44 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors influencing monitoring of food security projects in Central Somalia : the case of International Rescue Committee (IRC) in South Mudug region

Author: Abdirahman, Aden Ali

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Somalia ; Food supply ; Humanitarian aid ; International Rescue Committee (Somalia) ;

Abstract:

After twenty years of conflict, Somalia has been classified as the world's most fragile state. The causes of conflict in Somalia are deep and complex. Multiple levels of armed conflict and insecurity exist. These include localized communal clashes over resources, political conflicts over control of the state, regional proxy wars, and conflicts fuelled by global agendas and ideology. These conflicts not only cause instability in Somalia, but also threaten the ability of aid organizations to effectively monitor and deliver humanitarian assistance to the needy population. Approximately half of the population is in need of assistance. The need for humanitarian organizations to ensure aid reaches those most in need by adopting strategies to deal with the enormous challenges facing them, remains a top priority. In this regard, this report examines how security, skills and capacity of aid organization personnel as well as organization stricture impact on effective monitoring of humanitarian aid. The study provides a detailed analysis of each of these parameters and provides key recommendations for improving monitoring of projects. This study was carried out in south Mudug region of central Somalia and primary focused on the International Rescue Committee's (IRC) food security projects in south Mudug region. The study employed a descriptive survey design in order to collect adequate and relevant data for analyzing the topic under study. The primary data collection was preceded by extensive literature review of the research topic. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires and standardized interview guides and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Main findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study have been presented in chapter four and five of the report. The study found out that insecurity in not a major factor influencing monitoring of food security projects I central Somalia. It was also found that. capacity of national staff and strategies employed by the IRC in monitoring of its food security project are weak and need improvements .The findings of the will be found useful by the employees of the IRC and other aid organizations operating in Somalia. It will also be of significance importance to academics, practitioners in the humanitarian sector as well as the donor community.

The factors influencing the application of participatory monitoring and evalution in community based projects : a case of IDPs in Mogadishu Somalia

Author: Abdisalan, Jama Adan

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Somalia ; Food supply ; Community development ; Project evaluation ;

Abstract:

This study was concerned with the factors influencing application of participatory monitoring and evaluation on community based projects. (A case study of Mogadishu Somalia).The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence participatory monitoring and evaluation on community based projects in Mogadishu Somalia with the aim of strengthening the participatory monitoring and evaluation so that the community can reap maximum benefits from the food projects. The research objectives to guide the study includes; to establish the influence of time availability on the application of participatory monitoring & evaluation community based projects, to investigate the influence of resource availability on application of participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects, to assess the influence of skills availability on application of participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects, to examine how participants influence participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects, and lastly to explore the extent to which the nature of the organization involved influences participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects. Descriptive design was employed while purposive and a stratified sampling technique was used to sample the study sample. Descriptive statistic in form of frequency and percentage tables was used to analyze the data. The findings of this study were that time was found to be very important in PMIE. Sufficient time is needed to develop adapt and implement the agreed process of P MIE hence time was found to be central to the success of PMIE. Training was also found to be very important in PMIE and it needed a lot of time to be build into the stakeholders. This was because all the leaders indicated that methodologies of doing PMIE needed to be taught to the stakeholders first before embarking on it and selection of indictors also took time. Resources in form of finances and human resource was indeed necessary for PMIE for various activities such as planning, implementation, monitoring and mobilizing the community among other activities. Skills were also found to be necessary in the following area, planning, implementing, assessing and monitoring and for numeracy, literacy, interviewing and monitoring in qualitative and quantitative methods, for Management Information Systems (MIS) and for follow ups. Though identification of those to participate in the study was done using clan elders the implementing agency often found it difficult to identify qualified people for PMIE.

Assessing the factors contributing to the persistent food insecurity : case study Yatta District

Author: Kithu, Lucy Mukami

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Food security/Food supply/Yatta District ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to assess the factors contributing to the persistent food insecurity in Yatta District. The study sought to answer the following questions. What are the demographic characteristics of the respondents? To what extent do households maximize on seasonal food production in the district? at is the level of food security in the district? What is the relationship between demographic variables and household food security in the district and what are the gaps in addressing the food insecurity? The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 19,349 poor households in the district. Three hundred and eighty eight households were sampled. To determine the sample size from each group, stratified random sampling was used. The various stratus used in the study were the various locations in the district. Sampling ratio was used to identify the actual sample size in each stratum. Data was collected using questionnaires for household heads. Key informants such as agricultural officers, livestock officers, food aid and water officers were interviewed in order to gain more insight on the phenomenon. The data collected was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The study found that majority (55.9%) of the households, were headed by males. Majority (65.6%) of the family heads population fell in the age brackets 31-50 years. A higher proportion (45.2%) of the heads of households had primary level of education. Majority (56.4%) of the heads of the families were farmers with only a small percentage (18.1 %) engaging in business. Majority (63.3%) of the households had 3 or more children while 36.7 Percent of the households had up to two children. The study found that maize and beans were the main crops grown in both seasons. However, the number of households practicing maize and beans farming vary in the two seasons. For instance, in season one, 75.60 percent of the households engage in maize farming compared to 57.10 percent in season two. The findings revealed that only a small portion of the population (10.8%) had enough of the kinds of food they wanted to eat. Majority (63.5%) of the households were severely food insecure with hunger. From the findings of the study, a combination of factors contributed to the persistent food insecurity in Yatta district. These include: the level of education of household head, occupation of the household head and the number of children in a household. This study has shown that food insecurity and vulnerability to food insecurity were higher in both male and female headed households. The study concluded that unreliable rainfall and unreliable water for irrigation were the main factors affecting food production negatively in the district. Most of the households in Yatta district were food insecure with only a very small percentage being food secure. There were various interventions to improve food production in the district which failed due to unreliable rainfall, cost of farm inputs, lack of access to finances, lack of exotic livestock breeds, and lack of water for irrigation among others. Yatta district experiences repeated food insecurity that the government should focus on in order to improve on the food security in future. Finally, it is recommended that Yatta community be encouraged to diversify to other livelihood strategies such as cattle rearing because it does better as compared to agriculture. The other recommendation is that supporting agencies should ensure that social networks are established with the aim of improving food availability, access, use and utilization for the people of Yatta district and other communities that have similar whether conditions.

Factors influencing sustainability of food for assets (FFA) programmes in Mandera County, Kenya

Author: Sulekha, Abdikadir Adan

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mandera County/Food supply/Sustainable development/World Food Programme Food for Assets Project ;

Abstract:

Food for asset is a project run by the World food programme, in which underprivileged communities are given food in exchange for work done to create sustainable resources. Projects include Irrigation, soil and water conservation. The purpose of FF A programming is to: create the productive assets required to save lives and protect livelihoods; Strengthen traditional and local coping strategies; Develop human capital through skills training and education; and Contribute to the economic empowerment of food insecure communities and households. There is widespread agreement thatfor development assistance to meet its objectives in the long term, it must be sustainable. Sustainability of programmes occurs when communities are able to mange the assets created through FF A by themselves after the donors exist and no more funding. Economic, social, environment and institutional factors are all key elements of the sustainability concept and it is when all these are considered and effectively addressed in the programme that we are likely to achieve sustainable outcomes. The research design of the study was based on a descriptive survey. The study sample size was 375 respondents who included FFA beneficiarie,3 donor and implementing agency personnel and 3 government line ministries. The data was collected using interviews and self administered questionnaires by the researcher and two assistants. Data analysis was based on frequency distributions and percentages Data analysis tool used was the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results were presented using tables. The findings were presented by use of frequency distribution tables. The study findings showed that community participation in FF A programmes was very high and FF A programmes were not integrated in relevant line ministries work plan thus leading to minimum technical support. The communities lacked appropriate technology and market availability for their produce. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended various ways to overcome the challenges and to enhance sustainability. FF A programmes should be linked to overall government policy. Through these linkages, government staff will intimately involve in and know exactly what the projects are doing under this arrangement, sustainability would be more likely as government would be better placed to continue support to the communities after termination of project support. By way of recommendation, the governments need to integrate FF A programmes into the work plan of various line ministries so that they can provide technical support whenever needed and prioritizations of FF A site in provision of Seeds and fertilizers.

Factors affecting Njaa Marufuku Kenya Programme in improving the livelihood of the poor and vulnerable : the case of Changamwe district, Kenya

Author: Kamuli, Beatrice Lilian Lwamba

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Changamwe District/Njaa Marufuku Kenya Programme/Food supply/Low income groups/Support groups/Project finance/Grants ;

Abstract:

In urban areas, around 3.5 million Kenyans were struggling to buy sufficient food from the market. Poor farmers, including women farmers often lack access to adequate resources (such as land, improved technology, credit, extension and advice and training) and to markets. The purpose of the NMK grant was to provide funds to build individual skills and social capital of community groups as well as to upscale innovative food security initiatives and also facilitate the development of revolving capital that can benefit not only the group members but also the entire community in general. The key purpose of the study was to assess the factors influencing the effectiveness of Njaa Marufuku programme in improving the livelihoods of the poor and vulnerable in Changamwe district. The researcher was interested in determining the access to income generating opportunities through provision of small grants in NMK funded projects; participation and involvement of the poor and vulnerable in planning and implementation of NMK projects; and the existing management and implementation mechanisms in NMK funded projects. This programme through provision of small grants to groups has contributed to reduction of poverty, hunger and food insecurity among poor communities in Kenya. The findings of the study are that the small grants provided to groups have assisted groups to start up income generating opportunities in agriculture, livestock and other value addition income generating activities that have increased their household income from the proceeds got from sale of their products hence improving their livelihoods. The findings also indicate that the grants were not enough to cater for the implementation and trainings. The It was clear that the poor and vulnerable were involved in planning and implementation of the projects but a small percentage of the members were aware of the existing management and implementing mechanisms. This study intended to examine the livelihood improvement of the poor and vulnerable communities who receive programme funds in Changamwe district. The choice of the study design used was descriptive study where qualitative and quantitative design was utilized based on the research questions addresses by the study. Data was collected using simply formulated questionnaires and interviewing methods with easily interpreted wordings to the target population (NMK funded group members and beneficiaries). The recommendations of this study were that the national secretariat should in future consider increasing the grant amount from 120,000/= to about 240,000/= to cater for the implementation of the project and trainings for the group members. It also recommends that the poor and vulnerable in the community should be allowed to participate and be involved in the decision making, planning and implementation of the NMK funded projects from inception. Accountability and transparency is important and will make the group members have confidence in each other. It is therefore recommended that all the group members and the executive should be trained and made aware of all the existing management and implementation mechanisms for smooth operations of their projects. This will in future reduce the incidences of mismanagement of the funds, especially by the management as all of them will be accountable.

Drought coping strategies among pastoralist communities in Garba Tulla District

Author: Mohamed, H Jaldesa

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Garba Tulla District ; Pastoralists ; Arid and semi-arid regions ; Drought ; Food supply ;

Abstract:

Pastoral communities in arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya live with the expectation of drought. They continue to suffer, and arguably increasingly suffer, catastrophic losses of livestock (capital and savings) during drought. The impact of drought is particularly acute for poorer members of communities with smaller livestock holdings and less developed social support networks. The study attempted to report the coping strategies at the household level during drought among the pastoralists living in Garbatulla district in Isiolo County. The study was based on both quantitative and qualitative data collected from households and key-informants in the community. These data were based on the coping strategies during past droughts. During this period, the pastoralists of this area have implemented a range of coping strategies to reduce their vulnerability. Among the ones highlighted include income earning, herd splitting, changing species composition, selling of livestock and mobility. At the household level, pastoralists relied on famine relief in terms of relief food. Majority of people in this area changed their occupation, as agriculture is failed due to drought. Various studies from other drought prone areas were reviewed and discussed briefly in the light of present study results. The study recommended as a matter of policy firm drought measures and strategies to be established to mitigate the persistent drought by the Government and other Stakeholders. In addition, education on drought and risk reduction management should also be provided which should be an interactive process of mutual learning among people and institutions.

Enhancement farming practices for improved household food and nutritonal security in Kamae, a peri-urban area-Nairobi

Author: Njogu, Eunice Wambui

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Nutrition ; Children and youth ; Households ; Food supply ; Farming ; Poverty ; Kamae, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Urban food insecurity has risen to alarming levels. Urban agriculture is proposed as an effective strategy to reduce urban poverty and enhance urban food security. Kenyan urban poverty is high. This has pushed the urban poor to agricultural activities. Households in Kamae in the peri-urban area of Nairobi, produced crops but they lacked diversity. They needed intervention to diversify their farming activities by producing diversity of crops and rearing small livestock. It is in this light that this study was designed. The household food security and farming practices were determined from June to July 2005 in baseline survey covering 300 households obtained through cluster sampling. An intervention to diversify the household farming practices was designed and implemented from October 2005 to February 2006 to enhance household food security in 30 out of the 300 households. Another survey in 180 households (30 participating and 150 nonparticipating) households was done at the end of the research from March 2006 to April 2006 to determine the impact of the intervention. Data were collected using interview schedules, observation checklists and focus group discussion guides. The quantitative data were analysed using (SPSS) Programme. Nutrients were analysed using NutriSurvey, (2004) while nutrition status data were analysed using EpiInfo, (2000). Pearson product moment (r) established relationships and tested the hypothesis at 0.05 significant levels. Cross tabulation and t-test were used to determine the changes in the households after intervention. The qualitative data were organized into themes for interpretation. The results indicated improvement in social economic status, in farming practices and in food consumption. There were 13(43.3%) women without occupations before intervention, but they started farming, selling vegetables and did casual jobs after intervention. Participating households increased diversity of crops they produced from no crops to diversity of crops and they all started rearing small livestock. The mean caloric, vitamin A and iron intakes for all children in all age groups in the 300 households in baseline survey were below the RDAs. However, the mean protein intakes for the children in all age groups were above the RDAs. Consumption of calories, proteins, vitamin A and iron increased in all the 30 households. Those whose caloric intakes were below the RDAs decreased from 23(76.7%) before intervention to 20(66.7%) after intervention. Protein intake that was below RDAs decreased from 17(56.7%) to 12(40%), vitamin A intakes from 22(73.3%) to 18(60%) and iron intake from 29(96.7%) to 25(83.3%) before and after intervention, respectively. These improvements in consumption are attributed to the activities of the intervention of producing a diversity of crops and rearing of small livestock. The findings of the baseline survey showed that 62% of the children were stunted, 53.7% were underweight and 31% were wasted. T-test showed significant difference in iron intake before and after intervention t=2.715 and P= 0.009. There were positive relationships between nutrition knowledge and caloric r=0.040 p=0.494, protein r=0.055 p=0.341, vitamin A r=0.123 p=0.034 and iron r=0.052 p=0.372 intake. There was also a positive and significant relationship between crop diversity and dietary diversity r =0.123 and p =0.034. This shows that increase in food production and nutrition knowledge increased household food consumption. This project impacted positively on the community members by increasing access to more food. This improved their household food consumption by providing them with diversified diets that enhanced their household food and nutrition security. It is recommended that production of diversity of crops and rearing of small livestock be promoted in the available urban and peri-urban garden spaces. These gardens form a sustainable food based strategy to prevent malnutrition in the urban and peri-urban areas.

Strategic responses to the lack of food security initiatives in Arid Lands of Kenya : a case of West Pokot District

Author: Ripko, Hezron

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : Executive Master in

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Humanitarian aid/Food supply/Food security/Arid and semi-arid regions/West Pokot District ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Household food security and nutrition status of under fives in Kieni West divition, Nyeri district

Author: Mwema, M. Josephine

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth ; Food supply ; Babies ; Nutrition ; Kieni West Division, Nyeri District ;

Abstract:

Malnutrition has remained one of the major causes of high mortality rates among children under five years of age. Kieni West Division has continued to show pockets of malnutrition. The main objective of the study was to assess the household food security and nutritional status of under five children in Kieni West Division, Nyeri District so as to determine the risk of vulnerability of the households to food insecurity as well as malnutrition. A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used. Random sampling methods were used to select the target group of 150 households. Household data were collected by use of interview schedules which were read out to the respondent directly and answers filled in by the interviewer also for the focus group discussions. Anthropometric parameters weight and height were collected using UNICEF's tools; electronic weighing scale, weighing pants, hanging scale and length/height boards. Nutrient adequacy was determined by use of 24hr recall. To determine the quantities calibrated jugs were used and respondents were asked to estimate the quantity of food the child had consumed the previous day. This data was compared with CTA-ECSA food composition tables and recommended daily allowance developed by WHO. Data collected were summarized and analysed by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences programme. Pearson and Spearman test at 0.05 significant level were used to establish the relationship. Anthropometric data were analysed using EPI-INFO 2000 computer package. The findings of the study showed that 24.0% of the preschool children were stunted, 12.0% were wasted and 24.7% were underweight. Incidences of illnesses were high with 60.7% of the children in the study being reported to have had been ill in the past two weeks prior to the study. The major constraint to food production was found to be erratic rains in the area while 72.7% of the respondents resulted to sale of labour as a coping strategy during times of food scarcity. At the time of the study, households were found to be in a state of food insecurity with 55% of the respondents reported not having any food in store. Maize formed the major component of the main meals. Meals were not widely diversified; vegetables, fruits and meat were rarely consumed. Some of the variables that were subjected to Spearmans Rho test and showed significant correlation included; household size was correlated with nutrition status (t=-0.158 p=0.027), land size and incomes obtained from farm produce (r=0.291 p=0.001), land size and sale of labour (r = -0.181 p = 0.026), household food security and nutritional status (r = - 0.210 p = 0.010), stored food and household monthly income (r = -0.203 p = 0.016), breastfeeding duration and nutrition status (r = 0.271 p = 0.001). Variables that were subjected to Pearson Moment Correlation included; energy intake and underweight and wasting, (t= -0.366, p=0.000 and r-0.466, p=0.000 respectively), Vitamin A with under weight and wasting (r= 0.230 p= 0.005 and r=0.233 p= 0.004 respectively), Iron showed positive significant relationship with wasting (r=0.183 p= 0.025) and nutrition status with morbidity (r= -0.167 p= 0.041). The results of the study showed that the nutritional status of under-fives was poor and households were food insecure. The study recommends that since the main livelihood in the area is farming, there is need to diversify the sources of income, enhance the farming practices as well as need to promote growth and consumption of fruits and vegetables.

Effects of communal and individual land tenure systems on land use and food security in Kajiado District, Kenya.

Author: Amuata, A Dorothy

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Land tenure ; Land use ; Food supply ; Kajiado District ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE