364 Records out of 22207 Records

Microbial quality, strain distribution and enterotoxigenicity of selected food borne pathogens in relation to the hygienic practices in Industrial area, Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Gitahi, Morris Githaiga

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Industrial Area ; Nairobi ; Kenya ; Food service industry ; Food safety ; Food contamination and poisoning ; Microbiology ;

Abstract:

Street foods playa significant role in feeding the urban population with cheap, accessible and nutritious foods. Most street foods vendors are not trained on food hygiene and safety and operate in an unregulated business. Street food can lead to food poisoning and consequent food borne illnesses. Although studies on the safety of street foods have been carried out in most developing countries, not much has been done in Nairobi city in Kenya. This study was carried out to investigate microbial safety and hygiene practices in the vending of street foods in Nairobi city, Kenya. A total of 56 samples classified using seven modified FAO food groups from 29 vending stalls were evaluated. Standard microbiological methods were used for isolation, enumeration and identification of bacteria. No salmonella was detected per 25g in all food samples. Escherichia coli was qualitatively isolated in 3 food samples including mixed dish from Lunga lunga road and vegetables in Lunga lunga and Nanyuki roads. Vegetables from all locations had coliform levels (4.48 mean 10gJO cfu/g) that did not meet the quality standards (4.00 10gJO cfu/g) of ready to eat food. The coliform counts (Iogu, cfu/g) were 3.84 in meats, 2.72 in mixed dishes;, 2.33 in legumes, 2.42 in starchy roots, 2.33 in cereals and below detection limits in beverages. Enterococci were detected (logm cfu/g) in vegetables at 2.5, 2.40 in meats, , 2.04 in legumes, 2.44 in starchy roots 2.66 in cereals but below detection limit in mixed dishes and beverages. Staphylococcus aureus were detected (logJO cfu/g) in vegetables at 4.03, 3.45 in meats, 3.37 in legumes, 3.32 in mixed dishes and 3.27 in cereals. None were detected in starchy roots and beverages. Vegetable foods contained high microbial counts mostly greater than 4.0 10gJO cfu/g) in all the food consumption food groups including Coliforms at 4.48 10gJO cfu/g Staphylococcus aureus at 4.03 10gJO cfu/g, total Enterococci at 2.50 10gJO cfu/g. Vegetables however had acceptable total count of 4.71 10gJO cfu/g against the 6.00 10gJO cfu/g standard limits. Rep peR revealed that isolates from each of Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococci species and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from street foods of Industrial area in Nairobi and were related strains. The presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (se); sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, sei & sej was also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus. None of the isolates from street food possessed genes coding for production of the staphylococcal enterotoxins. It was noted that 94% of vending sites were exposed to potential contaminants. A total of76% (22/29) of vendors did not have food handlers' medical certificate. Eighty eight per cent of the sites were clean. A total of 79% of the stalls were constructed using polythene bags. A total of 66% (19129) vendors did not have protective clothing, 79% (23/29) vendors had no training on food hygiene, and 87% of vendors used polythene bags for packaging take away rations. However, 79% of the vendors reported no customer complaints concerning food safety. A total of 69% of vendors dump their wastes into Nairobi city council waste bins, while 79% (23/29) use the Nairobi city council sanitary facilities. It can be concluded that street foods evaluated from food groups consisting of cereals, legumes, starchy roots, beverages and some with meat were considered safe for human consumption as per the data. Vegetables had unacceptable contamination levels of coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus, while meat (fish) from Nanyuki road had unacceptable levels of coliforms. The relatedness of isolates from this study implies possibility of a common source of contamination such as contaminated processing water, or cross contamination of raw materials and cooked food by equipment or vendors. The occurrence of indicator microorganisms in most of the foods indicated a need for improvement in the processing environment hygiene of street food. There is need to provide water, s

A study of factors associated with potential human exposure to pesticides and levels of lead, copper and organochlorine residues in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South district

Author: Gathumbi, Jason Kimotho

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kirinyaga South District ; Pesticides ; Environmental conditions ; Health hazards ; Soils ; Fish ; Food contamination and poisoning ;

Abstract:

Exposure to pesticides, heavy metals and other chemical residues poses health risk to human beings and farm animals. This may occur directly or indirectly especially during pesticide application by farmers when carrying out various agricultural activities. This study was therefore carried out in Kirinyaga South district with an overall objective of identifying factors that are associated with potential exposure of farmers and farm workers to commonly used pesticides and determining levels of copper, lead and organochlorine pesticide residues in fish and soil sediments. Information was gathered from one hundred and fifty two (152) farmers and farm workers on the extent of possible exposure to pesticides. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires, on some agricultural practices that may lead to exposure of human to pesticides. The levels of copper, lead and organochlorine residues were determined in tilapia, catfish and soil sediments which were sampled during the months of December 2009 and May 2010 from Thiba and Nyamindi Rivers and the Canal joining the two rivers. The concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in each sample was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The types and quantities of organochlorines were determined using Gas Liquid Chromatography technique. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to tests level of significance at 95% confidence limit using Statistical Package for Social Scientists Statistics 17.0 version. The results showed that commonly used pesticides belonged to chemical groups of organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, Ivermectin, amitraz, strobilurin and neonicotinoid. The biological pesticide used was Bacillus thurigiensis. Farmers who reported having been trained on handling of the pesticides were 13.8%. Majority (85%) of the farmers kept farm chemicals in a store away from the living house. Use of Personal Protection Equipment was reported by 49.3% of the farmers. Types of Personal Protection Equipment used by famers included gumboots, coats and jackets 19.1 %, gumboots and overall 17.1 % and gumboots, overall and facial masks 8.55%. Disposal methods of empty pesticide containers were burning 27.6%, burying 16.5%, and both burning and burying 37.5%. A total of twenty nine (29) health effects were reported, where itchy skin accounted for 20.8 %, runny nose 13.1 %, eye problems 9.8% and dry throat 9.3 %. The mean concentration oflead in tilapia was 5.61?1.81 ppm ranging from 2.50 to 9.66 ppm and in catfish was 5.64?1.79 ppm ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 ppm. The mean concentration of copper in tilapia was 8.28?8.87 ppm, ranging from 0.50 to 33.33 ppm and in catfish was 3.63?5.20 ppm, ranging from 0.50 to 25.66 ppm. The mean concentration for copper was significantly different (p <0.05) between tilapia and cat fish such that tilapia had significantly high levels. Concentration of copper was also significantly different (p <0.05) between the sampling months of December and May such that December had significantly high levels. The mean concentration oflead in soil sediment was 18.73?9.59 ppm ranging from 6.80 to 66.40 ppm. The mean concentration of copper in soil sediment was 19.26?5.75 ppm ranging from 11.20 to 34.40 ppm. Soil sediment from Thiba River had the highest amount of lead, 66.40 ppm while the lowest level of 6.80 ppm was from Nyamindi River. The Canal soil sediment had the highest amount of copper, 34.40 ppm and the lowest level of 11.20 ppm was from Nyamindi river. The mean level of copper was significantly different (p <0.05) between the sampling sites such that the canal had significantly high levels. In the analysis of organochlorines in fish samples, p,p'DDE was the only detected organochlorine in 38% of the samples. The mean p,p'DDE concentration in fish from Nyamindi river was 16.9 ?5.4Jlglg ranging from 9.1 to 21.6 ug/g while that in Thiba river was 24.1? 11.48 j.lg/g ranging from 10.3 to 50 Jl

Factors influencing monitoring of food security projects in Central Somalia : the case of International Rescue Committee (IRC) in South Mudug region

Author: Abdirahman, Aden Ali

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Somalia ; Food supply ; Humanitarian aid ; International Rescue Committee (Somalia) ;

Abstract:

After twenty years of conflict, Somalia has been classified as the world's most fragile state. The causes of conflict in Somalia are deep and complex. Multiple levels of armed conflict and insecurity exist. These include localized communal clashes over resources, political conflicts over control of the state, regional proxy wars, and conflicts fuelled by global agendas and ideology. These conflicts not only cause instability in Somalia, but also threaten the ability of aid organizations to effectively monitor and deliver humanitarian assistance to the needy population. Approximately half of the population is in need of assistance. The need for humanitarian organizations to ensure aid reaches those most in need by adopting strategies to deal with the enormous challenges facing them, remains a top priority. In this regard, this report examines how security, skills and capacity of aid organization personnel as well as organization stricture impact on effective monitoring of humanitarian aid. The study provides a detailed analysis of each of these parameters and provides key recommendations for improving monitoring of projects. This study was carried out in south Mudug region of central Somalia and primary focused on the International Rescue Committee's (IRC) food security projects in south Mudug region. The study employed a descriptive survey design in order to collect adequate and relevant data for analyzing the topic under study. The primary data collection was preceded by extensive literature review of the research topic. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires and standardized interview guides and analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Main findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study have been presented in chapter four and five of the report. The study found out that insecurity in not a major factor influencing monitoring of food security projects I central Somalia. It was also found that. capacity of national staff and strategies employed by the IRC in monitoring of its food security project are weak and need improvements .The findings of the will be found useful by the employees of the IRC and other aid organizations operating in Somalia. It will also be of significance importance to academics, practitioners in the humanitarian sector as well as the donor community.

The factors influencing the application of participatory monitoring and evalution in community based projects : a case of IDPs in Mogadishu Somalia

Author: Abdisalan, Jama Adan

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Somalia ; Food supply ; Community development ; Project evaluation ;

Abstract:

This study was concerned with the factors influencing application of participatory monitoring and evaluation on community based projects. (A case study of Mogadishu Somalia).The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence participatory monitoring and evaluation on community based projects in Mogadishu Somalia with the aim of strengthening the participatory monitoring and evaluation so that the community can reap maximum benefits from the food projects. The research objectives to guide the study includes; to establish the influence of time availability on the application of participatory monitoring & evaluation community based projects, to investigate the influence of resource availability on application of participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects, to assess the influence of skills availability on application of participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects, to examine how participants influence participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects, and lastly to explore the extent to which the nature of the organization involved influences participatory monitoring & evaluation on community based projects. Descriptive design was employed while purposive and a stratified sampling technique was used to sample the study sample. Descriptive statistic in form of frequency and percentage tables was used to analyze the data. The findings of this study were that time was found to be very important in PMIE. Sufficient time is needed to develop adapt and implement the agreed process of P MIE hence time was found to be central to the success of PMIE. Training was also found to be very important in PMIE and it needed a lot of time to be build into the stakeholders. This was because all the leaders indicated that methodologies of doing PMIE needed to be taught to the stakeholders first before embarking on it and selection of indictors also took time. Resources in form of finances and human resource was indeed necessary for PMIE for various activities such as planning, implementation, monitoring and mobilizing the community among other activities. Skills were also found to be necessary in the following area, planning, implementing, assessing and monitoring and for numeracy, literacy, interviewing and monitoring in qualitative and quantitative methods, for Management Information Systems (MIS) and for follow ups. Though identification of those to participate in the study was done using clan elders the implementing agency often found it difficult to identify qualified people for PMIE.

Towards a Model for quality IT service delivery for humanitarian operations : a case of WFP Somalia

Author: Bishar, Duble M.

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Information technology ; Technology transfer ; Quality of service ; Humanitarian aid ; World Food Programme ; Somalia ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Price stability of supply chain inputs in fast food industry

Author: Wambugu, Angela Muthoni

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Price stabilization/Supply chains/Fast food industry/Business conditions ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Green supply chain management and supply chain responsiveness among food and beverages manufacturing firms in Nairobi, Kenya

Author: Vashta, Jlopleh Warner

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Environmental management/Supply chains/Food processing industry/Beverages/Manufacturers/Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This research study had two objectives: first, to determine the benefits of and challenges facing green supply chain management implementation among food and beverage manufacturing firms in Nairobi and secondly, to determine the relationship between implementation of Green Supply Chain Management and supply chain responsiveness of food and beverages manufacturing firms in Nairobi. A sample of forty-two food and beverage manufacturing firms in Nairobi were selected and responded to a questiomaire. This study established that the benefits experienced by the firms that implemented GSCM were that there was improvement in information systems; the use of recyclable materials was well promoted; firms experienced savings on costs due to effective uilization of available productive resources. GSCM also did much in helping with reduction of the environmental impact of business processes. Operational costs and risk of prosecution based on anti-environmeI\' reasons were considerably reduced. The most seriously faced challenges arose from limited communication planning among the firms; the increasing resource requirements for the implementation of GSCM; the sustainability of program implementation. Challenges also arose from the limited and narrow views panning process had concerning GSCM. It was difficult to trace carbon footprint from suppliers. These challenges were coupled with lack of awareness about GSC practices and lack of rightful tools to enable effective implement GSCM. The regression analysis indicated that the most significant factor that influenced the percentage of costs expended on GSCM was Green Packaging (GP). Both SCA and GM had negativeeffects on GSM.

Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene and activebag packaging on postharvest shelf life and quality of purple passion fruits (Passiflora edulis sims)

Author: Yumbya, Peninah Mueni

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Polyethylene/Polythene USE Polyethylene/Fruits/Food packaging/Passiflora edulis/ ;

Abstract:

Purple Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) fruit is popular with Kenyan small holder farmers as a high returns enterprise, and with consumers for its characteristic aroma and flavor. However, it has a very short shelf life resulting in high postharvest losses. Passion fruit is a climacteric fruit that produces high levels of ethylene, the ripening hormone known to trigger deteriorative processes in harvested commodities. Postharvest losses in passion fruit are also attributed to rapid water loss leading to shriveling and consequent loss of aesthetic value and consumer appeal. Therefore, management of ethylene hormone and water loss through use of appropriate post harvest technologies is critical in maintaining quality and prolonging shelf life of passion fruits. This study was conducted to evaluate efficacy of two postharvest technologies in prolonging the shelf life of purple passion fruits while mantaining quality. The technologies evaluated were; I-Methylcylopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene and activebag?, a new product for modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in the Kenyan market. The fruits used in this study were harvested from a commercial orchard in Moiben district of Uasin Gishu County and analysis conducted at the Postharvest laboratory of lomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. In the first experiment the efficacy of I-MCP, was evaluated on passion fruits harvested at two stages of maturity (stages I and 2) based on the peel color. Stage I fruits were mature green where the peel color was mostly green with traces of purple in the background while in stage 2 fruits the peel was 50-75% purple in color. For each maturity stage, two I-MCP treatment regimes based on concentration and time were administered namely: 2 ppm for 24 hours and 4 ppm for 12 hours. The third batch (for each maturity stage) was left untreated to act as the control. The fruits were then left to undergo normal ripening at ambient room conditions (25 ? 1?C and RH 60 ? 5%). Six fruits from each treatment combination were randomly sampled for the determination of cumulative weight loss, rate of respiration and ethylene evolution every 2 days. Additionally, three fruits were randomly sampled every 3 days for the determination of other physicochemical parameters including peel/juice color, total soluble solids, sugars, total titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, beta carotene and mineral nutrients (calcium, iron, magnesium and potassium). In the second experiment, the efficacy of activebag?, was evaluated in comparison to the ordinary polythene bags which are commonly used to package fruits in the retail outlets. The fruits were harvested at two stages of maturity based on the peel color; stage 2 (50-70% purple) and stage 3 (full purple). The fruits were separately packaged using activebag?, ordinary polyethene bags or left unpackaged (control) and then allowed to ripen under ambient room conditions (25 ? 1?C and RH 60 ? 5%). Six fruits from each treatment combination were randomly sampled at two day intervals for evaluation of the physiological and physicochemical changes associated with ripening and quality as described above. The results of the present study indicate that passion fruits harvested at both stages of maturity responded positively to I-MCP application with the shelf life being prolonged by 3 to 4 days relative to untreated control. Both I-MCP treatment regimes significkntly (P< 0.05) reduced the rate of ethylene evolution and respiration rate and delayed the occurrence of the ethylene peak and respiratory climacteric by 3 to 4 days. Most of the physicochemical changes associated with ripening were significantly delayed or reduced by I-MCP treatment in a trend mirrored to the respiratory activity. At the end of the storage period, I-MCP treated fruits retained relatively higher levels of quality-related attributes including sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) and ascorbic acid. Relatively higher levels

Influence of relief food supplies on socio economic development of the recipient communities : a case of Nguni division of Mwingi East district, Kenya

Author: Kyavoa, Charles Kakundi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nguni Division, Mwingi East District/Economic development/Food security/Humanitarian aid/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of relief food dependency on the socio- economic development of the local communities in Nguni division Mwingi East District in Eastern Province. The study focused on identifying the main factors contributing to relief food supplies dependency among the local communities and the socio-economic effects of relief food dependency on the local communities and to understand which alternative economic activities they practiced. The sample size consisted of aid agencies representatives, district officer, chiefs and household heads. The respondents were sampled from Nguni division. Simple random sampling methods were applied to pick the required sample size for the study. Data was collected by use of two instrUments. These included interview schedules for relief aid agencies and district officer and questionnaires for chiefs and local house hold heads. Data collected was analyzed by use of descriptive, inferential statistics with the help of Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study revealed that there was a gender imbalance in the leadership roles since majority of chiefs and household heads were male. Drought and political instability contributed greatly in relief food supplies dependency. This call for research to pinpoint what the stakeholders can do to enhance self reliance and self dependency. Since Subsistence farming is the most preferred alternative economic activity practiced by the local community more efforts should be addressed into improving fanners to adopt modem methods of fanning. The researcher further recommends that the govenunent should put in place measures to curb lowering of grain prices due to increased amounts of relief food since relief food is sold at lower prices by recipients hence lowering the demand for fanners' grains due to increased supply.

Factors affecting nutritional interventions on malnourished children (6-59 months), pregnant and lactating mothers in Mandera East and North districts

Author: Kopi, Samuel Shikuku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mandera East District/Mandera North District/Malnutrition/Children and youth/Babies/Food programs/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

Malnutrition remains a consistent challenge in the world especially sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya Demographic Health Survey data collected between 1993 and 2008 indicate no significant gain in reduction of malnutrition (GOK, 2009). Although underweight seem to be on the gradual decline, there is no indication that the change in the proportion of children chronically malnourished (stunted) and wasted are on the decline. Mandera East and North districts are among Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) districts has been experiencing perennial droughts which results to loss of livelihood. The region depends mostly on Relief Aid where there, Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) levels have remained relatively high (> 15% the WHO threshold standards). The research focused on the three factors namely; effect of health and nutrition education, influence of family economic status and family size nutrition intervention program. Each of these was studied to establish the extent at which it contributes to malnutrition intervention. To achieve this, descriptive survey was employed where from population of 350 beneficiaries, 186 was selected by proportional sampling technique to get sample size from each division; each sample unit was selected through simple random sampling technique. Quantitative data was analyzed through SPSS where and heights of children 6-59 months were analyzed to determine their Z score based on WHO WFH Z score reference while for pregnant and lactating mothers MUAC was used to determine their nutritional status. All other indicators were analyzed by the same software based on their frequencies. The study revealed that family economic status positively influences the nutritional intervention program. On family size, the study found out that the bigger family size the higher the food demand thus higher the malnutrition cases in families with food insecurity. From the study, the following conclusion was drawn; health and nutrition education had a positive effect on the nutritional intervention program, if well done it reduces duration taken for the beneficiaries to cure. Based on the findings, the study recommended that educations programs should be emphasized as a means of community empowerment. Nutritional programs need to be integrated with programs like hygiene and sanitations which involve toilet construction and empowering the community on the importance of maintaining high standards of hygiene and livelihood which has long term impact as opposed to short term projects which emphasize on reliance on Relief Aid thus posing high dependency syndrome.