162 Records out of 22207 Records

Prediction of wood density and carbon-Nitrogen content in tropical agroforestry tree species in Western Kenya using infrafred spectroscopy

Author: Olale, Kennedy Owuor

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Density ; Carbon ; Nitrogen ; Agroforestry ; Trees ; Western Kenya ; Spectrum analysis ;

Abstract:

The global debate on climate change needs to be furnished with accurate and precise measurement of biomass in agricultural landscapes. Wood density is a supporting parameter for biomass estimation; however, empirical methods for wood density determination are destructive and complex, as are conventional wet chemistry analyses of carbon and nitrogen. Thus a low cost and non-destructive method of estimation is required. Infrared Spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics multivariate techniques offers a fast and non-destructive alternative for obtaining reliable results without complex sample pre-treatments. This study sought to develop a prediction model for estimation of wood density, carbon and nitrogen across species using Infrared Spectroscopy. Empirical data for determination of these parameters were obtained from coring 77 trees sampled from three benchmark sites (Lower, Middle and Upper Yala blocks) along Yala basin in Western Kenya. Samples from cored holes in the tree (branch, stern and roots) were used to estimate wood biovolume and density. Models for estimation of these parameters were derived from scanning 404 cores using diffuse reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy and reference values for carbon and nitrogen obtained using a CarbonNitrogen analyzer. partial least squares regression, using first derivative spectra pretreatment, was used to develop a model based on different calibrations sets. Models were compared on the basis of the accuracy of prediction using the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard Error of Calibration (SEC) and Standard Error of Prediction (SEP). Calculated wood density range was 0.20-0.95gcm-3 with the mean being 0.59 gem', while IR predicted 0.25-0.95 gem' (mean 0.53 gem') in the Near Infrared Region (NIR) and 0.32-0.86 gem' (mean 0.53 gem') in the Mid Infrared Region (MIR). Measured carbon range was 40%-52% (mean 48%). while IR predicted 44%-51% (mean 48%) in NIR region and 46%-51 % (mean 48%) in MIR region. Measured nitrogen range was 0.09-0.48% (mean 0.28%). while IR predicted 0.18%-0.47% (mean 0.24%) in NIR region and 0.18%-0.38% (mean 0.24%) in MIR region. Values of SEC were low relative to laboratory analytical errors. Interactions between densities with tree species and tree parts showed significant effect (p<O.OOl). while the interactions between tree parts and species showed no significant effect. Values averaged to the species level predicted much better than the individual core models with R2>0.57 for all the parameters. This suggests large variations within species that cannot be predicted using IR. The data generated here on densities were comparable with those given in a global wood density database. On the other hand. carbon content varied among species but not between the sites. an indication that the often assumed default value of 50% carbon in wood is over estimation of tree carbon and would lead to over estimation of the total carbon stocks. NIR region gave better predictions than MIR. although the prediction performance was insufficient to recommend Infrared Spectroscopy as a practical method for direct determination of wood density and carbon content across species when different percentages were used.

Effects of soil physicochemical properties and genetic characteristics on distribution of acacia senegal (L) willd. varieties in the dryland areas of Kenya

Author: Githae, Eunice Wamuyu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Acacia senegal ; Trees ; Agroforestry ; Soils ; Arid and semi-arid regions ;

Abstract:

Acacia senegal is a dryland multipurpose tree species highly valued for gum Arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control. The aim of this study was to investigate the edaphic and genetic factors that affect distribution of the three Kenyan indigenous varieties (A. senegal var. senegal, var. kerensis and var. leiorhaehis) for the purpose of conservation of genetic resources and improvement of smallholder livelihoods in the drylands of Kenya. In the first part of research, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast micro satellites (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal (Kajiado, Magadi, Kibwezi, Ntumburi, Ngarendare, Daaba and Kulamawe) embracing the three putative varieties. In the second part, soil physicochemical properties were assessed by collecting soil samples under the canopies of the three varieties taking into account distance from the trunks (0, 1 and 2 m) at a depth of 0 - 25 em and comparing with the soils from the open canopies. The third part estimated the potential of the three varieties to fix nitrogen in their natural ecosystems using 15N natural abundance method using two reference species namely; Balanites aegyptiaea and Commiphora africana. The study was conducted in the arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. The two molecular markers detected similar levels of Nei's gene diversity (HISSR= 0.211, HcpSSR= 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOV A) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P<O.OOl and P<O.Ol for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively), whereby the seven sites were differentiated into two regions (north and south). There were significant differences in soil 'Qa,,:{sicocaemica. 'Q'to'Qerties aro.o~ the tmee varieties (f<O.05 and P<O.Ol). Soil nutrients under the canopies were higher than in the open canopies mainly due to the effects of litter accumulation. The estimated nitrogen fixed (%Ndfa) values for the three varieties ranged from 18.20 - 32.21% with A. senegal var. senegal showing the highest values. The mean nitrogen content in leaves ranged from 2.46 - 4.0% and were higher than those of the adjacent non-fixing reference species. The results indicate that there is genetic diversity and variation among and within the three indigenous varieties of A. senegal in Kenya, which can provide raw materials for tree improvement programmes. The three A. senegal varieties have beneficial effects on soil fertility improvement and this would most likely enhance herbage productivity both in quality and quantity in the Kenyan drylands. Domestication and improvement will enhance conservation and sustainable utilization of the species, improve productivity and quality of gum and hence directly empower the drylands communities who are key collectors of gum and other forest products.

Factors affecting practice of socio agroforestry by farmers in Nyakanga Valley Gwassi Division, Suba District, Kenya

Author: Diego, Elizabeth Akinyi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nyakanga Valley ; Agroforestry ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This research project report discusses factors affecting practice of socio agroforestry by farmers in Nyakanga Valley Gwassi Division, Suba District, Kenya. The background of the study discusses practice of socio agroforestry by farmers around the world, in Africa, in Kenya and narrows down to Nyakanga Valley. This report addresses why very few farmers practice socio agroforestry in Nyakanga Valley as statement of the problem. The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting practice of socio agroforestry by farmers in Nyakanga Valley. Objectives of the study were to establish how socio economic factors, to determine how size of land and to examine how agro ecological factors affect practice of socio agroforestry by farmers in Nyakanga Valley Gwassi division, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection. A sample of 29 respondents drawn from 91 farmers and 2 key informants from OSIENALA and KFS.The findings of the study was that socio economic factors, size of land and agro ecological factors have to be taken into consideration for fanners to be able to practice socio agroforestry. The study further found out that awareness of practice of socio agroforestry is very high among farmers, wood fuel is used by all farmers as cooking energy giving rise to demand for trees this has led to cutting down trees and not replanting leading to negative agro ecological factors such as soil erosion and land degradation. There is availability of land amongst the farmers, all farmers' sampled owned land with the average size of land being 5 acres. The study concluded that practice of socio agroforestry can effectively be achieved through social or organizational technologies emphasis should be on return on investment for farmer. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that constrains to practice of socio agroforestry should be understood and strategies to counter them designed together with the farmers and farmers should be encouraged to invest in the practice of socio agroforestry for them to see the results of their investment and to raise the living standard of the farmers and take care of the environment. A comparative study should be done on farmers who have adopted practice of socio agroforestry and those who have not adopted.

Micropropagation of Allanblackia stuhlmannii 'clusiaceae', an economically important wild tree species

Author: Neondo, Johnstone Omukhulu

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Trees ; Forestry ; Allanblackia stuhlmannii ; Amani Nature Reserve Tanzania ;

Abstract:

Allanblackia stuhlmannii is an endangered forest tree valued for its edible nut oil which has high potential for commercialization. This tree grows naturally in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Regeneration of A. stuhlmannii via seed is slow and low. Rooting of cuttings is poor, while survival rate of grafted materials is dismal. The limited regenerative potential of A. stuhlmannii hinders sustainable nut harvesting from the wild to meet market demand. A private-public partnership known as 'Novella Africa' is engaged in the domestication of members of Allanblackia spp. for commercial oil production. To achieve mass production, the amenability of A. stuhlmannii to micropropagation technique was examined in this study. A series of sterilization and micropropagtion experiments were conducted on plant material collected from Amani Nature Reserve in Tanzania. Sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde and Redomil' were the reagents used in the sterilization protocol. Explants were best surface sterilized after subjection to 2% Redomil' solution and exposure to 8% sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 minutes. Eight basal media were tested for their suitability in micropropagation of A. stuhlmannii. McCown's WPM which had 88.89% explants survival rate was selected for micropropagation of A. stuhlmannii. Microshoots were induced from shoot tips and internodal explants of A. stuhlmannii cultured on WPM fortified with different treatments of PGRs, (p<O.05). All responding explants produced a single microshoot. Treatments lZmgl' BAP and l.Zmgl' KIN had explants with the highest mean shoot length, (p<O.05). Prolonged culture or subculture on the same medium medium supplemented with Gamborg's vitamins, 3% (w/v) sucrose, lmgl' KIN combined with 1.25mgrI2,4-D, however no somatic embryos emerged from the callus. Success in shoot proliferation and callus induction forms a basis for further research geared to regenerating A. stuhlmannii clonal plantlets through micropropagtion.

Challenges facing forest plantation establishment through shamba system : the case of Mucheene Forest

Author: Ikiara, Isaac Gichuru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mucheene Forest, Kenya/Meru Central District/Forests/Agroforestry ;

Abstract:

This research project report was to a large extent concerned with the challenges facing forest plantation establishment through the shamba system i.e. non-residential cultivation in the forest. The name shamba system was lately changed to plantation establishment for livelihood improvement scheme (PELIS). Our country's forest cover was at less than 2% of the total land area as opposed to the internationally required standards of at least 10% of the total land area The researcher briefly outlined the general challeges facing forest plantation establishment in the country and narrowed down the field research to 'Mucheene forest in Meru Central district. The objectives of the study included; to assess how the implementation of the shamba system policy guidelines affected forest plantation establishment, the way community participation contributed to forest plantation establishment, to examine the role of the sub-District Development Committee's in forest plantation establishment, to establish how capacity building affect forest plantation establishment and to establish the extent to which monitoring affects forest plantation establishment. The research questions addressed by the study included; To what extent does the shamba system policy guidelines affect forest plantation establishment? How does community participation contribute to forest plantation establishment?, How does the role of the sub- D DC's affect forest plantation establishment?, To what extent does capacity building affect the forest plantation establishment?, and To what extent does monitoring affect forest plantation establishment? The above approach was of great importance to the forest plantation establishment particularly in poverty eradication, employment creation, reducing government expenditure by reducing its staff and its contribution to environmental conservation. The research found out that adherence to the shamba system policy guidelines was impressive, as was community participation. The role of the Provincial Administration had changed and was now more facilitative. The levels of capacity building and monitoring were low due to lack of facilitation. The researcher proposes further research on the aspect of benefit sharing, nature based enterprises and how to control cattle vis a vis the carrying capacity of the forest. The research began by focusing on the broad challenges facing forest plantation establishment through the shamba system and later examined a case of Mucheene forest block within Mt. Kenya forest. To realize this, the study used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Questionnaires and interviews were used and data collected from the accessible population. The population comprised of one thousand cultivators who were members of the six community based organizations (CBO's) namely; Kimbo, Nchooro, Mujujune, Muruguma, Kirukuru and Katheri which were operating in the Mucheene forest block. The researcher collected data from one hundred cultivators and used statistical packages for social science to analyze the data. The data was analysed using frequency distribution tables, percentages and distribution tables.

An Exploration of the shamba system as a tool for forest developement in Kenya : A case study of Kinale, Kamae and Bahati forest stations

Author: Sinange, Jerida Kwamboka

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Forestry/Farmers/Shamba system/Forestry/Kinale Forest Station, Kenya/Kamae Forest Station, Kenya/Bahati Forest Station, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Shamba system has been practiced in Kenya since 1910; however, there is still controversy as to whether it promotes forest conservation. This study aimed at exploring the system as a tool for forest development. Specific objectives were to establish factors that led to success and failure of the system, examine skills of farmers involved, and determine its contribution to afforestation and farmers' welfare. Structured schedules were used, combined with personal interviews and observation. Three sites were selected for the study, i.e Kinale, Kamae and Bahati forest stations. Data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study revealed that the major factor that led to success of the system was presence of forest personnel that gave farmers assistance on a weekly basis, according to 55.8% offarmers. Factors that led to its failure included the method of plot acquisition as only 21 % of the farmers obtained them through balloting, the set criteria. Also, initial aim of practicing the system was afforestation, according to 85.8% of farmers, but only 14.6% of the farmers practice it currently for the same reason. In addition, trees were not given time to grow to maturity as 92% farmers did not move out of their plots after four years of cultivation. Most farmers also had not been taught skills to implement the system successfully, according to 68.0% of them, Skills taught included crops to plant, trees to plant, planting and harvesting periods. There was an economic growth of 11- 30% for 53% of farmers which contributed to their welfare. Also, 51 % of them had plot sizes of 0.5- 1.0 ha for their food security and sale of surplus food crops, hence contributing to their welfare. This study recommends that the system is viable for forest development if legal methods of plot allocation are used and the system is managed according to its design.

Factors influencing employees' performance : the case of International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Nasubo, Dorothy Nanzala

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya ; ICRAF USE International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya ; Employee morale ; Performance evaluation ; Employee awards ;

Abstract:

This study is aimed at investigating the factors influencing employee performance at ICRAF. The findings provide suggestions on addressing the challenges met by employees that affect their performance.This study was relevant because employee performance will affect productivity, innovation and initiative and thus improving the quality of work done by staff and hence making it more competitive for the organization. The specific study objectives were to: Establish the extent to which training and development influences work performance; Examine the extent to which recognition of good performance to employees influences their work performance; Examine the extent to which remuneration influences employees' performance; Explore the extent to which recruitment process influences employees work performance. The study employed a survey design incorporating descriptive research. This was most suitable because of the need to survey and describe the current situation on moral and diverse feelings on motivation amongst the staff members. The study targeted staff members in both the Professional and General Service categories from all the functional sections of the target population. Stratified random sampling was used because the population comprised of different categories and grades of staff. The target population was further stratified into four strata; on each stratum a simple random method was used to select a sample population for the study to enable the researcher seek opinion at various levels in the organization. To collect data, the researcher used both secondary and primary data. The researcher collected information from people of different backgrounds, cultures, educational levels, gender and experience that gave balanced views. The main mode of data gathering was questionnaires complimented by interviews. Semi-structured questionnaires were used as the data collection instrument. Questionnaires were chosen as the main source of primary data because they provide the author of this paper with detailed individual feedback which gave more accurate picture of the levels of morale in the division. A structured interview guide was used to ask detailed questions so as to ensure that areas of concern are fully covered. Secondary data that is information obtained from books, newspapers, internet and journals was also used. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out and the results presented and analyzed and interpreted by use of frequency tables. From the findings of the study, the benefits already in place were a motivating factor to the staff. The study concludes that there is a positive relationship between performance enhancement elements and employee performance. These elements incorporate both the financial rewards and non financial rewards. It can be concluded that employee performance relies on performance enhancement schemes in an organization. Employee performance can be realized by a well constructed performance enhancement system which will attract and retain an effective work force.

The potentials of agroforestry in biodiversity conservation and sustainable development; a case of the Mt. Kenya region

Author: Muriuki John Njagi

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Biological diversity ; Agroforestry ; Mount Kenya ; Conservation ;

Abstract:

A study on agroforestry systems in agro-ecological zones of the Mt. Kenya region that are suitable for tea and coffee growing was carried out with the aim of establishing their potential for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Agroforestry systems and related socioeconomics data was collected using questionnaires and conducting on-farm observations while, biodiversity data was obtained using descriptive vegetational and faunal survey methods in randomly selected farms in each zone.Validity of biodiversity data obtained was determined using the program EstimateS Ver. 7.5. Tree species diversity in different zones was determined using Shannon Diversity Index (SDI) while, Sorensen Index (SI) of similarity was used to compare coffee and tea agro-ecological zones in different districts for biodiversity. Chi-square tests were used to determine site selection tendencies by mammals, birds and herpetofauna within farm sites under different agroforestry practices while, Pearson Correlation was used to establish if relationships existed between agroforestry trees and farmland fauna. Results of the study showed that agroforestry systems in the Mt. Kenya region are largely agrisilvicultural, and are greatly influenced by prevailing socio-economic conditions. The results for species richness estimates showed that biodiversity data obtained on tree species, mammals, birds and herpetofauna had a completeness that was above 50% and was therefore reliable. Out of all agroforestry trees enumerated on farms, 67.4% were exotics while 32.6 % were indigenous, with 56.6% occurring in the tea zone and 43.4% in the coffee zone. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences in the number of indigenous trees in the coffee and tea agro-ecological zones. Comparison of indigenous with exotic species for all zones showed that the indigenous species were more diverse (Shannon Diversity Index 19.99) than exotics (16.11). The Shannon Diversity Index values for agroforestry tree species (indigenous and exotic) were higher in tea zones (18.83) than coffee zones (16.96). Tea zones had also more mammals, birds and herpetofauna species. Kirinyaga tea zone had the highest diversity of agroforestry tree species in the region while Embu coffee zone was the least diverse for both indigenous and exotic species. The ordination of pairing the zones together showed that combinations with the highest SI percentage (i.e. greatest similarity) for agroforestry trees were the Nyeri coffee zone versus Meru tea zone, while combination of zones with the lowest similarity were Nyeri coffee zone versus Kirinyaga tea zone and also Kirinyaga coffee zone versus Kirinyaga tea zone. Sorenson's Similarity Index indicated that there was relatively more similarity in agroforestry trees and faunal biodiversity within a cropping zone than between the zones. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test results indicated that the tea zones had significantly more mammals (F=7.094, sig.= 0.037), than coffee zones. Site selection tendencies for mammals were low (X2 = 20.75, d.f. = 11, P < 0.005) for most sites, with over 50% of them occurring in farm sites under woodlots. Mammals species richness and abundance increased gradually from the coffee zone towards the tea zone. For birds, analysis of variance (ANOVA) test results revealed no significant differences (F= 0.801, Sig.= 0.405) in the number of birds observed in the tea and coffee zones and that they had strong site selection tendencies (X2 =3.16), d.f. = 11, P < 0.005), suggesting a high degree of specificity within agroforestry sites. A similar pattern was observed with herpetofauna. Pearson Correlation results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the total number of trees and farmland mammals (r = 0.716, p = 0.05), birds (r = 0.705, p = 0.05) and herpetofauna (r = 0.846, p = 0.01) in the Mt. Kenya region. The study concludes that agroforestry has an ability to raise the capacity o

Effects of utilization of forest resources on environmental management in Kapchemutwa forest, Kenya

Author: Chesire, Michael Aiyabei

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPhil

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Keiyo District ; Kapchemutwa Forest, Kenya ; Wood ; Firewood ; Forests ; Forestry ;

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Kapchemutwa forest area in Keiyo district. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the existing types of forest utilization in Kapchemutwa forest, to examine the effects of the various forest uses on the forest environment, to analyse the community perception of the forest resource and to suggest community-based alternative strategies for forest utilization for sustainable forest resource management. Both primary and secondary data were collected. One hundred and twenty household respondents' interviews were conducted in three locations which border the forest area namely; Kapchemutwa, Kokwao and Kamoi to gather information on the uses of the forest resource. Primary sources of data included participant,observation, interviews, and questionnaires. Books, journals and newsletters acted as sources of secondary data. People living in Kapchemutwa, Kokwao and Kamoi locations depend entirely on firewood as a source of energy for cooking and heating their homes. Nearly ninety percent of those interviewed use firewood as the only source of energy for their cooking, whereas about 10% of the respondents have additional sources of energy such as kerosene and gas. Among other uses of the forest resource are medicinal herbs, fodder, building materials, and land for crop cultivation. Of those interviewed, 87.5 % practise crop cultivation through the shamba system mode of plantation establishment whereas 12.5% do not. Based on the interviews, 96.7% of the respondents reported that 10 years ago, the forest provided a wide range of products as compared to the present time. A small percentage [2.5%] of the respondents felt that there has been no significant change in the range of products in the forest over time. Regarding participatory management of the forest resource, many respondents, 81.7% were of the opinion that the local people be involved in decision making process whi Ie 14.2% argued that the locals be employed to take care of the forest resource. The study concludes by enumerating the effects of forest utilization on environmental management in Kapchemutwa forest. The study recommends that for better utilization and management of Kapchemutwa forest, the neighbour communities need to be incorporated in decision making process and benefits accruing from the sale of forest products be shared by the Forest department and the neighbour communities. Areas recommended for further research include assessments of both the potential of Agroforestry and energy requirements of the communities bordering the forest resource with a view to adopting appropriate strategies in order to ease the pressure exerted on the forest resource in fuel wood collection.

Effectiveness of riparian forestry best management practices to protect stream habitat and biota : lessons from temperate and tropical systems [Kenya].

Author: Atuke, Dickson Misati

Awarding University: University of Minnesota, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Biological sciences ; Forestry ; Trees ; Management ; Habitats ;

Abstract:

I conducted related studies in Minnesota and Kenya. In northern Minnesota, I evaluated effects of riparian forest harvest with forestry best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat, water quality, fish and macroinvertebrates, in eight streams. Site-level effects were evaluated for no harvest, riparian control and two levels of riparian harvest one year prior to harvest and three years post-harvest. In Kenya, I assessed government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) officers' views on riparian forests and water quality, the factors that influence the ability to know, comply with, and implement BMPs for forest harvest in riparian areas and evaluated application and effectiveness of BMPs to protect water quality in government and private forests in south-west Mau region of Kenya. In northern Minnesota, canopy cover along harvested reaches was significantly reduced and woody cover increased at a few sites. Percentage fine sediments increased in reaches downstream of the intermediate harvest treatment. Percentage tolerant fish species increased in both riparian harvest treatments. Water quality parameters exhibited seasonal and year-to-year variation with few harvest effects. Macro invertebrate abundance increased initially with low harvest but declined to pre-harvest levels in subsequent years. Taxonomic and functional feeding group composition were similar among treatments except for a decline in percent EPT, increase in Margalef's richness index, and an increase in proportion of collector-filterers and scrapers with treatment. In Kenya, riparian areas were under pressure from human activities, and timber harvest affected riparian areas. Government and NGO officers considered lack of sound policy, poor enforcement, corruption, non-compliance, and overexploitation to be important threats to conservation of riparian forests and water quality, although there were disagreements on specific causes. Visitation by forestry officers, proportion of land under forestry, and catchment location were important predictors of landowners' knowledge of and compliance with forest regulations and BMPs. Landowner age and knowledge of traditional BMPs significantly influenced landowner decisions. Application of BMPs was greater in private lands than government-owned lands. Sediment delivery into streams was reduced with increased BMP application. These two studies suggest ways that BMPs can be used to reduce the effect of harvest on riparian and aquatic resources