4 Records out of 22207 Records

A study of opportunities for improved rural pig farming in Western Kenya : feeding, productivity, marketing and public health

Author: Mutua, Florence Kanini

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Hogs ; Busia District ; Kakamega District ; Farming ; Western Kenya ; Feeding practices ; Marketing ; Public health ;


An integrated study to investigate rural pig farming practices was conducted in selected sublocations ofBusia and Kakamega Districts, Western Kenya from June 2006 to October 2008. Six Focused Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted in Kakamega District before beginning farm visits. A total of 288 pig farms were visited three times in the course of the study period. Data on pig management and feeding were gathered using questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews. Pigs were weighed and length and girth body measurements were taken using tape measures (em). Pigs were tested for Cysticercus cellulosae cysts using the lingual palpation. Two sets oftraining workshops were conducted after the initial farm visit. Discussions during the FGD were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Data were analyzed qualitatively using MaxQDA software; analyses involved identifying common themes. Women were responsible for the care of pigs while men played a key role in the selling. Pigs were the easiest animals to sell because they do not need to be transported to the market since buyers come to the farms. Poor market channels, poor breeds, inadequate government support, inadequate animal health support, diseases, and cultural and religious differences were some of the challenges identified during the discussions. From the study it was found that more women (69 %; 512 / 735) than men were interviewed during the farm visits. The interviewees' age distributions were: <30 yrs 34 % (250 / 735); 30 - 50 yrs 44 % (327 / 735) and >50 yrs (23 %; 158 / 735). Only 2 % (12 / 735) of the respondents had completed college education and approximately half (54 %; 400 / 735) were Catholics. Farmers owned on average 2.33 (?2.01) acres of land; this ranged from 0.125- 10 acres. The mean Number of nursing, growing and breeding pigs owned per farm were 5.0 (?3.4), 1.8 (?1.2) and 1.5 (?O.9), respectively. Pork was consumed by 74 % (212 / 288) of the farmers. It was the most preferred of all the meats by 39 % (49 / 124) and 27% (42 / 154) (p=0.003) of the farmers in Kakamega and Busia Districts, respectively. Most (73 %; 209 / 288) farms had no pig house because: they believed this was not necessary (8 %; 16/209); there was no time to build a pig house (13 %; 28 / 209); the farmer lacked the skill (11%; 23 /209); the farmer lacked money to buy construction materials (45 %; 93 / 209). More pig houses were observed in Kakamega than in Busia District (OR=5.4; CI 3.1-9.7). Pig-level and household-level prevalence of porcine cysticercosis were 4 % (52 / 1290) and 15 % (43 / 288) respectively. A total of 840 pigs were weighed during the study, including 363 young ts 5 months), 305 market age (5.1-9 .9 months) and 172 breeding age (2: 1 0 months) pigs. Separate weight estimation models were developed for each category of pig using a random sample of 75% of the data and then validated with the remaining 25 % of the data. These analyses were completed using Stata? statistical software. The young, market and breeding pigs weighed on average 12 (?6), 30 (?11), and 42 (?17) kg, respectively. The ADG for young, market and breeding pigs were 93 (?52) g, 125 (?58) g and 101 (?80) g, respectively. The weight estimation models were as follows: young pig weight = [0.18 (length) + 0.36 (girth) - 16]; market-age pig weight = [0.39 (length) + 0.64 (girth) -48]; breeding pig weight = [0.36 (length) + 1.02 (girth)-74]. The length and girth explained 88% - 91 % of the total variation in pig weight. The mean age at which sows farrowed for the first time was 12 months (?5.4) while the mean number of litters born to a sow before she was sold was 1.04 (?0.21). Average number of pigs born alive and weaned per litter were 7.85 (?2.55) and 6.61 (?3.25) respectively. Pigs were at:S 4 weeks (56 %; 182/324),5 - 8 weeks (36%; 117/324), or >8 weeks (8 %; 25 / 324) of age. The average price for weaned piglets was Ksh 619 (?174); however, this price was lower in Bu

Feeding practices and nutritional status of children aged 12-48 months in Kiptuilong Location, Tambach Division, Keiyo District

Author: Maina, Susan N

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : MPH

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Malnutrition ; Kiptuilong Location, Tambach Division, Keiyo District ; Children and youth ; Babies ; Feeding practices ;


Background: Child nutrition problem due to faulty child feeding practices is widely observed in many parts of different countries. Malnutrition among children is a significant problem in Kenya. Good nutrition in children facilitates adequate growth and good health, hence an essential element in human development. Feeding practices and nutritional status was investigated among children aged 12-48 months in Kiptuilong Location, Tambach Division, Keiyo District, Kenya. The aim of the study was to determine the existing feeding practices and their impact on nutritional status of children. Objectives: The study objectives were to; identify existing feeding practices, establish household socio-demographic characteristics, establish the extent of household food security and determine nutritional status of children. Study design: The study was cross-sectional and involved 340 children aged 12-48 months and their caretakers. Method: Random sampling method was used. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather feeding and dietary practices, socio-demographic and food security data from the respondents. Anthropometric assessment of; height, weight and MUAC of children was also done. Data analysis: Nutritional assessment by WHO criterion (SD- classification Z-scores) using summary indices of nutritional status: weight-for-age (underweight), weight-forheight (wasting) and height-for-age (stunting) were done. Food composition tables were used to determine food nutrient contents. Normal tests of proportions, chi-square and ANNOVA tests were used to test association between nutritional status and sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices. Independent sample T-test was used to compare children's nutrient intake with RDA. Results: The results indicated that majority of children 189 (55.5%) feeding score index was average, 101 (29.8%) low and 50 (14.7%) high, meaning that they were fairly, poorly and well fed respectively. Malnutrition by stunting, wasting and underweight is; 86 (25.3%),65 (19.1 %) and 75 (22.1 %) respectively. Nutritional status of poorly fed and well fed children differed significantly (p<0.05). This implies that children, who's feeding and dietary habits were poor, were more likely to be undernourished compared to those whose feeding and dietary habits were good. Children from poor sociodemographic status were 132 (38.8%), while those of average and high were 168 (49.4%) and 40 (11.8%) respectively. Socio-demographic status of parents, household food security and feeding practices of children was significant to nutritional status of children (p=0.001). This means that poor socio-demographic status and household food insecurity were more likely to have negative affect on feeding and dietary practices among children contributing to poor nutritional status of children manifested. Children's mean caloric, protein and vitamin A intake was significantly below the RDA and showed a significant correlation with nutritional status of children (t=13.273; p=O.OOO). Conclusion and Recommendation: Results of the study showed that feeding practices were significantly associated with under nutrition in children. Poor socio-economic status of the community negatively affected feeding and dietary practices, resulting in poor nutritional status of children. Its recommended that means of promoting appropriate feeding practices and improving household food supply among Kiptuilong people is addressed.

Influence of maternal nutrition knowledge on infant feeding practices among the Maasai community in Narok district, Kenya

Author: Mugo, Grace Muthoni

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Narok District ; Babies ; Mothers ; Nutrition ; Feeding practices ; Breastfeeding and lactation ;


Little is documented about the relationship between maternal nutrition knowledge and infant feeding practices in the Maasai community. A cross sectional survey which employed both descriptive and analytical methods of data collection and presentation was designed to assess the influence of maternal nutrition on the infant (0 - 12 months) feeding practices in the community. A previously pretested structured questionnaire was used to interview a sample of 165 mothers with infants aged 0-12months and attending Maternal and Child Health Clinic (MCH) at Ololunga sub-District Hospital. The study also interviewed three Health Care Workers at the MCH clinic and five Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Data was collected on social demography of the households, sanitation and hygiene, maternal nutrition knowledge, infant feeding practices, and the anthropometry and morbidity of the index child. Results showed that up to 86.7% of the infants studied had been delivered at home. Prelacteal feeding was practiced by 71.5% of mothers. Expression of breast milk was not common in the community and 99.4% of the mothers indicated unwillingness to express. The traditional infant feeding practices played a major role in influencing infant feeding practices. Up to 81.2% indicated having received traditional knowledge from their relatives. The main source of modem nutrition knowledge was indicated as the relatives (40.7%), followed by the mass media (39.8%) and Traditional Birth Attendants. MCH clinic was indicated as a source of knowledge by only 5.9% of the mothers. About 71 % of mothers indicated having received instructions on the modem infant feeding practices but 53% demonstrated correct knowledge on the recommended period of exclusive breastfeeding while only 1.2% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding as recommended by the World Health Organizations. Traditionally, exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced. Only 41.2% of mothers demonstrated correct knowledge on the recommended breastfeeding frequency, but 78.2% were breastfeeding the infants on demand. About 76% of the mothers demonstrated correct knowledge on the recommended time to initiate breastfeeding and about 73% were practicing. With regard to time of initiation of breastfeeding and breastfeeding frequency, modem knowledge was similar to traditional knowledge. Sixty-three percent of mothers demonstrated correct knowledge on the recommended age of introducing complementary foods, but 98.8% of the mothers had introduced complementary foods before the age of one month similar to what is advocated by the traditional knowledge. About 93% of the mothers demonstrated correct knowledge on the frequency of feeding the complementary foods and about 94% were practicing. Bottlefeeding of liquid foods was common (86%), while 13% of mothers used cups. Cough/common cold and diarrhoea were the most prevalent diseases among the children at 75% and 22% respectively. Diarrhoea was more prevalent among infants 0 - 6 months than among the older infants (6 - 12 months). The nutritional status of the infants (0 - 6 months) was normal, with 96% having normal weight. High growth faltering was observed with the older infants. Poor hygiene and sanitation was evident in the study area with only about 27% of the homesteads having pit latrine and 73% using bushes for human waste disposal. About 98% of the households lived in temporary houses with inadequate ventilation. Only about 20% had access to clean drinking water but about 57% treated their drinking water. The results showed that when modem knowledge conflicted with the traditional knowledge, practice of modem knowledge was low. However, practice was high when modem knowledge acknowledged the traditional. This would imply that the mothers were still adhering to the traditional knowledge to make choices on infant feeding practices. The nutritional status of the infants (0 - 6 months) was normal and morbidity especially diarrhea disease not

Ecology and population characteristics of nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Lake Victoria, Kenya

Author: Murithi, Njiru

Awarding University: Moi University, Kenya

Level : DPhil

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Moi University Margaret Thatcher Library ;

Subject Terms: Lake Victoria, Kenya ; Tilapia ; Oreochromis niloticus ; Feeding practices ; Animal populations ; Fish ;


Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) which was introduced to Lake Victoria in the 1950s, has increased to the third most important commercial fish species after Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.), and Rastrineobo/a argentea (Pellegrin). In this study feeding behaviour and population characteristics were studied to provide more information for its sustainable exploitation. The diet of Nile tilapia considered a herbivore, feeding mostly on algae and plant materials, has diversified. The fish feeds on insects, fish remains, as well as algae and plant materials. Fish >5 cm TL have a diverse diet but there is a decline in the importance of zooplankton, the preferred food items of small fish, as fish get larger. This study presents for the first time the feeding behaviour and population characteristics of O. niloticus unique to different sites in Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya. Length frequency data from commercial landings were used to estimate growth parameters, mortality, growth performance index (?) and exploitation rate (E) in O. niloticus. The asymptotic length (Lx? had mean (?S.O) of 58.78 ? 2.42 cm TL, growth coefficient (K) of 0.59 ? 0.05 vr'. total mortality (Z) of 2.12 ? 0.40 yr', natural mortality (M) of 1.00 ? 0.06 vr', fishing mortality (F) of 1.12 ? 0.34 yr', Eat 0.52 ? 0.06 and ?' of 3.31 ? 0.04. Fifty percentage (Lso) entry into the fishery ranged (?S.O) from 26.18 ? 12.50 cm TL. The annual recruitment pattern of O. niloticus occurred throughout the year with two peaks falling in March to June and October to December. Length at first maturity had a mean (?S.D) of 30.81 ? 0.09 cm TL for females and 34.56 ? 0.48 cm TL for males. Males were more abundant than females in most length classes. Relative condition factor had a mean (?SD) of 0.92 ? 0.07 to 1.05 ? 0.10 in males and 0.94 ? 0.10 to 1.07 ? 0.14 in females. Deeper waters recorded higher catch with a maximum of 40.57 kg ha' at 10-15 m depth zone. Nile tilapia previously recorded only in less than 10m was caught up -to 20 m depth with physical-chemical parameters having no influence on catches. A comparison with previous studies in the Gulf indicates that O. niloticus is caught at a lower mean size, K, Z, M, F, have increased and the fish is maturing earlier. These changes may point to a population under stress, but still the fish exhibits high growth performance (?,) and grows to a large size and if well managed high production can be attained. The study showed that the major threat to the Oreochromis fishery is overexploitation caused by use of illegal methods leading to capture of immature and breeding fish. This study recommended that the remedial measures to sustain the fishery should include imposing the ban on illegal fishing methods, limiting entry to the fishery, encouraging alternative livelihood and involvement of the community in fisheries management.