100 Records out of 22207 Records

A multilevel (combined analysis) for a repeated data in two seasons on dry matter yields of common fodder grasses in Western Kenya

Author: Ngumo, Reuben Gachanja

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Western Kenya ; Grasses ; Feeds ; Harvest ;

Abstract:

Fodder grasses are the most common crops fed to dairy animals in Kenya. Although not directly used for human consumption, they are the source of protein and fat i.e. meat, milk and other dairy products that are available to human beings through intermediaries like cattle, sheep, goats, poultry etc. Performance of four grass fodder varieties on two different rainy seasons was evaluated to determine seasonal effects. The fodder grass varieties included in the study were; Bana grass, Cameroon grass, Bajra grass, and Giant Panicum (P. Maximum). Two harvests (cuts) were made in each of the two seasons. The main objective of the study were to determine DM (dry matter) yield of the four varieties in the two different rainy seasons and to determine the effects of cutting times on fodder yields. Kenya has two very different rainy seasons; Long rain. season and short rain season. The total mean yield of the four fodder varieties was high in long rain season (7.14 tlha) compared to the total mean yield of the short season (2.63 t/ha) in the first cut. The mean yield of second cut during short rain season is higher (7.33 t/ha) compared to the mean yield of Long rain (5.97 t/ha). Season had significant effect on the yield (p<O.OOOI for cut 1 and p=O.0067 for cut 2) of fodder grass varieties. The significant reduction in yield during the short rain season could be due to inadequate moisture causing reduction in vegetative growth. Examining the effect of seasons and treatments interaction of the two harvests (cut 1 and cut 2), showed significance (p=O.0067 and p<O.OOI) respectively) meaning that a number of fodder grass varieties produced higher dry matter yield in one of the season than the other. The results of this study indicate that harvest management of fodder grass should vary according to season. There is need of farmers in Kenya to beef up moisture requirement during short rain season to have adequate surplus of fodder crop throughout the year.

Factors influencing adoption of dairy technologies in Coast Province, Kenya

Author: Mwatsuma, Kitti Mwamuye

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Coast Province ; Dairy industry ; Mijikenda (African people) ; Cattle ; Feeds ; Technological change ; Milk ;

Abstract:

Agriculture in Kenya has continued being the back bone of the economy and this has been evidenced by the attention it has always received from the government. The recent government blue print for the Ministry of Livestock Development, the National Livestock policy like previous government policy documents notably, Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture and Vision 2030, put a lot of emphasis on value addition of livestock products with dairy given a lot of prominence. However despite the prominence given to value addition of dairy products in Kenya the Milk production per cow by Smallholder dairy farmers who account for over 70% of the milk produced, has remained very low. Coast province on the other hand together with Nyanza and Western provinces of Kenya remained the poorest adopters of critical intensive dairy production technologies. The study therefore sought to determine the factors influencing the adoption of dairy technologies among the Mijikenda community of coastal Kenya who have variously been reported to be the poorest adopters of dairy technologies in the Coast province of Kenya. The dairy technologies under study are zero grazing as a feeding system, Napier grass establishment, silage making and hay baling which are critical in any intensive dairy production system, the inevitable trend due to increasing population pressure worldwide. Market, Labor and technical services availability among other factors were assessed and how they influenced the adoption of the technologies. A cross sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Coast province notably Kilifi, Kwale and Malindi since they were home to the main Mijikenda sub tribes, had medium dairy potential, had also implemented a dairy production program before and were implementing a project which advocated for the technologies under study. A questionnaire was administered through interview schedules to a sample of 70 farmers from across the three districts. including farmers supported by Heifer Project International and self financed dairy farmers. Findings indicated no relationship between labor, market and technical services availability and adoption of the four technologies. However, distance to source of inputs influenced adoption of zero grazing. The critical challenge to adoption of zero grazing was inadequate labor. Napier grass establishment was mainly constrained by inadequate and unreliable rainfall. Silage making was challenged by inadequate fodder for ensiling while hay baling was constrained by inadequate technical knowhow by the farmers. The average milk production in litres per cow per day across the three districts was 4 litres which was very low compared to the cows' potential of over 15 litres per day, while the average calving interval was 20 months against the recommended average of 12 months. Out of the households surveyed, 32.9% used hired labour while 35.9% of the households had the wife as the main provider of labour while men were the main providers of labor in 24.3% of the households. Children and other relatives were main providers of labour in 7.2% of households. Over 60% of the Technical staffs charged with the responsibilities of extension service delivery in the province were not competent with various silage making and hay baling techniques. The study therefore recommended for a re-training of the extension service providers so as to be able to disseminate relevant technologies to the farmers. There was also need for an evaluation of the various technologies against the various agro ecological zones, farming systems and farmers resource base for enhanced technology adoption

Effect of different levels of poultry waste or mulberry leaves with or without formic acid or molasses on napier grass silage quality

Author: Barorot, Tabitha Jepchirchir

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Feeds ; Pennisetum purpureum ;

Abstract:

This study was done to determine the effect of poultry waste (PW) or Mulberry leaves (ML) with or without formic acid or molasses on Napier grass (NG) silage quality. Napier grass from an already established field was clear cut and weeded at Upper Kabete Campus field station farm University of Nairobi. The Napier was harvested after 8 weeks regrowth, wilted for 24 hours under the sun and chopped using a motorized chaff cutter to 2.5 em length. The Napier grass was weighed and mixed with appropriate amount of PW or ML at 0, 15 and 30% (w/w). To the mixture was added either formic acid at 0, 0.5 and 1 % (v/w) or molasses at 0, 2 and 4% (w/w). The mixed material was ensiled in air tight polythene bags of 500 gauges, 18 x12 inches and stored for 30 days. At opening the silos DM, OM, pH, CP, IVDMD, NH3-N, NDF, ADF, ADL and in vitro gas production were determined. Results from this study indicate that, inclusion of PW in NG silage resulted in an increase in the pH (P<0.05) from 5.4 to 6.4. When molasses or formic acid was added to the mixture, the pH was lowered at 15 % PW to 4.6 at 1 % formic acid and 4.5 at 4% molasses, but not at 30%. Addition of PW to NG silages increased (P<0.05) the CP content, but the increase was not linear 15% having higher value than 30%. Addition of either molasses or formic acid to NG silage alone resulted in increased CP while there were no changes with inclusion of PW. Addition of PW resulted in increased (P<0.05) ammonia nitrogen levels from 241-676g kg' with 30% PW. Additions of molasses or formic acid to the mixture reduced the ammonia-N value but were higher (347- 532 g kgI) at 4% molasses and lower (198-214 g kg-I) at 1% formic acid than the control. Ammonia nitrogen content was higher with addition of molasses than formic acid. PW inclusion in NG silages at 30% resulted in decreased (P<0.05) ME. Inclusion of ML to NG silage resulted in linear increase in DM content from (211 to 254 g kg') and decreased (P<0.05) pH. Molasses addition to the mixtures resulted in higher reduction in pH (5.4 to 3.8) compared to formic acid (5.4 to 4.6). Addition of ML resulted in a linear increase in CP content from 88.4 to 130 g kg-1 with formic acid (0- 1%), 88.4-127 g kglwith molasses (0-4%). NDF and ADF decreased with increasing levels of ML. IVDMD increased with increasing PW (61.5% to 66. 3%) or ML (61.5-74%) and with addition of formic acid (61.5 to73.0%) or molasses (61.5 to 73.5%) to the mixtures but the interactions were not significant. Treatments with molasses had higher values than with formic acid Inclusion of PW in NG silage increased pH, NH3-N, CP and IVDMD but the ME decreased. Addition of both formic acid and molasses reduced the pH and NH3-N content. Inclusion of ML decreased pH, NH3-N, NDF and ADF but increased DM, CP, IVDMD and ME. Use ofML at 30% with 0.5% formic acid or 2% molasses would be the best combination in improving the nutrient quality of Napier grass silage.

Evaluation of effective microorganisms (EM) as an additive to improve feed value of maize stovers

Author: Syomiti, Margaret Muteng'e

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ; University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Kiambu District/Thika District/Maize stover/Cattle/Feeds/Feeds/ ;

Abstract:

Four studies were conducted to assess the potential of locally available feed additives in enhancing the feeding value of maize stovers. The first study surveyed the constraints to, and status of maize stover use in two target districts, namely; Kiambu and Thika districts. The results showed storage problems including termite attack during storage and low quality of the stovers as the major constraints to utilization of maize stovers. Among the major coping strategies for the low quality were supplementation with spent brewers grain (SBG) (25 and 53%) and fodder grasses (11 and 41%) in Kiambu and Thika districts respectively. Treatment of dry maize stovers with urea was among the least adopted technologies in the two districts (7 and 8% respectively). The second study was designed to investigate the fermentation processes and subsequent nutritional quality of silage made from dry maize stovers, ensiled with selected locally available feed additives. The treatments were: maize stovers stored under shade (control); maize stovers (MS) ensiled with urea; MS + effective micro-organisms (EM); MS + SBG + EM; MS + SBG + molasses; MS + Desmodium intortum (D) + molasses and MS + D + EM. The materials were ensiled in laboratory mini-silos of 4.5 kg capacity for 0, 30 and 60 days and then analysed for indicators of fermentation quality (pH, Lactic acid and NH3-N) and chemical composition (CP and NDF). The results of the study showed that crude protein content of the silages was increased (P<O.OOI) by inclusion ofN-rich additives (urea, SBG and D. intortum), from 43.8 for the control to a high of 109.3 g/kg DM for the SBG/molasses additive. However, the CP contents declined (P<O.OOI) with ensilage period across all the treatments, with significantly higher decrease observed in the treatments with urea and D. intortum. In the treatments with SBG and D. intortum + molasses, there was reduction (P<O.OOI) in NDF contents from 80% (control) to 68 and 67% respectively. The pH levels were within the range 3.9-5.4 which is acceptable for high DM silages and the NH3-N levels below the critical 110gkg DM, above which would be indicative of extensive proteolysis. The SBG + EM combination with maize stover produced the best silage stability (indicated by low levels of NH3-N) and the highest improvement in CP content. The third study involved isolation, identification and characterization of microbial species in EM, a recently introduced commercial product with reported wide usage in both crops and livestock production. The results revealed that EM contained two groups of microorganisms, namely; yeasts and a Gram positive non-spore forming bacillus bacterial species. In the in vitro studies, mixed cultures of the yeast and the bacterium had marked effect on substrate degradability. However, stronger hydrolytic activity was observed in the yeast isolates than in the bacterial and mixed cultures. In the fourth study, in sacco degradability of four substrates, namely; maize stovers + SBG, maize stover + Desmodium intortum, cellulose and lignin, was assessed in the rumen of a steer inoculated with EM through drinking water. The results of this study confirmed the probiotic properties of EM by enhancing (P<O.05) degradability of all the substrates except lignin. In general, these studies indicated that EM has beneficial effects on nutrient utilization, and thus it can be included in the formulation of ruminant diets. XlI

Dairy cattle feeding and manure management on smallholder farms in Kenya.

Author: Markewich, Helen Ann

Awarding University: Cornell University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture ; Cattle ; Feeds ; Dairy Industry ; Manures ; Management ;

Abstract:

The problem of declining soil fertility poses challenges to crop production on smallholder farms in the Kenyan highlands. Careful management of nutrients on resource-poor farms can support crop growth beyond subsistence needs with little or no cash expenditures by the farmer. Whether common manure management methods on smallholder Kenyan farms conserve nitrogen, a nutrient important for plant growth, was evaluated in two experiments. In the first experiment, the effects of shade and containment structure on the nitrogen composition of manure were tested in simulated storage units. The second experiment tested the effects of urine amendment on manure nitrogen composition. Both experiments tested manure age and cattle nutrition for their influence on manure nitrogen composition. Only cattle diet affected manure composition: better-fed animals produced manure with more mineralizable nitrogen available for plant uptake within one season. Up to 12% of the mineral nitrogen in manure was lost after 30 days in storage. To conserve mineral nitrogen, manure should be stored for no more than three weeks before it is applied to soil. Nutritionally adequate diets improved manure quality in terms of mineral nitrogen. Efforts to improve cattle nutrition on smallholder farms, such as supplementing diets with high-protein forages or supplements and developing models to predict production based on nutrition, are hindered by the large dietary variability in cut-and-carry systems. In a third experiment, feeding patterns on twelve small Kenyan farms were monitored. Large variations in daily feed offered and intake were observed due to forage composition, preferential feeding of high-quality feeds to adult cows, and feeding animals in groups. Specialty, non-staple forages were offered to cattle no more than 6% of the time in any season. Steps may be taken to reduce the variation in intake, such as measuring feeds offered and feeding animals individually. Simulations using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) suggest that concentrate feeds elevate the energy and protein status of cows most significantly in early lactation and are less important to cows in late lactation. Milk production may be supported by offering concentrate supplements to cows in early lactation only.

Evaluation of dairy cattle rearing practices and feeding management strategies on selected commercial dairy farms in Nakuru District, Kenya.

Author: Issak, I H

Awarding University: University of Aberdeen, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture/Cattle/Dairy industry/Feeds/Nakuru District/Management/ ;

Abstract:

The objectives of this study in the Nakuru District of the Kenyan Highlands, the major milk sources for the Nairobi milk market, were to evaluate current dairy cattle rearing and feeding practices, and suggest efficient feeding management strategies on large and small-scale commercial dairy farms. 139 small-scale farms with 738 dairy cows were surveyed and 6 large-scale dairy farms with 4379 dairy cattle. On the small farms, high mortality rates, cost of AI, and disease were the major causes of poor reproduction leading to a lack of replacement stock. Feeding systems used were: 24% free grazing system, 33% semi-zero grazing, 40% zero grazing, and 3% rotational grazing, but limited feeds were available ? crops and feed crop residues, cut grass on the roadside, neighbouring farms with some purchased hay and straws in the dry season. After weaning, feed supplements were rarely given to calves, priority being given to milking cows, explaining the few replacement stock kept and their high mortality. The six large scale farms were from 200 to 3500 acres with milk production, cereal crops, fodder crops, the scale of replacement dairy stock and hay to other dairy farms the main activities with land allocated 65% to livestock, 20% to cash crops (Barley and Wheat), 10% to fodder crops and 5% to other land-uses. Replacement heifers for sale were insufficient to meet demands from small-scale farms. Grazing systems were mainly extensive with supplements fed at milking. All the farms depended on planted forage grasses, mainly: Rhodes grass, Star grass, Sudan grass and Kikuyu grass. Calf mortality rate (10-18 %) was high caused mostly by respiratory diseases and East Coast Fever. Extended age at first calving (>31.8 ? 4.5 months), long calving intervals (> 406 days) and low average milk yields (6.81/day ? 3.9) for all breeds, occurred. Production and reproductive performances needs to be addressed by proper nutrition. Suitable pasture grasses, legumes and fodder crops not currently being used have been identified as potential options to complement the existing pasture. Among these are: Guinea grass (panicum maximum), Cynodon dactylon, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Naivasha star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus) and Rhodesian star grass (Setaria sphacelata). Other studies examining supplementation of animals on low quality pastures with the above feeds resulted in increased body weights and milk yields. The greatest potential seems to be supplementing with home-grown proteinaceous feedstuffs such as Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra, Sesbania or food crop residues like groundnut, cassava, sweet potato vines or pigeon-pea leaves and stems. Farmers could increase their pasture land productivity by establishing fodder grass, fodder shrubs and food crops as intercropping, hedgerows and along contour bands.

Effects of different fish feeds on water quality parameters in fertilized fish ponds at Sagana fish farm, Kenya

Author: Olendi, Robert

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPhil

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Fish ; Sagana Fish Farm ; Feeds ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Effect of sugarcane molasses on the quality of napier grass silage.

Author: Situma, Gladys Anyolo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Livestock /Feeds/Pennisetum purpureum/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Predicting energy and protein supply and milk production of dairy cows consuming high forage rations in the eastern highlands of Kenya.

Author: Nherera, Florence Veronika

Awarding University: Cornell University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture ; Dairy industry ; Feeds ; Nutrition ; Predictions ;

Abstract:

Dairy cows on smallholder farms in the eastern highlands of Kenya are confined and supplied daily with varying amounts of Napier grass and crop residues. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of forage diets fed to dairy cattle and to identify periods of nutritional stress. A study was carried out in Embu in 2003-2004 to collect animal data and also to characterize common feeds. The data were used to evaluate the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) equations for predicting intake, milk production and phosphorus excretion. The overall mean dry matter intake was similar to the CNCPS predicted value (r 2 = 0.71, mean bias = -0.24 kg/d). Dry matter intake of cows in early lactation was over-estimated by 0.81 kg/d. Prediction of milk production was also accurate with model bias of -2.2%. Predictions of milk and manure P were less accurate. The CNCPS model level 1 was used to predict nutrient requirements and evaluate diet allowable milk production of cows in early lactation. Dietary energy was inadequate to meet the requirements for most of the lactating cows and greater deficits were evident in the rations of high producing cows that freshened during the rainy seasons. These cows produced about 16 kg/d of milk and metabolizable energy (ME) deficit averaged 5.4 Mcal/d. Most cows produced about 5.8 kg of milk/d. Simulations of commonly recommended rations showed that energy supply was first limiting. Energy allowable milk from diets of mature and immature Napier grass available during the rainy seasons was 2 and 4.1 kg/d, respectively. The dry season basal diet was low in both energy and protein, supplying 80% of rumen N requirements. Addition of 2 kg DM of good quality dairy meal to the basal ration increased milk yield by 2.1 kg/d compared to 1.7 kg/d when similar amounts of Calliandra calothrysus were added. Substitution of dairy meal with calliandra in a 1:1 ration results in diets that contain excess protein but are energy deficient. Availability of affordable energy supplements and better quality forages would make increases in milk production more feasible

How do distantly related herbivores that share food resources interact? [Kenya].

Author: Huntzinger, Pamela Mikaela

Awarding University: University of California, Davis, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Biological sciences/Animal behavior/Herbivores/Feeds/ ;

Abstract:

Most herbivores do not have exclusive use of their environments---they must share resources with other herbivores. A fundamental set of questions in ecology involves understanding whether these species interact with each other, and, if so, to what degree. In a large-scale, long-term study area in a bushed grassland in East Africa, cattle caused compositional changes within the grasshopper assemblage. In the presence of cattle, the number of grasshopper individuals increased by approximately 17%, and the individuals tended to be smaller---mean adult grasshopper mass was 23% less. The decrease in mean size of adult grasshoppers where cattle were present could be mostly explained by an increase in small-bodied grasshopper species and a decrease in medium-bodied species. In a similar study in an adjacent, low-productivity habitat, grasshopper biomass increased by 277% in glade habitats in the absence of cattle and native ungulate herbivores. In addition, grasshoppers consumed up to 0.71 kg/ha/day more grass biomass in glade habitats where ungulates were removed. Thus, although grasshoppers did not compensate completely following the removal of ungulates, large mammalian herbivores may have an even larger effect on the structure and biomass of the vegetation than previously realized because small herbivores may compensate for them to some degree when they are removed. A final, preliminary study demonstrated that grasshoppers and other small herbivores might also be capable of affecting large mammalian herbivores, by consuming tree seeds and seedlings. Four months after experimental burns, the biomass of grasshoppers was reduced by 77% and the biomass of the dominant rodent Saccostomus mearnsi was reduced by 43% in burned plots relative to unburned control plots. Acacia seeds were up to ~15 times more likely to escape predation in burn plots than control plots. Acacia drepanolobium seedlings retained 1.4 times more growing tissue in burned plots than in control plots. Therefore, under certain conditions, fire may not only reduce the density of adult trees, but at the same time increase the recruitment of young trees by suppressing seed and seedling consumers, especially grasshoppers and rodents.