268 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors influencing girl-child academic performance in selected secondary schools in Kinango district Kwale county, Kenya

Author: Ikua, Aurelia Njeri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kinango District/Gender/Secondary school students/Enrollments/Girls/Academic achievement/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This research project was conceived as a result of observing disparity between the girls' education performance as compared to boys and the fact that there is gender discrimination in our society where the girl child is segregated against the boy child. It therefore sought to study 'factors influencing girl-child academic performance in secondary schools in Kinango District Kwale, County.' The data for the study was sourced from the DEOs office Kinango which clearly indicated that there is both low enrollment and poor performance for girls against the boys since 2007-2010. The disparity in performance was found to be 1 point with the girls lagging behind and the gap increasing each year. The historical background of the study adopting conceptual and theoretical framework, the problem statement, objectives of the study, research questions and hypothesis of the study and the purpose of the study were first carried out. The literature showed gender inequality in education has widely been acknowledged with the girl child lagging behind in academic performance as a result of many factors among them cultural factors, irresponsible sexual behaviour and harassments, lack of role models, overburdening them with household chores and the distance that they make to school. These were found to be embedded by the fact that our society is male dominated and roles are allocated on the basis of gender. The study sought to establish if academic performance is influenced by cultural beliefs discriminating the girl child, domestic chores assigned to the girl child, role models, sexual behavior of the girl and sexual harassments and school quality and location . A descriptive survey of quantitive and qualitative data was the most appropriate in collecting in-depth information using questionnaires and interview instruments. Prerequisite information to note the problem was gotten from the DEO's office. This included an analysis of KCSE results from schools that participated in the last five years, their enrollments data in terms of gender in order to get the population. Permission to collect data was sought from the principals of the schools by way of letter of transmittal. Questionnaires were then dropped in the sampled schools after prior arrangements with the principal. They were then filled by the students and the principals of the schools and collected at a later date. The DEO as Education Policies implementer was interviewed through visitation after prior arrangements were made to meet him and information was collected using notes taking technique. It was then coded and analyzed using SPSS and percentages got to determine how the factors that were studied affect performance of the girl child. The hypothesis of the study was also tested using chi square inference analysis technique. The findings were that the girl child's academic performance in Kinango is influenced by culture, domestic chores, role models, sexual harassments and distance. The conclusion was that poor academic performance was a matter of concern and needed to be looked into by all stakeholders. The study therefore recommended that community should be educated on the importance of the girl child, the government to put all the girls in a boarding school at subsidized fee to reduce the distance they make to and fro; lessen their involvement in domestic chores and reduce cases of sexual harassments on the way, separate girls' and boys' schools, post more female teachers and promote them into leadership positions and strengthen the guidance and counseling in schools. It also gave suggestions for further research on the factors determining the girl child secondary school enrollment in the region, a study into gender disparity of the teachers in the area, social economic factors influencing boys and girls performance in the region and finally a replication of the study in another district in the region. '

Factors influencing vulnerability of women in refugee camps : the case of Dadaab refugee camp; Garissa County, Kenya

Author: Jegede, John Oluwatosin

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya/Refugees/Women/Sex discrimination/Gender ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to explore the factors influencing vulnerability of women in Dadaab refugee camp. Women consist of over 60 percent of the total population of this world's largest refugee camp and are perceived as the most vulnerable and marginalized group within the camp. research has the potential of providing involved or ganizations and institutions, whose mission is to protect people from the harmful repercussions of refugee crisis, with pertinent information that will aid in reducing the magnitude of difficulty faced by refugee women and so reducing the unnecessary burden of life for these women. Furthermore, the study will also provide future researchers with a useful pool of resources. Although refugee women issues have been addressed in the developed world and in some of the developing countries, not many studies have been done within the Kenyan context. Many Non- Governmental Organizations led interventions have brought women issues to people's consciousness and some short term measures to alleviate women's problems have followed. However despite these interventions women continue to suffer. The objectives of the study is thus to determine the influence of culture, level of education/awareness, law enforcement mechanisms, availability of opportunities on the vulnerability of women in Dadaab refugee camps. This research also reviews the pertinent literature that underpins this study from the global, African and local perspectives and also offers a conceptual framework and indicates the knowledge gap that the study intends to fill. The mixed research approach was employed; it consists of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The study adopted a Cross-Sectional design which allows the researcher carry out the study in natural, real life settings and to ask a random sample of individuals to respond to a set of questions about their backgrounds, past experiences, and attitudes. Oral interviews were also employed. Study findings revealed that culture, level of education/awareness, law enforcement mechanisms and opportunities influences the vulnerability of women in Dadaab refugee camp. The study recommends that the needs of refugee women must be incorporated into all stages of refugee life, including in the granting and documenting of refugee status, and in the organization of refugee camps. The governments of states that accept refugees must modify their refugee protection system to account for persecution based on sex and gender, and must make the documentation process available to women. In the refugee camps, international relief agencies and large donor-coordination organizations, specifically UNHCR, must require that the Guidelines are followed and that women's rights are protected.

Factors influencing form two boys and girls choice of KCSE subjects in Kiene division, Nyeri North District, Kenya

Author: Gathaiga, Peninah Nyaruai

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kiene Division ; Nyeri North District ; Secondary education ; Secondary school students ; Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education ; Curricula ; Gender ; Careers ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence form two boys and girls in their selection ofKCSE subjects in Kieni Division Nyeri North District. Research questions were formulated to guide in the study and data collected from 120 student respondents out of a total of 130.Findings revealed the students were provided with the necessary information concerning KCSE subject choices. The information was given by the teachers. It was also found out that gender did influence boys and girls choice of subjects. Majority ofthe students agreed that there were subjects for girls and for boys. Students respondents in their response showed that they believed that art based subjects were for girls while science based subjects were for boys. Further findings revealed that guardians level of education and occupation did not fully influence students choice of subjects though some guardians influenced their children on what subjects to take since they were educated hence more aware of the needs of the job market which mostly determines what subjects are required. Boys and girls aspired career and level of education influenced their choices of KCSE subjects. Teachers also influenced the boys and girls on their choices. This is in the subjects they taught. In the light of the research findings it was recommended that boys and girls should be provided with adequate information on the importance of the subjects that they study in schools. That there should be professionally trained career teacher-counselor in all schools. It was recommended that there is need for involvement of parents in the education of their children

Influence of girl child educational development on boy's enrolment in public mixed secondary schools in Kisumu East district, Kenya

Author: Gwada, Irene Amondi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kisumu East District ; Secondary school students ; Enrollments ; Gender ; Girls ; Boys ; Affirmative action ;

Abstract:

This research sought to study the influence of girl child educational development on boys' enrolment in public mixed secondary schools in Kisumu East District. Most Commonwealth countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia still have significant gaps achieving gender parity in secondary enrolment rates. In South Africa, more girls are enrolled in secondary schools than boys. In Kenya's central province, statistics from the ministry of education indicate that more girls enroll into secondary schools than boys. Trends indicate that since 2003, there has been an increase in the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary schools in Kisumu municipality.? According to the statistics from the District Education Office, Kisumu East, and student enrolment by gender in mixed day secondary schools was 42.78% in 2004,43.39% in 2005 and 44.11 % for girls indicating an increasing trend, while that of boys was 57.21% in 2004, 56.41% in 2005 and 55.88% in 2006 indicating a decreasing trend. The 4 components of girl child educational development were; women advocacy in education, affirmative actions in education, gender mainstreaming in education and gender parity in education. The objectives of study were to examine the influence of women advocacy in education, affirmative actions in education, gender mainstreaming in education and gender parity in education as components of girl child educational development on the boys' enrollment in public mixed secondary schools in Kisumu east district. Literature reviewed discussed objectives of this study in relation to enrollment and has critically reviewed previous research articles on similar or related topics The major advocacies on women education were highlighted. The various affirmative actions were also reviewed and their influence on the boys' enrollment established. The various ways of mainstreaming gender in educations included curriculum, gender awareness training and education materials. The approaches used to attain gender parity in education included equity of access, equality in learning process and education outcomes. This study used descriptive survey design. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data was collected through the unstructured sections of the questionnaire while the quantitative data through the structured sections. Piloting of the study was carried out in Obambo Mixed secondary school in Kisumu West district to ensure validity and reliability of questionnaire. The study targeted all the form one students and head teachers in 28 public mixed secondary schools. This study used simple random, stratified random and purposive sampling techniques. 8 schools were sampled using simple random techniques. 10 boys and 9 girls were sampled through stratified random sampling from each school visited. 8 Head teachers were sampled through purposive technique. Content analysis was employed to analyze qualitative data while quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Heavy presence of women advocacy was envisaged with (95%) of the female students acknowledging them. (89%) and (67%) of female and male students benefited from free primary education respectively. with only of the male students benefiting. Re-admission policies targeted female more than male students. The curriculum was biased towards female students. (95%) of the female students had received gender awareness trainings with no such trainings for male students. The various strategies used to attain gender parity in education were equity of access, equality in learning process and equality of education outcomes. Most female students were enrolled with lower marks compared to their male counterparts, The study concluded that the various strategies of women advocacy, affirmative actions, gender mainstreaming and gender parity in education negatively influence boys' enrolment. The study recommended that the government and NOOs should take part in advocating for b

Determinants of school enrollment among public day secondary school students in Butula district, Kenya

Author: Were, Andrew Isaya

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Secondary schools/Enrollments/Child labour/Gender/School finance/Butula District/School dropouts/Education policy/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the enrolment of students in public day secondary schools. Four objectives guided the study: establishing how child labour affects children's enrolment in day secondary schools; determining the extent to which gender inequalities influence children enrolment in public day secondary schools; and determining how school safety and hygiene standards influence enrolment, and establishing how tuition free secondary education has affected children's enrolment in public day secondary schools in Butula District. The literature review revealed that students who are orphaned ,inadequate funds to cater for tuition, infrastructure and school safety items, sanitary items, inadequate funds under the free secondary education and teaching / learning materials were the main factors affecting enrolment of student in Public day secondary schools. The study was guided by the human capital theory and a conceptual framework presented the relationship between educational resources, educational policies and enrolments in public day secondary schools. A descriptive survey design was used to guide this study. Students, class teachers and principals in the public day secondary schools in Butula District filled and returned questionnaires and the analysis was made using both quantitative and qualitative methods and presented in form of frequency tables. The findings of the study show that secondary education is still heavily in the hands of parents although the Ministry of Education pays tuition fees. Parents are responsible for the payment of development fund, uniform, caution money, and harambee fund. This situation has put pressure on the parents as most schools sent home students who could not afford to pay the required amount of fees. Measures adopted to improve the security and hygienic environment in schools include the acquisition of the relevant security and hygiene facilities like water, lighting, waste disposal facilities, school gate, school fence, lockable classrooms, first aid kits, grills on windows and security officers. Many secondary schools have invested heavily in the creation of a friendly learning environment. In the line with the gender policy in education many schools provide girls friendly latrines, boys' urinal pits and boys' latrines. The schools readmitted girls who dropout due to pregnancy after guidance counseling and medical checkup. The education system is strongly affected by students' participation in child labour. The main reasons for children participation include the need to meet basic needs, pay school fees and supplement income. Poverty is the main factor pushing the students out of school into the work. This study concluded that schools need to work closely with the government in enforcing the ban on child labour; diversely their sources of income in order to keep the poor and vulnerable students ion schools; provide a secure schools environment through the provision of facilities like the fire extinguishers and promote gender friendly learning environment through the provision of gender friendly learning facilities.

Factors influencing women participation in political leadership : the case of Kimilili constituency of Bungoma county, Kenya

Author: Tabuka, Elizabeth Tundi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kimilili Constituency, Bungoma County/Politics/Women/Women's studies/Gender/Social life and customs/Cultural change ;

Abstract:

Politics is almost everywhere a male-oriented, male-dominated enterprise. Even though women in most countries have been in all legal respects politically equal to men for over forty years, sex differences in political participation are enormous. This study therefore sort to assess the 'factors influencing women participation in political leadership' a case of Kimilili Constituency of Bungoma County. This study highlights the deep- seated culture that define women primarily as wives and mothers, with electoral politics seen as an appropriate activity for men, but less so for women. The project has explored the ways in which c gender roles hindered the supply of, and demand for, women in the politics of Kenya moreover Kimilili constituency. It has also discussed how lack of finances, low women educational level and political factors influenced women's political participation in Kenya and moreover Kimilili. The study found out that women in Kimilili constituency are ignorant of their rights and moreover patriarchal system is still a hindrance of women participation in political leadership. Due to social-cultural, economic, education and political factors, found to influence women participation in political leadership in Kimilili Constituency the researcher recommended that changing culture to suit the political needs of women would be a very challenging option to carry forward in Kimilili. It is not an issue which is solvable overnight; hence women's participation in politics should be actively pursued by women. The Kenyan system has provided opportunities for women to show their capabilities. It is not the changing of culture; however, it is how one uses the available opportunities to be visible in eyes and ears of the chiefs, elders and heads of families. One has to use the opportunities given by culture to have an effect and inform changes to culture. The interest to carry out this research was prompted by the fact that participation in politics is a way of life for all human beings regardless of their gender, religion, class or ethnic background, however politics has predominantly been dominated by the male, despite the fact that women form a big percentage of the population and are the majority of voters in Kimilili Constituency.lt's so amazing that Kenya moreover Kimilili has potential women who can be leaders or even presidents of this country Kenya, but they aren't, the question is why? Therefore, this formed the need for this research. The research was conducted using a descriptive survey research design and the data was collected using interview guide where five women aspirants and six key informants were interviewed,questionnaires were also employed on men and women in eight wards of Kimilili constituency selected through purposive sampling and proportionate stratified sampling technique from the accessible population. It was analyzed using SPSS and presented in tables. The hypothesis was tested using Pearson Chi-square at 95% level of confidence. Pilot study was conducted using test re-test method to test the viability and reliability of the questionnaire administered.

Factors influencing gender parity in adult basic education programmes in Masaba North district, Kenya

Author: Ragira, Henry Mogeni

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Masaba North District/Adult education/Adults/Enrollments/Gender/Curricula ;

Abstract:

Adult education is the art and science of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes place in the work place through extension school or school of continuing education. Other learning places include community colleges, folk high schools and life-long learning centers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing gender parity in adult basic education programme in Masaba North district, Nyamira county. The following objectives guided the study. To establish whether the social-cultural gender roles influence adult learner-enrolment in the adult basic education programmes, to establish the attitudes of both male and female adult learners to adult basic education programmes and their influence on enrolment; to examine the teaching and learning resources used in adult basic education programmes and their influence on enrolment, to find out whether the gender-mix education influence adult learner enrolment in the adult basic education programmes, to examine the appropriateness of teaching content used in adult basic education programmes and their influence on enrolment. The theoretical framework that guided the study was based on the curriculum implementation theory propounded by Gross (1971). The dysfunctional theory states that any educational programme brings in mind the question of learning resources teachers training, teaching resources, learning facilities, attitudes of the learners and the content covered. The study employed the use of simple random sampling to select the adult learners who were interviewed. The study sample comprised of 10 adult education centres, 40 adult learners, 10 adult education teachers, and 3 District Adult Education Supervisors. The research instruments used in this study were questionnaires and interview schedules. A pilot study was taken to establish the instrument validity. To ascertain the reliability of the instrument the test -retest technique was used. The findings of the study, teaching and learning resources are not adequate, most of the adult learners are female and have positive attitude towards adult basic education. The social - cultural factors was the leading factors for gender disparity. Theoretically the research was expected to contribute to the advancement of the knowledge about gender sensitive curriculum development by the Kenya Institute of Education. The data was analyzed using Statistical software and presented using frequency tables, pie chart and bar chart. The study concluded that there is a widespread and systematic gender parity in enrollment of adults in literacy centers and was being caused by several factors such as lack of teaching and learning resources. The research recommends that adult education literacy programmes should be restructured to suit the learners needs and equip them with relevant skills and knowledge. The government should also employ more trained teachers. This could help to boost enrolment of adult learners and in areas where male learners do not want to share a class with female learners separate classes or different days should be put in place to cater for all. The following were suggestions for further study. The study needs to be carried out to ascertain how best adult basic education programmes can be structured so as to realize vision 2030 and attain over 90 percent literacy levels in the country. A qualitative approach using a larger sample should also be used to find out whether it will elicit different results.

Gender disparity among entrepreneurs with disabilities in Kangemi Market, Nairobi County

Author: Wamuyu, Muthoni Njongoro

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gender/Entrepreneurs/Handicapped people/Socioeconomic factors/Kangemi Market, Nairobi, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Gender disparities in terms of opportunities, security, ana 'participation have become important issues for developing economies because of their potential effects on both sustainable growth and poverty reduction in an economy. People with disabilities have many challenges in their quest to become entrepreneurs. The objectives of the study was to determine the influence of social culture - which includes customs, languages, attitudes, social institutions, status symbols, and religious beliefs that influence the entrepreneurial behaviour; to assess the influence of capital accessibility and, influence of support of services on PWD in Kangemi market, Kenya. The study population included both men and women entrepreneurs with disabilities aged between 20 and 60 years trading and living in Kangemi. The sample size was 30 entrepreneurs with disabilities out of whom 20 filled and returned making the response rate of 67%. The study used a descriptive research design. Data were collected through the administration of semi-structured questionnaires that enabled a one-on-one face to face semi-structured interview. Study indicate that social culture affects ones engagement in business. Other factors include family roles, personal savings and accessible over other sources and, donations from NGOs were the least accessible. The study concludes that social culture affected engagement in business. Gender biases no longer affect performance, while family roles affect business performance. The study further concludes that personal savings was the most preferred and accessible means over other sources of raising capital by the PWDs. It recommends that government should increase their awareness on the support to the PWDs through the ministry concerned. It also recommends that NGOs whose function is to assist the PWDs should also enhance their awareness in business and their support to the group through the effective channels.

Media framing of women in politics : an analysis of print media coverage of women members of parliament in Kenya

Author: Thuo, Jane Wambui

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gender/Media coverage/Women/Politicians/Newspapers/ ;

Abstract:

Scholars in media, gender and politics have interest the apparent gender differences in media coverage and framing ofthose in politics. This study sought to explore how the Kenyan news print media have framed the twenty two women parliamentarians in the tenth parliament in their coverage. The objectives of the study are twofold. The first one is to examine the amount of media coverage and level of prominence given to stories on women in politics; and secondly, to identify the dominant gender frames used in news print media content. The theoretical underpinning of this study is borrowed from the media framing theory. The research approach of the study was qualitative in nature and employed content analysis and in-depth interview data collection techniques. The sample frame for the study included two main media houses namely Nation Media Group and tile Standard Group and their newspaper publications published daily over a six months period from 1 st January to 30th June 2011. The sample size for the content analysis included all the newspaper articles that mentioned any on the twenty two women aspirants. A total of ten senior editors and writers working for the Nation Media Group and the Standard Group were purposively selected for the in- depth interviews. A key finding was that news print media coverage of women in politics is low, their stories placed in the inside pages and rarely do their names hardly make it to the headlines making them 'invisible'. The researcher concludes that 'hidden' influences such as cultural backgrounds of the media professionals, principles of what makes news and commercial interest contribute to the low coverage of women.

Gender differences in unemployment and undemployment in Kenya

Author: Vuluku, Gayline Migide

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Gender/Unemployment/Underemployment/Labour market/ ;

Abstract:

Unemployment and underemployment in Kenya have been increasing as the working age population increases. The economy has not been able to create adequate jobs to absorb the labour market entrants in gainful employment. This study analysed the determinants of' open unemployment and underemployment by gender. The gender gap in both these labour market outcomes was decomposed to identify factors that explain it. A pro bit regression model for each outcome was estimated separately for male and female using data drawn from the Kenya Integrated Household Labour Survey 2005/06. The descriptive statistics indicate that under employment and unemployment was higher among female than male. The probit regression shows that after controlling for differences in personal and household characteristics, the probability of being unemployed or underemployed was still higher among females. Both household and individual characteristics such as human capital, marital status, region of residence, non-labour income and age were found to be significant determinants of unemployment and underemployment. The decomposition results show that 88.8% of the unemployment gap between women and men is accounted for by difference in individual and household characteristics while 11.2% is accounted for by difference in the coefficients. In addition, 5.4% of the underemployment gap is accounted for by individual and household characteristics and 94.6% is by difference in the coefficients. The key factors determining this gap are region of residence, age, education level, marital status and effects of shocks. Policy makers are bound to benefit from this study in making policies that bridge the gap between men and women in the labour market.