspective

Author: Bernardi, Roberta

Awarding University: University of Warwick, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Information and Communication Technology ; Health ; Health information ; Donors ;

Abstract:

The development outcome of ICT and information systems in developing countries is often influenced by international development policies and the action of international actors such as donor agencies. In particular, ICT adoptions and implementations in developing countries may be influenced by the contradictions arising mainly from the tension between international managerialist development policies and the main rationalities of actors in the local implementation context. Based on the case study of health information systems in Kenya, the objective of this thesis is to increase the understanding of how these contradictions may affect the development and change potential of health information systems and ICTs in developing countries in relation to international development policies. Drawing on a dialectical perspective on institutional work, the thesis argues that the change and development trajectories arising from the implementation and usage of health information systems depend on how actors involved in the restructuring of health information systems i.e. donor partners, national decision makers and local health information systems managers and users respond to the ongoing dialectic between global and local pressures of institutional change and stability. The main findings of the research presented in this thesis point to the importance of analysing political donor relations and the institutional entrepreneurship of local actors in order to understand the change and development outcomes of health information systems and ICT in developing countries.

Sources of HIV/AIDS information among adolescents in public secondary schools and their implications in Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Maina, Anderson Waithaka

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: AIDS (Disease) ; Teenagers ; Secondary school students ; Health information ; Mass media ; Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

A survey of sources of HIV/AIDS information among adolescents in public secondary schools in Nairobi and their implications was done. HIV/AIDS continues to be a major health threat in Kenya and was declared a national disaster in 1999. Review of various researches have shown that adolescents source of HIV/AIDS information in spite of being many and varied, are not addressing adequately the HIV/AIDS information needs of adolescents. To address this state, several researches done have suggested that HIV/AIDS information should specifically target adolescents as a group. The use of preferred sources of HIV/AIDS information has also been identified as a potential powerful tool in future HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. However, in the literature reviewed, the use of preferred sources of HIV/AIDS information among adolescents was found to be under-utilised especially in Kenya. An information gap was found to exist on where adolescents in Nairobi preferred to get their HIV/AIDS information from and this needed due emphasis. The purpose of this study therefore was to survey the sources of HIV/AIDS information among adolescents in Nairobi public secondary schools and to find if there are sex, age and form/class differences in their preferences. Two theories were used to guide this study: agenda setting theory and social exchange theory. A target population of secondary school students from public schools in Nairobi Province was used. The sample size was 384 students from 6 schools selected using stratified random sampling. A background information and HIV/AIDS preferred sources of information questionnaire was used. Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 12. A Pilot study was done in order to validate the research instruments. The most common sources of HIV/AIDS information among adolescents in Nairobi public schools were found to be TV and radio. Health care workers, school lessons and TV were cited as the most preferred sources of HIV/AIDS information. The results of the present study revealed significant differences in preferred sources of HIV/AIDS information chosen based on class/form of study and the age of the student. There were also significant sex and class/form differences in sources of HIV/AIDS information chosen by students. Results of this study enlightened on the best ways to communicate HIV/AIDS information to adolescents in Nairobi secondary schools. After this study was done, it was recommended that efforts be made to encourage the use of preferred sources of HIV/AIDS information to educate adolescents in Nairobi. Health workers for example, were found to be a preferred information source. Since Health workers as a HIV/AIDS information source are currently under utilised, efforts should be made to encourage them to take active roles in adolescents HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. As a recommendation for further studies, a similar study could be replicated in rural schools where there is usually limited access to print and broadcast media.

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices towards malaria prevention and control among primary school childrean in Busia district, Kenya

Author: Odenyo, Thadeus Obadha

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MPHE

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Malaria ; Disease control ; Health information ; Children and youth ; Busia District ;

Abstract:

Malaria is endemic in Busia District in Western Province Kenya. In the year 2003 malaria was incriminated for 50.0 % all cause mortality in the district. Malaria is on the rise in spite of available effective and proven tools. Conventional malaria prevention and control efforts have hitherto failed to strike an epidemiological breakthrough. Involvement of children in malaria prevention and control has not yet been attempted in the district. The overwhelming need for innovative approaches to defeat malaria has increasingly become an overwhelming priority. This study used; structured questionnaires among 649 pupils. 16 guided interviews among pupils. In-depth interviews among science teachers and focus group discussions among stake holders in the malaria sector to gather information on malaria The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the pupils in Busia district. Results show that 94.1% of the pupils had knowledge on malaria transmission. These findings were better than results from studies in other endemic areas. Use of mosquito nets (55.0%) and ownership (93.8%) had a significant statistical difference (p<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference between chemotherapy use (99.7%)and compliance with prescribed dosage (45.0%, P<0.001). Chemoprophylaxis use was dependent on age (p<0.001) class of pupil (p<0.001). Having been taught about malaria in class (p<0.001) number of malaria bouts (p<0.001) and compliance with prescribed dosage (p<0.001). Use of Mosquito nets significantly improved with scaling-up of net coverage (p<0.001). Radio ownership significantly influenced chemotherapy use (p<0.001). Perception on visiting a health facility positively influenced health facility visits (p<0.001). Perceptions on mosquito net use positively influenced net use (p<0.001). The teacher interview results show that there is lack of malaria education in the primary school curriculum. Focus group discussions findings show that there is lack of collaboration among the malaria sector players. In conclusion, many respondents had knowledge on malaria etiology. Consequently. Concomitantly fewer bouts of malaria were reported. However varied and dynamic environmental factors hampered diametrical gains from practices. It is recommended that policy formulation on malaria be directed towards information. education and communication; monitoring and evaluation and intersectoral collaboration.

Perception of HIV/AIDS by Primary School Pupils in Thika Municipality, Thika District, Kenya.

Author: Mando, Kenneth Maina

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MPHE

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: AIDS (Disease) ; Thika, Kenya ; Primary school students ; Perceptions ; Health information ; Children and youth ;

Abstract:

The increase in incidence of the HlV/AIDS among men and women in their early and mid twenties calls for urgent but effective HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeted at the vouth. More than 20 million people have lost their lives to the disease. In Kenya. the pandemic has been declared a national disaster. over 2.2 million Kenyans are already living with HIV and about 1.5 million Kenyans have died from HIV related diseases. This study was on perception of HIV/AIDS by primary school pupils in class 5-8. This descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in Thika Municipality of Thika District, Kenya. The I-IIV/AIDS prevalence in the district stood at 34 percent in 2001, the highest in Central Province. A total of 465 pupils from 12 schools were interviewed. a stratified random samnlinLy was done and data collected usinu self administered auestionnaires. Data was processed using SPSS and Ms Excel Computer package. Chi -- square test was done on the data to show the relationships between various variables. Variations and percentages were compared using t-test for proportions. HlV/AIDS was perceived as a reality by (96.6%) of the respondents. However, even with this. a majority (59.8 %)still believed that the ongoing campaign was a plan to stop sexual intercourse enjoyment by young people. The study showed that females (43.5%) had better perception compared to males (38.1 %).However this was statistically non significant (x2=1.216, df=l, p>0.05) showing perception does not depend on gender. Of all the mentioned, sources of information, media gave most information on condoms use. There was a non-significant relationship between the perception of HIV/AIDS and the source of information (X'= 10.1 l,df=6, p=>0.05). Age category 12-13 years had the highest percentage of those with good perception (46.3 %), although poor perception was high (44.7 %) at age category 18-19 years, (x2=6.09, df =4, p-0.05). This was statistically non significant indicating there is no relationship between the age category and perception on HIV/AIDS. Public schools had a higher percentage of pupils with good perception, (42.1 %) compared to (239 %,) from private schools. however chi-square test gave a anon significant association (x = 0.313, df=1, p>0.05). Distribution of the study subjects by gender was also not significant (t=0.608,df=463,p>0.05). However, the following were among aspects shown to be significant: age distribution (x 2=356.98,df=9,p<0.001),knowledge about existence of IIIV/AIDS (t--21.5,df--463,p<0.001),source of information with media topping the list (x,2=85.l,df--4,p<0.001) and majority maintained that HIV/AIDS campaign is a scheme to stop the youth from enjoying themselves (t=4.35,df--463,p<0.001).hrorn this study most of the respondents indicated having not had sexual intercourse (73.8%). This means that if the pupils can be helped to adopt abstinence or safer sexual practices in their lives they could be safe from the deadly scourge. The findings of this study provide crucial information on the perception of HIV/AIDS by the young people, which may significantly help in the planning of effective prevention and control programs against the pandemic.