67 Records out of 22207 Records

Influence of relief food supplies on socio economic development of the recipient communities : a case of Nguni division of Mwingi East district, Kenya

Author: Kyavoa, Charles Kakundi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nguni Division, Mwingi East District/Economic development/Food security/Humanitarian aid/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of relief food dependency on the socio- economic development of the local communities in Nguni division Mwingi East District in Eastern Province. The study focused on identifying the main factors contributing to relief food supplies dependency among the local communities and the socio-economic effects of relief food dependency on the local communities and to understand which alternative economic activities they practiced. The sample size consisted of aid agencies representatives, district officer, chiefs and household heads. The respondents were sampled from Nguni division. Simple random sampling methods were applied to pick the required sample size for the study. Data was collected by use of two instrUments. These included interview schedules for relief aid agencies and district officer and questionnaires for chiefs and local house hold heads. Data collected was analyzed by use of descriptive, inferential statistics with the help of Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study revealed that there was a gender imbalance in the leadership roles since majority of chiefs and household heads were male. Drought and political instability contributed greatly in relief food supplies dependency. This call for research to pinpoint what the stakeholders can do to enhance self reliance and self dependency. Since Subsistence farming is the most preferred alternative economic activity practiced by the local community more efforts should be addressed into improving fanners to adopt modem methods of fanning. The researcher further recommends that the govenunent should put in place measures to curb lowering of grain prices due to increased amounts of relief food since relief food is sold at lower prices by recipients hence lowering the demand for fanners' grains due to increased supply.

Assessing the factors contributing to the persistent food insecurity : case study Yatta District

Author: Kithu, Lucy Mukami

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Food security/Food supply/Yatta District ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to assess the factors contributing to the persistent food insecurity in Yatta District. The study sought to answer the following questions. What are the demographic characteristics of the respondents? To what extent do households maximize on seasonal food production in the district? at is the level of food security in the district? What is the relationship between demographic variables and household food security in the district and what are the gaps in addressing the food insecurity? The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 19,349 poor households in the district. Three hundred and eighty eight households were sampled. To determine the sample size from each group, stratified random sampling was used. The various stratus used in the study were the various locations in the district. Sampling ratio was used to identify the actual sample size in each stratum. Data was collected using questionnaires for household heads. Key informants such as agricultural officers, livestock officers, food aid and water officers were interviewed in order to gain more insight on the phenomenon. The data collected was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The study found that majority (55.9%) of the households, were headed by males. Majority (65.6%) of the family heads population fell in the age brackets 31-50 years. A higher proportion (45.2%) of the heads of households had primary level of education. Majority (56.4%) of the heads of the families were farmers with only a small percentage (18.1 %) engaging in business. Majority (63.3%) of the households had 3 or more children while 36.7 Percent of the households had up to two children. The study found that maize and beans were the main crops grown in both seasons. However, the number of households practicing maize and beans farming vary in the two seasons. For instance, in season one, 75.60 percent of the households engage in maize farming compared to 57.10 percent in season two. The findings revealed that only a small portion of the population (10.8%) had enough of the kinds of food they wanted to eat. Majority (63.5%) of the households were severely food insecure with hunger. From the findings of the study, a combination of factors contributed to the persistent food insecurity in Yatta district. These include: the level of education of household head, occupation of the household head and the number of children in a household. This study has shown that food insecurity and vulnerability to food insecurity were higher in both male and female headed households. The study concluded that unreliable rainfall and unreliable water for irrigation were the main factors affecting food production negatively in the district. Most of the households in Yatta district were food insecure with only a very small percentage being food secure. There were various interventions to improve food production in the district which failed due to unreliable rainfall, cost of farm inputs, lack of access to finances, lack of exotic livestock breeds, and lack of water for irrigation among others. Yatta district experiences repeated food insecurity that the government should focus on in order to improve on the food security in future. Finally, it is recommended that Yatta community be encouraged to diversify to other livelihood strategies such as cattle rearing because it does better as compared to agriculture. The other recommendation is that supporting agencies should ensure that social networks are established with the aim of improving food availability, access, use and utilization for the people of Yatta district and other communities that have similar whether conditions.

The influence of alternative approaches to sustainable food security in Kyuso district, Kitui County

Author: Ngumbi, Raphael Musyoka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kyuso District ; Food security ;

Abstract:

This study is concerned with alternative approaches to sustainable food security in Kyuso District-Kitui County. The objectives of the study includes; to establish how capacity building and increase in grain production can be used as approaches to influence sustainable food security in Kyuso district; to determine whether safe storage of grains and development of food grain tolerant to drought can influence food security; to explore the extent to which Genetically Modified Crops (GMCs) and dietary diversification have been used as approaches to food security in Kyuso District; to find out whether gender sensitive development and good governance can influence food security. The research design which was used was descriptive while several sampling methods such as stratified, cluster, purposive and convenient were used. Data was collected using a questionnaire which contained open as well as closed ended items. An interview schedule was also used to obtain data from the agricultural officers and the NGOs representatives who had been sampled. Descriptive statistical techniques were used to analyze various items of the questionnaire. These included averages, percentages, frequencies and totals. This study used frequencies and percentages because they easily communicate the research findings to majority of readers. The study found out that the alternative approaches which had been identified had influence on sustainable food security in Kyuso District in that they increased food production, and knowledge of producing the food for instance research and capacity building. It also found out that though the approaches had influence on sustainability of food very few had been used to a great extent in the region. For instance it was established that GMCs had not be implemented in the District, dietary diversification was still poor because majority of the residents depended on maize products for their .food. The study also found out that food security in the region could be attained by enhancing gender sensitive development which had not been attained in Kyuso. The study thus recommends that; focus should be made towards ensuring that more awareness creation concerning GMCs and their influence on food security is done in Kyuso district. There is need for a lot of sensitization to be done on the alternative approaches as well as be inlplemented in the region. Gender sensitive development should be enhanced by women being educated on agricultural techniques, as well as increasing their literacy levels. Diet should be diversified from over-reliance on maize crop to other food varieties that could do well in the area as well as meat products such as fish products being introduced in the region. More agricultural officers are needed to be deployed to the region which is big and vast hence the few officers available are unable to reach majority of the fanners for capacity building and research work. There was no agricultural research institute in the region and the study strongly recommends that there is need for one to be established in the region. The study also recommends that the NGOs should move from distributing relief food to the residents to focusing on alternative approaches, particularly cash for assets and food for assets, to enhance resilience of the community to shocks and hazards associated with climate change. The government can also start irrigation schemes to increase food in the region since River Tana forms the boundary between the District and neighboring Tharaka Nithi District and therefore water from the river could be accessed easily for irrigation.

Socio-economic factors influencing implementation of Njaa Marufuku Kenya programme for sustainable food security in Makuyu Division, Murang'a County

Author: Njoroge, Naomi Nduta

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Njaa Marufuku Kenya Programme ; Food security ; Makuyu Division, Murang'a County ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

Food security has remained a major challenge for the governments around the world. Kenya in particular has suffered for long over food insecurity both in urban and rural areas. Studies have discovered that, despite the much effort by the government and donor agencies in funding food-based programs, implementation of the same has remained an issue. Makuyu division in particular has been under several famine interventions like World Food Programme, World Vision Kenya, and Njaa Marufuku Kenya among others. Despite the much effort of the said agencies, the area has remained vulnerable to hunger and poverty. In line with this, the study sought to investigate socio-economic factors influencing implementation of food-based programmers in the area of study. The study focused on the demographic characteristics, land accessibility, capacity building and income level of the program implementers. Descriptive survey was used to gather information from the programme implementers from a target population of the 180 members of the groups undertaking the project activities and four NMK government officers. A sample of 123 members selected from the eight NMK funded groups through stratified proportional simple random offered required information by responding to the provided questionnaires. The study instruments were validated prior to actual data collection by close consultation with research experts and peer students. A self help group different from the study population was used for pilot testing. The scores obtained from the pilot objects were correlated to determine the instruments reliability. Obtained raw data were systematically organized, coded, analyzed through descriptive statistics with aid of a computer Software Statistic Package for Social Scientists and finally presented using percentage, frequency distribution and cross tabulation tables. The research findings showed that demographic characteristics; gender, age, marital status and family size had great influence on implementation of NMK food-based programmes. Land accessibility; availability, size and ownership greatly influenced implementation of the NMK programme. The study also found that capacity building and the level of implementers' income were great influencers of programme implementation. The study recommends for gender balance in funding and capacity development towards implementation of food-based programmes. The government should also check on the issue of land which the study found a barrier to the implementation of agricultural projects.

Effects of soil and water conservation practices on food security of small scale households : a case study of Machakos County, Kenya

Author: Madara, Audrey

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Soil conservation ; Water conservation ; Food security ; Farmers ; Machakos County ;

Abstract:

The economic performance and development prospects of many developing countries like Kenya are largely dependent on cash crop production. The heavy dependence of these developing countries on agricultural commodities exposes them to adverse economic impacts, sometimes with harmful consequences for growth and the reduction of poverty (Doppler, 2004). The study covered Muisuni are in Kangundo, Machakos district in a quest to establish the effects of soil and water conservation practices of food security. The study had a response rate of 52 per cent where 57.7 percent (i.e. 30) respondents were male and 42.3 percent (22) were female. 61.5 percent were of secondary & above education levels, as expected, 71.2 percent were elderly with 41 years arid above and the majority 90.4 percent was married. The study was looking at answering its research questi of a) to establish how farmers in the study area are exposed to agricultural extension educative efforts; b) to establish the level of food security among the households sampled; c) to examine the characteristics of the households sampled; d) to find out the types of soil and water conservation practices recommended and used and finally e) their level of adoption by households. The study mainly used frequency tables on every variable to try and look at the significance in relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable in our case being food security. This study focused on water and soil conservation to impact on the food production (maize) and security in developing countries Was a modest attempt to bridge the knowledge gap on the various ways to deal with rain water sources, reduce soil degradation and increase food production. From the multivariate level, there were 5 household characteristics variables in the model, the model showed a weak relationship where 37.98 percent of the variation in food security is accounted for by the independent variables in the model. From the results as well, age was seen as having the highest strength in variation as compared to the other four independent variable, meaning that for the age variable, we would expect an increase of 20.95 percent in the food security variable score for every one unit increase in age value assuming that all the other variables in the model are held constant. According to the model, it also shows that gender has a highly negative variation to the dependent variable food security. The study therefore concluded that Age is a very important factor to food security as amongst others, it show that the respondents are well exposed to information and are conclusively aware of what to expect and where to go to in cases of agricultural deficiencies. The study recommended further research to food security as food security does not only focus on crop yield. The study therefore recommends further conclusive research be done to combine the various components of food security in order to get the conclusive impact of independent variables to food security. Early warning systems should be put in place in order to assist the farmers plan and have knowledge on what decisions to make on their farming practices. Partnering with the private sector should also be encouraged this will facilitate sharing of information.

Influence of farm subsidy on sustainable maize production in Transmara West District, Narok County

Author: Muendo, Ernest Kakula

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Transmara West District ; Maize ; Food security ; Farm price supports ; Agricultural production ;

Abstract:

This report is on influence of farm subsidy on sustainable maize production in Transmara West District, Narok County. The study was warranted by the continued food deficit in the world where around 925 million out of the total 6.8 billion people in the world are food insecure, 13.1 percent, or almost 1 in 7 people are hungry. From the literature reviewed it was found out that Maize the staple food for many Kenyans has been in the decline over the years. The country suffers a maize deficit of 6.8 million bags (612,000 metric tons). Maize imports cost the country between USD192 and USD 487 per year if imported from Africa and elsewhere respectively. The use of agricultural inputs is fundamental in modem agriculture in developed countries, and they were a primary ingredient in the green revolution that swept through Asia and Latin America during the '60s and '70s. However, the green revolution largely by-passed many African countries, and the use of agricultural inputs remains very low. While agricultural production and productivity soared in Asia and Latin America during the last four decades, they have largely stagnated in Africa, resulting in a rising dependency on imported grains and an increase in the number of food insecure people. Several efforts have been employed in developing the food security, scenario key among which was the use of farm subsidies in various ways with differing results. In Kenya National Accelerated Inputs Access programme was started in 2007 and Transmara West district was chosen. Though not a net food deficit district it was intended to boost its production especially from the poor and the vulnerable farmers who were not using the inputs or using the inputs inadequately. The study therefore was to establish to what extent these farm subsidies have been able to influence maize production in Transmara west district over the four years after it was advanced to the 1500 farmers. A descriptive survey design was chosen since it was found fitting and cost effective for the researcher. A total of 150 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire. The farmers were stratified into males, females, and youth farmers after which using random sampling technique 10% was chosen. All the 7 agricultural officers participating in the National Accelerated Agriculture Inputs Access programme were chosen using purposive sampling giving a total of 157 respondents. A questionnaire was used to interview the farmers while an interview guide was used for the officers. A pretest was done in Transmara East District of the instruments to test their reliability and viability. seven agricultural officers were be selected using purposive sampling one from the district and one from each division for data triangulation on overall change in food production in the District. Data was collected, coded, and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5 computer software. Descriptive statistics was used to give the outputs. Conclusions and recommendations were made on if farm subsidy has had influence on sustainable food production in Transmara West District. It was found out that despite the government putting lots of effort to provide farm subsidy considerations need to be made in relation to the timeliness, administrative costs, amount, quality and type of farm inputs being given to achieve sustainable food security in Transmara West and Kenya in general. Further recommendations for research were made to the ministry of agriculture to review the modalities of giving farm subsidy to address maize deficit in the country.

Factors affecting food security of households : the case of Lodwar, Turkana County

Author: Muia, Immaculate Mutheu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Food security ; Households ; Lodwar, Kenya ; Poverty ; Conflicts ;

Abstract:

The issue of food security has been of fundamental importance in Kenya. As a basic need, food has been a major discussion issue in many round tables held by food organizations like FAO, WFP and governments around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how livelihood, poverty, conflicts and policy implementation affect food security 'of households in Lodwar. The site of the study was Lodwar in Turkana County. The study objectives of the study were; to establish the extent to which livelihood affects food security, to determine the extent to which poverty influences food security, to establish the extent to which conflicts affects food security and to determine the extent to which implementation of policies affects food security of households in Lodwar . The conceptual framework has also illustrated the moderating variables (food aid) and intervening variables (weather conditions) and their effect on the main variables under study. The study adopted a mixed mode research approach with a descriptive survey design. The target population is 48, 316, the sample size was 397 i.e. 66 households and was determined using Yamane Taro's (1967) formula. Primary data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules. Triangulation was done to ensure validity by rephrasing the questions to ensure validity and the data collection instruments were pretested using peers to ensure reliability. The questionnaires were co1lected after which the data was analyzed, checked for errors in response, omissions, exaggerations and biases., Operationalization of variables was presented to show the overview of the study. The data collected was processed through tabulation and ta1lying, thereafter it was coded and analyzed by use of measures of central tendencies, dispersion, percentages as well as content analysis. The data was presented using tables and frequency distributions. The summary of the findings have also been outlined and discussed based on the variables under study. Conclusions have been made based on the information obtained. Fina1ly study recommendations have also been made and suggestions for further research recommended as such will add great value to this project research.

Determinants of household food security in rural areas of Kenya : a case of Busia County, Kenya

Author: Masita, Deborah Kemunto

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Households ; Food security ; Rural areas ; Busia County ;

Abstract:

Achieving food security in its totality continues to be a challc.fu.ge not only for the developing nations, but also for the developed world. The difference lies in the magnitude of the problem in terms of its severity and proportion of the population affected. Food security remains precarious in Kenya particularly in rural areas of arid and semi-arid lands which are wlnerable to market and climatic shocks. Majority of the Kenyan population live in rural areas and depends on agriculture related activities for their livelihoods. The discrepancy in the results may be due to insufficient resource base, shorter duration of intervention, or different systen1s most of which are inherently heterogeneous among other factors. Food security is a relative concept defined as the access to food by all people at all time to have enough food for an active, productive and healthy life. Food security can be achieved when households produce enough staple food for their consumption or when they have enough income to meet their food need from market. Like many developing countries, Kenyan fanners in the rural areas predominantly practice subsistence farming and are often subject to food insecurity. The current study aims to identify the determinants in achieving food security at household level in Busia County, Western province of Kenya. The data was collected from both primary and secondary sources, A multi stage cluster sampling procedure was employed to select households from the Busia Households were selected using stratified sampling procedure proportional to size from the selected gots of the study area. A total of 210 households were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire based interview schedule from seven divisions of Busia County. Study indicates that most farmers households in the rural do not have enough farm inputs in there farms, in that 64% of farmers not using fertilizer, thus leading to less crop production. Most of the households under rural areas doing farming have farm size of less than 2 hectares whereas less number of households bas 5 hectares of land, indicating that most fanners are small scale fanners who receive low crop production. Results of household size ranged between 4 to 6, showing that there was more consumption of food as compared a household size of 2. Thus research also indicates that the nmnber of crop yields per hectare is less as seen in Table 4.11 below shows the average yields produced by fanners from Busia County. Yield in this study was calculated by dividing total household production (cereals) by the number of hectares that were planted with grainlcereal crops. These factors are mostly influenced by the food security copping strategies followed by the households, their access to market and social networks. Thus, development policies designed for the Busia should target on enhancing these determinant variables of food secwity and on controlling family size and population growth to improve access to and size of land. Moreover, the government and non-government organization dealing with achieving food secmity in the Busia should emphasize on creating income generating activities so as to improve the purchasing power of households, enhance asset building mechanism, access to market and other social infrastructures.

The impact of shared natural resources on East Africa Community : a case of Lake Victoria

Author: Labu, Peter Kamalingin Bhatia

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts ; East Africa ; Lake Victoria, Kenya ; Tanzania ; Uganda ; Water resources ; Lakes ; Food security ;

Abstract:

The sources of conflict in Africa reflect its diversity and complexity. Some sources of conflict are purely internal; some reflect the dynamics of a particular sub-region, while others have important international dimension. Africa is unique among the developing world regions that all continental countries in Africa share one or more river or lake basins with their neighbours and all major river and lake basins in Africa are shared by two or more countries. The continent has over 80 major transboundary river and lake basins, and an equal number of ground water basins, some of which are the largest in the world in terms of their geographical extent The research design used in this study was descriptive survey method. The study makes use of the random sampling method which is suitable in this context. Primary data and secondary data collection method was applied in this study. Data was collected via the use of questionnaires as an interview guide. The study concludes important role that the Lake Victoria basin plays in the economies of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, is significant in maintaining food and livelihood security. The impact of shared natural resource on east Africa community: a case of Lake Victoria. As the violence escalates in the sparsely populated pastoral areas; warfare and raiding have constant features in the lives of most pastoral peoples, but automatic weapons have revolutionized the intensity and deadlines of conflicts quite altered their nature

Factors influencing implementation of Kenya Special program for food security in Mandera District

Author: Farah, Ahmed Osman

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mandera District ; Food programs ; Food security ; Kenya Special Program for Food Security ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to establish the challenges in the implementation of KSPFS in Mandera district. Four research objectives was formulated to guide the study. To assess the support of stakeholders on the implementation of KSPFS; to determine effects of capacity building has influenced the implementation of KSPFS; to establish how advocacy affects the implementation of KSPFS and lastly to establish the influence of extension systems on the implementation of KSPFS. The study used the descriptive survey design quantitative and qualitative techniques. Findings revealed that the implementation faced several problems. The effectiveness of the KSPFS in the mitigation of hunger in the district, was rated by the NGO officials 14 (93.3%) less effective. They also had few policy advisers in the district who are involved in the implementation of the KSPFS. Findings on the influence of support of stakeholders on the implementation of KSPFS in Mandera district showed that the government did not provide enough funds for the implementation of the program. There was less coordination in terms of exchange of implementation of projects. Findings on the effects of capacity building on food security issues on the implementation of KSPFS in Mandera district showed that the program's effort of offering technical support to the organizations working for food security were not enough. The program did not target the pastoralists on the food security issues. There were few visits by farmers/pastoralists from one area to another on the food security issues. Majority also reported that there were few programs on public days such as World Food. Findings on the influence of extension systems on the implementation of KSPFS in the district revealed that there was no enough coordination between different agencies in food security issues in the district. There were inadequate extension officers in the district. Participatory methods applied by the extension officers in the district were reported as less effective. The approach by the extension officers in the district was rated as less effective, same to the participatory applied by the extension officers in the district and the systematization of good practice to food security issues by the extension officers in the district.