16 Records out of 22207 Records

The effect of tax incentives on the investments of Export Processing Zone firms in Kenya

Author: Njeru, Dominic Murage

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Effects ; Tax incentives ; Investments ; Export Processing Zones, Kenya ; Manufacturers ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of tax incentives in Export Processing Zones firms on business investment in Kenya. Specifically, the study establishes the various types of tax incentives offered to EPZ firms on their business investment in Kenya as well as the effect of tax incentives on investment. This study adopted a descriptive design. The population for the study included all 104 Export Processing Zones firms in Kenya where the researcher selected all firms situated in the Nairobi Metropolitan (that is Nairobi and Kajiado Districts) purposively giving 65 firms. The study used both primary and secondary data. For the primary data, a set of semi-profit/value added questionnaires was used to collect data. A pilot study was conducted by the researcher and the results were analyzed for validity and reliability of the research instruments. The Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient was used where it was found to be 0.87 and indication that the instruments were consistent. Descriptive statistical techniques were utilized in data analysis while inferential analysis was used to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone by determining the relationship between tax incentives and investments of export processing zones firms. The output was presented by use of tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The study in consistence with the statistical data shows that, investments in EPZ firms increase with increase in sales, profit as well as tax incentives.However, given the high significance level, 0.39, the influence of tax incentives on investments in EPZ is insignificant. Given the findings of this study, the researcher recommends that the Government of Kenya should consider other incentives apart from the tax particularly on those that will enhance more sales, being the most significant factor attracting investment in EPZ granted to attract foreign direct investment, especially those provided to EPZ firms.

Challenges of foreign direct investment faced by firms in the apparel manufacturing industry in the Kenyan Export Processing Zones

Author: Maru, Hiten

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Foreign investment ; Clothing industry ; Business conditions ; Export Processing Zones, Kenya ;

Abstract:

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a complex foreign market entry mode which involves the ownership and control of assets in a foreign market or direct ownership of facilities in the target country. Foreign Direct Investment contributes to the growth of domestic firms through complementarities in production and productivity spillovers. With the ever-changing environment, entry mode decisions and how to cope with such changes are very challenging to International Business Managers as wrong decisions could be irreversible and costly on the long run. Kenya has been involved in Global trade for many years, but mainly in the agricultural sector and with the US Congress passing the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) in 2000, and enhanced by the formation of the Export Processing Zones (EPZ) in Kenya, there is renewed interest in the once declining apparel manufacturing industry with the inflow of Foreign Direct Investments into the apparel sector mainly within the Export zones in order to reap the incentives offered by the EPZ Scheme. With the window of opportunity presented by AGOA which provided the major market expected to close in September 2015 and compounded by other challenges like the deterioration of the Kenyan infrastructure, port congestion, poor supply and cost of electricity, and high cost of labor, this study attempted to investigate the challenges of Foreign Direct Investment faced by firms in the apparel manufacturing industry in the Kenyan export processing zones and the measures adopted by the firms in dealing with the challenges. Data for the study was collected from fourteen out of the fifteen FDI firms in the apparel manufacturing industry in the Kenya export processing zone using drop and pick method. Analysis of the data concluded that fiscal policy, state and cost of infrastructure, customs regulations and market and product are the major sources of challenges. The study highlighted that political, legal and social variables, human resource variables are not major challenges with land related challenges not a challenge.EPZ Authority generated measures were the most effective measure in dealing with the challenges faced by the FDI. However, others such as corporate social responsibility measures, in-house generated measures, parent _ company generated and globally outsourced measures equally play a pivotal role in helping deal with the effects of the challenges. Trade organization /affiliates, Nongovernmental /lobby groups and other Kenya Government ministry /agency were providing the least assistance to overcome the challenges. A study on the factors that promote effective growth of foreign direct investment in apparel manufacturing industry in Kenya, a comparative study on challenges that affect locally owned and foreign direct investment in apparel manufacturing industry in Kenya and a study on the service levels, the strengths and effectiveness of the Export processing zones authority is recommended. The Government by strengthening the EPZ Authority, ministries and affiliates should facilitate more interaction with the foreign direct investors to overcome the challenges. The investors on their part should form lobby group to enable them to market their product more easily.

Factors influencing implementation of quality management practices in organizations : a case of Alltex (EPZ) Ltd, Kenya

Author: Ogonda, Bernice Apiyo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Alltex (EPZ) Limited, Kenya ; Export Processing Zones, Kenya ; Quality control ; Management ;

Abstract:

Organizations face stiff competition in the international markets which is no longer based on the quantity of goods and services provided by companies but rather on the quality of products brought into the market. The Kenyan government has spent 40 billion on establishing EPZs and foregoes significant amounts of revenue on inputs. Due to this heavy investment, there was need to evaluate utilization of this investments. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence the implementation of QM practices in organizations. Such factors formed the themes of the literature review. They included resources, employee qualifications and training, role of top management and influence of competition. The objectives of this study were , to investigate the level to which resources influenced implementation of quality management practices in organizations, to establish the extent to which employees qualification and training influenced quality management practices in organizations, to determine how top management support influenced quality management practices in organizations and to establish the extent to which competition influenced implementation of quality management practices in organizations. A sample size of 60 employees was studied. This study employed the use of a survey study approach with its target population being the different categories of employees of Alltex (EPZ) limited. Primary data was derived through questionnaires distributed to employees, while secondary was sourced from literatures, articles and books and internet sources. Descriptive analysis was used. The study's findings show that resources influenced implementation of quality management practices with 65% supporting human resource influence, 71.7 agreeing with the influence of sophisticated equipment and 75% respondents agreeing that modem machinery had an influence. Employees qualification and training was also found to be an influencing factor with 61.7% of respondents agreeing, top management had 60% respondents agreeing compared to 16% that disagreed and competition had 81.6% respondents agreeing that it influenced implementation of quality management practices. From the findings of the study it was recommended that companies device practical means of ensuring their employees have relevant skills, invest in technology and work towards meeting customer demands. The management should also offer facilities that support the production process and improve the relationship between employees. Further enquiry into the impact of quality management practices on the performance of the export processing zones can therefore be made.

Export Processing Zones (EPZ) in Kenya, 'a race to the bottom'' : a critical analysis of the Legal policy and institutional framework

Author: Murgor, Philip Kipchirchir

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Export Processing Zones, Kenya ; Legislation ; Regulation ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Role of EPZ on Kenya's manufactured Exports

Author: Marang'a, Moses Wambugu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Export Processing Zones, Kenya ; Exports ;

Abstract:

Since early 1990's, Kenya has implemented a number of trade and fiscal policy reforms that were partly intended to encourage increased export activity by manufacturing firms. This strategy to promote exports was in accordance with the principle that increased exports would enhance overall economic performance. The trade and fiscal policy reforms have been an integral part of Kenya's economic development strategic plan, a key policy instrument to spearhead rapid economic growth. In this paper, the question of the role of EPZ on manufactured exports in Kenya has been investigated. The study has used OLS technique to determine the level of increase of manufactured exports in Kenya as a result of EPZ investments and EPZ output growth. In line with this study's objective, the key findings are that there is a positive and significant relationship between EPZ output and manufactured exports. Further, there is a positive but insignificant relationship between EPZ investment and manufactured exports. Consequently, any policy measure that can help boost the output level of firms operating under EPZ is expected to go a long way in increasing the level of Kenya's manufactured exports.

An assessment of the contribution of Export Processing Zones to the Kenyan economy

Author: Zimam, Amanuel Melekin/rk

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Exports/Export Processing Zones, Kenya/Economic development ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The impact of African growth opportunity act AGOA on the Kenyan economy : a case of export processing zones EPZs in Nairobi

Author: Nyaga, Henry Wamugo

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA) ; Exports ; Export Processing Zones, Kenya ; Foreign investment ;

Abstract:

This study is an analysis of the impact of the AGOA Act on the economic growth in Kenya with the aim of determining the role played by the export processing zones in Kenya. In 2000, the US Congress passed the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). AGOA gave preferential treatment to exports from the eligible countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to encourage the growth of export -led economies on the continent. Over the past few years, the idea of establishing Export Processing Zones (EPZs) has found support among several governments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Attempts to become internationally competitive, to move towards export-led growth, and structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) are now characterizing most Sub-Saharan African countries and most governments regard EPZs as a suitable strategy to find a niche in the global economy. A study of all the firms operating in Export Processing Zones in Nairobi was undertaken. The sample frame constituted the senior managers of the EPZs, the EPZA, the KIA, and the EPC. The researcher targeted three senior managers from these institutions. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of both open and close ended questions. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics with the help of the SPSS computer package. These were deemed appropriate due to the qualitative nature of the study. The data was then presented in the form of graphs, tables and pie charts. The findings of the survey show that only exports in the apparels sector grew as a result of the enactment of AGOA. Furthermore, the findings show that AGOA had led to Foreign Direct Investments in to the country. As a result of the investments, a phenomenal growth of jobs/employment was experienced. The study also established that the firms operating in the EPZ's do face some challenges, which affect their competitiveness on the international scene. The challenges include high energy costs, poor transport infrastructure, delay in clearing goods at the ports and high Labour costs. The government is also faced with the challenge of retaining the investors in the EPZ after the third country fiber usage ends in 2007. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that Kenya should aim at diversifying its exports to the American markets under AGOA and give support to the firms operating in the EPZs so as to fully maximize on the AGOA opportunity.

A critical analysis of factors affecting industrial labour relation practices at export processing zones : a case study of textile industries in Ruaraka, Nairobi

Author: Otieno, Charles Ochieng

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Export Processing Zones, Kenya ; Textile industry ; Ruaraka, Nairobi, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This study seeks to critically analyze factors affecting industrial labor relation practices at Export Processing Zone with particular focus on textile industries in Ruaraka, Nairobi. EPZS are export oriented manufacturing or service enterprises that contribute greatly to the economy and social progress of developing countries like Kenya. EPZS are therefore given incentives like tax exemption and exemption from strict lab our law such as the employment act which provides for acceptable industrial labor relation practices including minimum wages. From the onset, undesirable labor relations in EPZS in particular textile industries have been too common thereby bringing to the fore the underlying factors that influence industrial labor practices in the EPZS. This study sampled 142 respondents based at textile industries in Ruaraka, selection bases on stratified random sampling. A sample of ten regulators were interviewed; Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and export processing authority as well as union officials and human resources managers. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire tested by pilot survey. Data collected using assisted questionnaire, likert scale and the interview schedule. Data collected analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS). Data presented in bar charts, histogram and frequency distribution tables. Research findings generally established poor IR in the EPZS and the study made recommendations on policy and legislative measures that need to be introduced to improve the IR practices in the Kenyan EPZS.

Health and safety labour rights in Kenya : a case study of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ)

Author: Musembi, Boniface Pius

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Law Campus Library ;

Subject Terms: Export Processing Zones, Kenya ; Health care policy ; Safety programs ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The response of trade unions to challenges posed by conditions of work at the Export Processing Zone.

Author: Mutunga, J M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Lower Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Labour unions ; Export Processing Zones, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE