64 Records out of 22207 Records

Spatial modelling, phytogeography and conservation in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya

Author: Platts, Philip

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Forests/Eastern Arc Mountains/Ecosystems/Climate change/Trees/ ;

Abstract:

Forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains are amongst the oldest and most biodiverse on Earth. They are a global priority for conservation and provide ecosystem services to millions of people. This thesis explores how spatial modelling can provide direction for conservation and botanical survey, and contribute to understanding of phytogeographical relationships. The ecoregion is rigorously defined by terrain complexity, vegetation distribution and established geoclimatic divisions, providing a coherent platform upon which to collate and monitor biological and socioeconomic information. Accordingly, 570 vascular plant taxa (species, subspecies and varieties) are found to be strictly endemic. The human population exceeds two million, with median density more than double the Tanzania average. Population pressure (accrued across the landscape) is shown to be greatest adjacent to the most floristically unique forests. Current knowledge on species distributions is subject to sampling bias, but could be systematically improved by iterative application of the bioclimatic models presented here, combined with targeted fieldwork. Tree data account for 80% of botanical records, but only 18% of endemic plant species; since conservation priorities differ by plant growth form, future fieldwork should aim to redress the balance. Concentrations of rare species correlate most strongly with moisture availability, whilst overall richness is better predicted by temperature gradients. Climate change impacts are projected to be highly variable, both across space and between species. Concordant with the theory that past climatic stability facilitated the accumulation of rare species, contemporary climates at sites of known endemic richness are least likely to be lost from dispersal-limiting mountain blocs during the 21st century. Faced with rapid population growth and the uncertainty of climate change, priorities for governance are to facilitate sustainable forest use and to maintain/restore habitat connectivity wherever possible. Overall, the thesis demonstrates that decision makers concerned with biodiversity conservation, particularly in mountain and coastal regions, should be wary of inferring local patterns of change from broad-scale models. The current study is a step toward spatially refined understanding of conservation priorities in the Eastern Arc Mountains, whilst novel methodologies have wider application in the fields of species distribution modelling and mountain analysis.

Displacement conservation in Kenya : the case of the Mau Forest Complex

Author: Oluwafunmilola, Aderonke Adekeye

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conservation ; Social impact ; Mau Forest, Kenya ; Forests ; Okiek (African people) ;

Abstract:

The project reviews existing literature which examines the Kenyan government's defense on displacement for conservation in the Mau Forest complex. Although evidence abounds that certain human activities such as logging, forest burning, plantations, etc have caused degradation of forests and endangered no evidence shows that the Ogiek undertake theses practices and therefore despite the government's good intentions displacing the Ogiek would be 'contrary to the aim of conserving the critical resources in the Mau Forest Complex. The study examines how displacement can also be a source of conflict by displacing a population they become even more impoverished with their lifestyle being altered as a result. The aim of the study was to give an overview of how conservation can be a form of natural resource conflict through the practice of displacement. Also shows that displacement of indigenous people is either justifiable or not but also what are the repercussions on politics and ecology. Recommendation from this study highlighted the need for alternative conservation practice the most favored was participatory approach to conservation which involves ail the stakeholders conserving the forests while removing the poverty element that results from access denial. Information gathered for the study were from interviews held, articles from books, magazines, internet search. Some of the key findings for the study outlined the fact that displacement while it is good intentioned it is detrimental to those who are affected by the practice the Ogieks who become impoverished as a result of being displaced from their habitation. Secondly, displacement is an expensive process should policy makers decide to resettle the indigenous people the cost of the land, the host community would also require. compensatio~ of some form for allowing an increase in their community, risk of conflicts between the settlers and the host community due to resource scarcity . participatory conservation is seen as the best option for forest conservation. This ensures all stakeholders are catered to, preventing the feeling of loss by one side.

Factors influencing implementation of forest conservation measures in Rachuonyo South District, Homa-Bay County

Author: Mukodo, George Odipo Owino

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Forests ; Wire Forest, Kenya ; Kodera Forest, Kenya ; Rachuonyo South District ; Conservation ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This study was to establish how factors influence implementation of forest conservation measures in Rachuonyo South district, Homa-bay County. Forest covers around 30% of the world's land area where it provides food, wood medicinal plants and multiple other goods and services for hundreds of millions of people. Despite these advantages,plunder of Kenya forest has continued over the years even with pleas to conserve them. Biodiversity is a term that was developed as a means of describing the variety of life at a time when t;oncem was increasing about the loss of such variety. This study was out to achieve the following specific objectives; the effect of level of income among the rural population living next to forests, government funds allocated for forest conservation to the district, government policies on forest conservation, level of education of the adjacent population to the forest as well as level of awareness of these population of the importance of forest, and social cultural factors and their influences on implementation of conservation measures in Kasipul division. The study findings are expected to be beneficial to the government in establishment of proper policies on implementation of forest conservation measures in Rachuonyo south district, it would also realize the problems facing rural Kenya population in terms of awareness of the importance of trees. The study was based on conservation theory. Conceptual framework was used to show the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. It targeted 40 villages located within a radius of 10 kilometers around Wire and Kodera forests. A sample of 10% of the target population was taken. Structured questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect information from respondents. Content validity was ascertained through expert judgement while reliability was established through test retest. Questionnaires were hand delivered and picked by the researcher who also conducted interviews to forest officers. Data analysis was done by both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Quantitative data was analysed by use of simple descriptive statistics that is, frequencies, percentages and averages. The qualitative data was analysed and reported in narrative form. Data analysis, presentation and interpretation was done through the use of tables and a summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study done. The findings showed that poverty level of education were the major cause of poor implementation of forest conservation measures. Others were inadequate financing, policies as well as socoi-cultural factors. In conclusion, it was found that level of income and education remain the major challenges to implementation of forest conservation measures. The study recommended. that poverty eradication strategies and youth empowerment programs should be enhanced.

Factors influencing community participation in rehabilitation of degraded forests : a case of Mau Forest Ecosystem, Nakuru County, Kenya

Author: Ikiugu, Cosmas K P

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Forests/Mau Forest, Kenya/Conservation ;

Abstract:

The concept of environmental conservation has for the last ten years remained a global concern. Forests are the major components of the environment in terms of critical water catchment areas which includes forests and protected areas. Continued degradation of the Natural Ecosystems and the environmental in general has not only led to pollution of water bodies, contributed to the global warming but has resulted to loss of animal and human lives across the world. Due to the above serious effects, governments, research institutions, universities and environmental lobby groups have been addressing and trying to stream-line measures to mitigate the degradation of natural world ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to establish how communities living adjacent to forests can best participate in the rehabilitation and conservation of the degraded world forests and ensure not only that they are sustainably conserved and managed but they are properly utilized and contribute to improved livelihoods to community members through accruing benefits of conservation efforts. The objectives of the study were: to determine the influence of sensitization on community participation in rehabilitation and conservation of degraded forests; to examine how tree planting activities by communities influence their contribution to conservation of forests and to establish how enhanced quality of life of communities influence their contribution to rehabilitation of degraded forests and co-management activities in sustainable forest conservation. The study was supported by detailed literature review in chapter two. The study tried to establish the extent of how independent variables as stated in the conceptual frame work have influenced the dependent variable in Enderit Forest. The status of the forest in terms of vegetation cover in 2006 and the current status were compared. The study tried to establish relationship between independent variables that influence community participation to bring about enhanced rehabilitation of degraded forests and their continued sustainable conservation. The study used a population of 200 people consisting of a sample size of 138 people, with, 124 from CFA members and 14 from Kenya Forest Service staff at Sururu forest. Data was collected using questionnaires, records, interviews and general survey. The analysis of data was done by use of descriptive statistics. The findings were presented in frequencies and percentages using tables. The research findings have pointed out important lessons the Natural resource managers need to know: the communities are important in the rehabilitation of degraded forests and their sustainable conservation and what stake holders need to consider when engaging communities in conservation efforts. The study findings will be important to the Kenya Forest Service, Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources authorities, Researchers and all stake holders concerned with environmental and natural resources conservation.

Comparative study of bird guilds in different cropping systems on farm lands adjacent to Kakamega forest

Author: Editruda, Alfred Mbegu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Birds ; Habitats ; Conservation ; Rain forests ; Farming ; Kakamega Forest, Kenya ; Kisere Forest, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Tropical rainforests are characterized by habitat stability and complexity. Hence, the forests support a rich biological diversity, including 40% of all bird species. However, these rain forests have been shrinking due to increasing rate of deforestation, fragmentation, and other forms of resource exploitation. Degradation and loss of rainforests has threatened their. rich biological diversity and the life-support systems. However, the rate at which birds are displaced by forest clearing and the potential for birds' conservation on farmlands are not well understood. This study sought to establish the role of farmlands adjacent to tropical rainforests in birds' conservation. The study was carried out for the period of seven months (September 2010-March 2011) in small scale farms lying between two forests (Kakamega main and Kisere) in Kakamega County, Kenya. The objectives were to determine the cropping systems in farmlands adjacent to Kakamega forest determine the spatial and temporal variability of birds' habitats in Kakamega, assess the relative abundance of birds found in different cropping systems in the study area and to determine the variability in the community structure of bird guilds in the study area. Information on crop cover types, crop growth stages and estimates of percentage cover was obtained. Data on bird species composition, diversity, richness and abundance in the identified habitats were collected through timed species counts, conducted in a circular plots of 35m radius. Individual birds were counted, identified and classified into feeding guilds. Their foraging sites were also noted by crop cover and flight height levels present at the sampling sites. Sampling of birds was done twice a week and crop growth stages were evaluated twice a month. Three major habitat types (sugarcane farms without trees, sugarcane farms with trees and farms with mixed crops) were identified. A total of 17,397 birds belonging to 126 species were found in all habitats. Bird species richness was variable among the various cover types while species diversity remained relatively stable (Shannon diversity H'=3.1 and H'=3.5). There was difference (X2=6, df=5, p < 0.05) in number of birds in different bird guilds, insectivorous having the highest number while the nectivorous contained the lowest number. Similarly, the birds showed preference for top height level than the middle and the bottom levels (X2=3, df=2, p < 0.05). Birds utilized various crop stages opportunistically and hence monthly differences were not significant (dmax P > 0.05). Farmlands in the study area hosted a rich community of birds, some of which utilized the adjacent tropical rainforest. It was also found that faimlands provided refuge for displaced species and the presence of indigenous trees and fruits appeared to offer favorable feeding and breeding opportunities. Bottom height level was, however, unstable because of the manipulations by the land owners. Nevertheless, this study showed that the mixed farming landscape in. Kakamega offered ample potential for birds' conservation provided that key habitats remain stable and are enriched with tree crops.

Factors influencing community conservation of forests : the case of Upper Imenti Forest-Imenti North District, Kenya

Author: Raiji, Thomas Kiriinya

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Forests/Conservation/Legislation/Community action/Imenti North District ;

Abstract:

Forests, trees and woodlands are important biophysical resources that have direct and indirect linkage to our livelihood. Well managed, forests, trees and woodlands are renewable resources with the potential to spur economic growth in the country probably more than most of the natural resources that the country has. The consequences of forest destruction are dire and have deep and wider implications as evidenced by food insecurity, unpredictable weather patterns, droughts, famines and escalations of natural resource based conflicts. In the past, forest lands have been easy targets of power elites and land speculators. The enactment of Kenya Forest Act 2005 gives the Kenya Forests Service the mandate to hold in trust all forests in the country for all Kenyans. Additionally, the Act recognizes the role of forest adjacent communities as legitimate stakeholders in the .conservation of forests. Forests are the pillars that secure Kenya's economy through support of key sectors. The objectives of the- study have been formulated and revolve around establishing how education, development partners, population, local contributions and poverty cumulatively influence forest conservation. This study was a qualitative research design. It constituted the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data but did not produce discrete numerical data. The study used the probability sampling technique to get the required sample size. The study used the survey method in data collection. The tool of data collection was a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (means, mode, median) were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed many gaps and weaknesses in forest conservation. On this basis, the study makes the following recommendation: full participation of policy makers at all levels of conservation: connection of industry with forest conservation: involvement of schools and communities in conservation programmes: integration of youth programmes in conservation; developing market out lets for nature based community enterprises and sustained public education on conservation.

Modelling determinants of forest cover and carbon sequestration in Central Kenya : an application of some statistical models

Author: Oeba, Vincent Onguso

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Carbon ; Forests ; Climate change ;

Abstract:

Forests play a significant role in the mitigation of climate change and improving livelihoods of people directly and indirectly across the world. Kenya's closed forest canopy is less than 2%'as compared to 9% and 21% for the rest of Africa and the world, respectively. The Government of Kenya Forest Act 2005 envisions achieving 10% forest cover through various forestry programmes with farm forestry- seen as the main viable option. Statistical models have proved to be useful tools in studying the cause and effect relationship that could lead to insights regarding determinants of tree retention on farm for improvement of forest cover and carbon sinks. However, little has been done in the assessment of tree recruitment, survival, carbon estimation, carbon market and factors associated with tree retention on farm. The objectives of this study therefore were to: detennine the recruitment, survival and carbon quantification of commonly grown plantation tree species (Pinus patula, ?ucalyptus saligna, Cupressus lusitanica and Juniperus procera); evaluate income from carbon credits in comparison with sale of wood and analyze determinants of tree retention on farm. The study was carried out in Kiambu and Nyeri Counties covering Lari, Kikuyu, Nyeri South and Nyeri North districts in Central Kenya. Retrospective longitudinal approach for seedling distribution data from Kenya Forestry Service (KFS) and sampled group of nurseries were used to model the trend of seedling recruitment. A list of gazzetted plantation forests was drawn in which stratification and simple random sampling were used in selection of forest stations and species. An inventory data of 2009 from sampled forest stations were used to model the tree mortality of the selected species. Temporal plots were established in the sampled plantations for carbon assessment. Stratification and simple random sampling procedures were used to select farm household in the baseline survey for assessment of tree retention determinants. Seedling distribution data were analyzed using time series (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average-ARIMA) and linear mixed models. Mortality data were analyzed using survival models. Linear mixed and generalized regression models were used for analysis of carbon estimation and income in comparision with wood sale. Chisquare, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis H tests, analysis of variance, binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used for analysis of survey data on tree retention determinants. There was a significant decreasing trend on tree rectruitment on farm and gazzetted forests. ARIMA models significantly (p<0.01) fitted the data. Cupressus lusitanica, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus saligna were the dominant tree species planted and had better survival. Eucalyptus saligna had highest amount of carbon sequestered belowground and above-ground (247.9 ? 44.4 MgC ha-l) followed by Pinus patula (145.6 ? 44.4 MgC ha' and Cupressus lusitanica (98.4 ? 44.4 MgC ha'). Income realized from sale of wood as compared to expected carbon credit for above ground biomass was higher. However, with inclusion of soil carbon, expected carbon credits were higher than sale of wood. Study sites, gender of HH, income, land size, age, education, occupation, technical skills, harvesting regulation, extension services and labour, significantly influenced farmer's lifetime value to retain trees on farm. Overall statistical modelling was found useful in identifying suitable determinants of forest cover and carbon sequestration.The study recommends acquisition of more data to maximize the use of time series models on forecasting of seedling recruitment for improvement of forest cover. It also emphasizes the need for developing biomass equations of commonly grown plantation species and trees on farm to improve accurate estimation of carbon sequestration in Central Kenya.

Environmental degradation as a cause of conflict : a case study of the Mau Forest Degradation in Kenya(1963-2010)

Author: Mbugua, Margaret W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mau Forest, Kenya ; Deforestation ; Forests ; Environmental policy ; Conflicts ;

Abstract:

The evolution of the analysis of environmental degradation has been in favour of the broadening subject matter that constitutes the livelihoods of a person, group or a state. The evolution has ' seen a shift from the traditional approach of environmental degradation to one that is contemporary in approach. In this contemporary approach, there is the identification of human induced environmental degradation. In the analysis of human induced population degradation, population growth and displacement is the established component that seeks to show the extent of depletion and possible conflicts it leads to in a society. Through the analysis of the concept of environmental degradation, the major threat is man-made, characterized by human settlements and Agricultural practices. The threat is manifest where there are competing interests due to competition over natural resources. In the region, Kenya as state in East Africa has had to deal with these conflicts in ways that are reckoned favourabled and unfavourable to both the residents around the Mau and the entire nation. Information derived from the case study of the Mau forest degradation in Kenya 1963-2010; provide divergent views from the local citizens and officers in authority. Analysis of opinions show that there is indeed an environmental degradation issue that Kenya has to deal with, not through the traditional approach but rather with the contemporary approach. This contemporary approach caters for the examination of the effects of environmental degradation as a cause of conflict in Mau forest, Kenya. In addition, the contemporary approach also caters for the challenges of deforestation, ethnicity, water and food shortages; and the exploration of the conceptual linkage between environmental degradation and conflict. The information gathered in the study brings out the continuous assessment of the study of environment related conflicts and most importantly; on the impact of food security and development. Some environmental degradation issues and tends in Mau are indicated as being negative and positive. However, considering all circumstances, Kenya has the potential to improve her environmental issues that will lead to a robust economy, with resources for industrial development.

Challenges facing forest plantation establishment through shamba system : the case of Mucheene Forest

Author: Ikiara, Isaac Gichuru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mucheene Forest, Kenya/Meru Central District/Forests/Agroforestry ;

Abstract:

This research project report was to a large extent concerned with the challenges facing forest plantation establishment through the shamba system i.e. non-residential cultivation in the forest. The name shamba system was lately changed to plantation establishment for livelihood improvement scheme (PELIS). Our country's forest cover was at less than 2% of the total land area as opposed to the internationally required standards of at least 10% of the total land area The researcher briefly outlined the general challeges facing forest plantation establishment in the country and narrowed down the field research to 'Mucheene forest in Meru Central district. The objectives of the study included; to assess how the implementation of the shamba system policy guidelines affected forest plantation establishment, the way community participation contributed to forest plantation establishment, to examine the role of the sub-District Development Committee's in forest plantation establishment, to establish how capacity building affect forest plantation establishment and to establish the extent to which monitoring affects forest plantation establishment. The research questions addressed by the study included; To what extent does the shamba system policy guidelines affect forest plantation establishment? How does community participation contribute to forest plantation establishment?, How does the role of the sub- D DC's affect forest plantation establishment?, To what extent does capacity building affect the forest plantation establishment?, and To what extent does monitoring affect forest plantation establishment? The above approach was of great importance to the forest plantation establishment particularly in poverty eradication, employment creation, reducing government expenditure by reducing its staff and its contribution to environmental conservation. The research found out that adherence to the shamba system policy guidelines was impressive, as was community participation. The role of the Provincial Administration had changed and was now more facilitative. The levels of capacity building and monitoring were low due to lack of facilitation. The researcher proposes further research on the aspect of benefit sharing, nature based enterprises and how to control cattle vis a vis the carrying capacity of the forest. The research began by focusing on the broad challenges facing forest plantation establishment through the shamba system and later examined a case of Mucheene forest block within Mt. Kenya forest. To realize this, the study used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Questionnaires and interviews were used and data collected from the accessible population. The population comprised of one thousand cultivators who were members of the six community based organizations (CBO's) namely; Kimbo, Nchooro, Mujujune, Muruguma, Kirukuru and Katheri which were operating in the Mucheene forest block. The researcher collected data from one hundred cultivators and used statistical packages for social science to analyze the data. The data was analysed using frequency distribution tables, percentages and distribution tables.

Forest soil as sink or source of greenhouse gases : a case study of species effects on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in Karura forest Kenya

Author: Thiong'o, Margaret Kabura

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Karura Forest, Nairobi, Kenya/Forests/Greenhouse effect/Methane/Trees/Nitric oxide/Soils ;

Abstract:

Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from tropical deforestation and regrowth associated with global climate and land-use change are highly uncertain components of the contemporary carbon budget, due in part to the lack of spatially explicit and consistent information on changes in forest cover. Quantifying mass and energy exchanges within tropical forests, such Karura Forest which is contiguous with the city of Nairobi, is essential for understanding their role in the global carbon budget and how they will respond to perturbations in climate. Understanding the processes responsible for net sources and sinks of GHGs such as methane (CRt) and nitrous oxide (N20) would help in better predictions of future concentrations and the rate and extent of Climate Change. This study was carried out in Karura Forest and the objectives were (1) to asses the effect of forest type on CIiJ and N20 fluxes, (2) to evaluate the effect of seasons (wet and dry) and soil water content on the terrestrial sink and source of CH4 and N20 and (3) to determine the relationship between terrestrial N20 and CH4 fluxes, and the rates of soil net mineralization and nitrification in Karura forest. Gas fluxes were measured monthly using chamber techniques for a period of 10 months (March - December, 2008) from a natural forest stand and three different exotic plantations (Eucalyptus saligna, Cuppressus torulosa and Araucaria cunningham species). Gas analysis was done on a Shimadzu gas chromatograph (GC) fitted with an electron capture detector (ECD) for the N20 and a flame ionization detector (FID) for the CH4 detection and a 6Ft long-steel packed Porapak Q analytical column. Soil water content, inorganic N stocks and net N mineralization and nitrification rates were also determined. The forest was a net consumer (negative fluxes) of CH4 both during the wet and dry months. The CRt fluxes were significantly influenced both by the seasons (Feat = 9.44, Ftab = <0.001) and also between the species types (Feat = 4.61, Ftab =0.004). There was more uptake during the wet months compared to the dry ones. The annual uptake ofCH4 was highest in the natural forest at -4.77?0.14 while the exotics were averagely equal consumers: E. saligna (-3.75?0.14), C. torulosa (-3.61?0.13) and A. cunningham at - 3.23?0.11 Kg CRt halyr'. Most of the uptake was experienced during the wet months with the natural forest leading at -1.85?0.21 and A. cunningham the least at -1.25?0.13 mg CH4 m-2 d'. There was a net emission (positive fluxes) of N20 from the forest. The N20 fluxes were very significantly different between the seasons (Feal = 6.98, Ftab < 0.001) and also between the species type (Feal = 6.22, Ftab < 0.001). The influence of the interaction between the seasons and species type on the fluxes was also very significant (Feal = 2.47, Ftab < 0.001). The natural forest was the highest emitter of N20 at 0.37?0.03, followed by E. saligna (0.24?0.01), A. cunningham (0.20?0.02) and lowest in the C. torulosa stand at 0.18?0.01 KgN ha-1yr-l. Most of the emmisions were experienced during the wet months with the natural forest leading at 14.7 ng Ncmid' and the exotics averagely equal at 8 ng Ncm' The percent water field pore space (%WFPS) had a significant influence on the Cf4 fluxes (Feal = 2.64, = 0.112); but not on the N20 fluxes ((Feal = 0.04, Ftab = 0.85). Overall the N03 pool increased during the wet months while the NH4 pool decreased. The A. 'cunningham stand had the lowest pool of N stocks and the natural forest, the highest. The E. saligna stand had the highest pool ofN03-N both in the dry (17.9mgNlKg soil) and wet months (22mgN/Kg soil) while the natural forest stand had the highest NH4-N pool; 17.8mgN/Kg soil in the dry months but only 6.7mgN/Kg soil in the wet months. Net-N mineralization rates were not influenced by season (Feal = 0.21, Ftab = 0.644) but there was influence from the species types (Feal = 1.66, Ftab = 0.028). Net-N nitrification rates were greatly influenced b