168 Records out of 22207 Records

Employment generation in peasant agriculture with special reference to Nyeri District, Kenya

Author: Hesling, Lyulph St George

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : MPhil

Year: 1973

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture/Farming/Employment/Nyeri District/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Farmer response to price in smallholder agriculture in Kenya : an expected utility model.

Author: Wolgin, Jerome Morris

Awarding University: Yale University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1973

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ; University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics/Farming/ ;

Abstract:

In this study of farmer behavior in Kenya we shall attempt to answer the following questions. What effect does risk have on farmer behavior? Are farmers efficient in their allocation of scarce resources? Lastly, how responsive are farmers to changes in the price vector? In order to examine these questions we present a neoclassical model of farmer behavior under conditions of uncertainty, i.e., we assume that rather than maximize income, farmers seek to maximize expected utility. By postulating that the distribution of the random variable, income, is normal, we show that maximizing expected utility is equivalent to maximizing a modified utility function, the arguments of which are expected return and the standard deviation of income. Such a formulation leads to somewhat different conclusions with respect to economic efficiency that does the familiar profit-maximizing approach. In particular, we show that a farmer will equate the marginal utilities of input use into each of his crops with respect to a given input, rather than equating the marginal value products. Thus, for example, the marginal value product of labor in cotton production, if the marginal increment to risk of producing coffee is higher than the marginal increment to risk of producing cotton. The data set, which we shall use in estimating this neoclassical model, is derived from a survey (conducted by the Kenyan government) of 1500 farms throughout Kenya. The survey consists of monthly visits to each farm, as well as the collection of data at the beginning and end of the survey period. Among the data collected are all inputs, outputs, inventories, prices, capital values, etc. by crop by farm. Despite its defects, this data-set, both in terms of its inclusiveness and the breadth of its coverage, offers the economist a wealth of information rarely to be found in a less developed country. This micro-level data set is used in the empirical half of this study to estimate Cobb-Douglas production functions for each of the eight enterprises surveyed -- local maize, hybrid maize, coffee, cotton, tea, pyrethrum, improved dairy, and unimproved dairy. The estimation technique used was instrumental variables with prices and fixed inputs as the instruments. It was necessary to use such a technique in order to avoid the simultaneous-equations bias involved in an ordinary least squares approach. From these estimates we were ready to provide answers to the questions raised above. We found that while farmers were efficient in the allocation of resources they used, they used too few inputs. This indicates that one of credit. We also found that risk played a critical role in farmer decision-making, and that, consequently, the reduction of risk would have large payoffs in terms of increased expected return.

Managerial ability in small-farm production : an analysis of maize yields in the Vihiga Division of Kenya.

Author: Moock, Peter Russell

Awarding University: Columbia University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1973

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ; University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ; Kenya National Archives and Documentation Services Library ; University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics ; Farming ; Maize ; Vihiga Division, Kakamega District ;

Abstract:

The staple food in Vihiga Division of Kenya's Western Province is maize, and the most important enterprise in the area with respect to the employment of land and other resources is maize production. Moreover, increased output per acre of maize planted has emerged as the primary objective of a five-year experimental development program for the Division Vihiga Special Rural Development Programme. As resident evaluator of the program during its initial two years, the researcher conducted an in-depth study of maize growing practices and maize use patterns in Vihiga. Through repeated visits, detailed input-output data were recorded on 160 farms during the principal planting season of 1971. As its primary objective, the dissertation attempts to explain differences in yields, with particular attention given to the effect of managerial ability, as indicated by such antecedent variables as formal schooling, extension contact, and experience as a farmer. Average production functions, both linear and Cobb-Douglas, are fitted by ordinary least squares. Vihiga Division is best described by its population density, estimated in excess of 1,400 people per square mile. This extraordinary pressure of population on agricultural land is related to two additional characteristics, especially relevant to the production model. One is the high rate of labour migration, which results in the absence at any given time of (not quite) every other farm head, leaving much of the decision-making responsibility to a secondary member of the farm family, usually the wife of the head. The other is the exceptional demand of parents for educational services, a demand which shifts ever upwards in response to rising educational qualifications for off-farm wage positions. The analysis reveals a positive relationship between yield level and female management, presumably because women tend not to migrate and are more experienced farmers than men as a result. Secondly, all else equal, managers with four or more years of schooling obtain higher yields generally than do managers with less, despite the fact that education in Kenya is intended, by both Government and parents, principally for non agricultural purposes. The relationship between yield and agricultural extension contact is more complex. The analysis provides some evidence of the greater effectiveness of group extension compared with individual extension. The findings argue for greater reliance on the group approach, especially in light of the lower cost per farmer contact hour. In comparing two types of individual extension, the study finds a positive partial relationship between yield and agent-initiated contact but no such relationship between yield and client-initiated contact. The author concludes that extension workers seek out better than average farmers. The contact itself appears not to influence farming practices. Moreover, no relationship is found between yield and the close supervision of a subsample of farmers who received government loans for purchasing maize inputs. An explanation lies in the screening of applicants, which tended to eliminate those who night benefit from special supervision (and perhaps also those constrained by financial weakness, for whom the credit program was established). Having examined differences in technical efficiency, the dissertation turns briefly to the question of average allocative efficiency in Vihiga. Local cost conditions and fluctuations in the value of maize output are related to average marginal products on the sample of farms. Apparent inefficiencies in the relative use of certain inputs may indicate that increased output is possible at no increase in cost, simply by an improved allocation of production factors. Alternatively, this findings may indicate that farmers face ''hidden costs'' and reap social and psychic returns, for which ther

The influence of agronomic factors on maize yields in western Kenya with special reference to time of planting.

Author: Young, Allan Alexander

Awarding University: University of East Africa, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 1971

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Maize/Western Kenya/Farming/Planting/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Educating for agriculture : the Kenyan experience.

Author: Mackie, William Leslie

Awarding University: University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1971

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural education ; Farming ; Kisii, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem This study embraces three purposes: 1. A consideration of the entire system of agricultural education in Kenya as it has developed and now exists. This includes a review of the position of the government, and the organization, articulation and integration of ongoing programs at all levels. 2. Because the entire system of agricultural education is directed towards the modernization of peasant agriculture, the second major purpose is to appraise the farmers training centres as agents of change in peasant behaviour in agricultural pursuits. 3. The third purpose of the study is to provide a model for evaluation of an individual farmers training centre. Procedure 1. Interviews were held with ex-colonial officials involved in agricultural education, with planners and administrators in those ministries and agencies involved with agricultural education, and with administrators and other staff employed in the various agricultural education institutions, with extension agents, and finally with farmers effected by change agents. A review of historical and current literature was conducted 2. On the basis of preliminary interviews, investigations, and the analysis of pertinent literature and interview schedule was developed to ascertain the effectiveness of an individual training institution. 3. A field study in Kisii of the Farmers Training Centre located there was made involving the observation of three one week courses in agriculture, the interviewing of attending farmers and resident staff, and the interviewing of practising farmers who had previously attended the Kisii Farmers Training Centre. Summary of the Conclusions In a more general sense the farmers training centres have been unable to change significantly the faming habits of the peasant farmers in the districts served. Among those factors which inhibit maximum effectiveness are: insufficient facilities, inadequate administration, a lack of coordination between the centres and other levels of government, insufficient localization of curriculum, poor staffing practices, morale and staff continuity, inadequate recruitment practices, poor selection and timing of courses, insufficient follow-up and evaluation, inadequate teaching aids, inability to recruit and successfully training local opinion leaders. The Kisii Study concerned itself primarily with the farmers who had attended the local centre. What had they learned? What innovations were they most likely to accept, to reject, and why? Data indicated that the local centre had been largely ineffective in promoting innovation. Although many factors influence this lack of success, two reasons stand out as being particularly significant. The first is that farmers do not trust either the training centre personnel or the local extension agent. The second reason is that farmers are unwilling to attempt many new practices for fear of failure. This implies insufficient follow-up.

The agrarian revolution in central Kenya : a study of farm innovation in Embu District.

Author: Moris, Jon Russel

Awarding University: Northwestern University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1970

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Farming ; Technological change ; Embu District ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The effects of African agricultural practices on soil productivity and nutrient levels in Kenya.

Author: Lehrer, Paul Lindner

Awarding University: University of Nebraska, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1962

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Soils ; Farming ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The mandala of a market : a study of social and cultural change in Murang'a District, Kenya through the microcosm of the market place

Author: Heyer, Amrik Frances

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Social change/Cultural change/Farming/Shopping centers/Murang'a District/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE