22 Records out of 22207 Records

A study on the factors affecting the uptake of carbon finance investments opportunities in Kenya

Author: Riungu, Martin M

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Carbon/Credit/Environmental protection/International finance ;

Abstract:

The global challenges of growth, urbanisation, scarcity and environmental change have become the key strategic drivers for business leaders in the present world. Governments and business constituencies are shifting from thinking of climate change and resource constraints as environmental problems to economic ones related to the sharing of opportunity and costs which present opportunities for sustainability if appropriate actions are taken. Over the last decade we have witnessed significant growth in non conventional financial instruments including carbon finance products. While opportunities for such sustainable solutions are indeed a reality in the developed economies, for countries in the Sub-Sahara region like Kenya these opportunities are considerable in theory; to date Kenya and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have missed out. In the context of the clean development mechanism, for example, the region's current share in the project pipeline was only 1.4 percent only 53 out of 3,902 projects or nine times smaller than its global shares in GHG emissions as at 2010. Despite the existing huge opportunity in the carbon finance market, the Kenyan companies have not awaken to the reality and moved in to tap the opportunity. The purpose of this research was to undertake a review and analysis of the factors contributing to the low uptake of carbon finance opportunities in Kenya. The study design used was exploratory factor analysis to get in sights and examine how underlying factors influence the uptake of CF investment opportunities. The research data collected related to responses from the target population on factors that contribute to uptake of carbon finance investment opportunities analyzed to give insight on the most prevalent factors and their rankings. The study further sought to explain the relation of the most prevalent factors namely the high initial cost of investment, risk and return and information gaps on valuation and certification of CF projects. A multivariate regression model was applied to determine the relative importance of each of the three variables in relation to the study. The research found that among the factors that are contributing to low uptake of carbon finance opportunities the most prevalent were: information gaps on certification and measurement of projects, associated risks of CF projects and initial investment cost. It was interesting to note that the three factors had a coefficient of determination with a value of 0.7524 implying that the three variables explain 75% of variation of uptake in carbon finance investment opportunities in Kenya. Among the three factors analysed information gap had the highest factor loading of 0.8 while High initial cost had the most statistically significant coefficient as indicated by the T ratio of 1.459. The study also deduced that investment uptake of CF projects was highly correlated to initial cost of investment and the associated risks and return posting a coefficient of 0.866 and 0.816 respectively The study findings will be useful to the government as a reference for policy formulation in steering investments in CF, development agencies and academic community for future research

The role of interpersonal communication on environmental conservation : a case study on the Aberdare Ecosystem

Author: Mwangi, Catherine Wambui

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Interpersonal communication ; Environmental protection ; Conservation ; Aberdares National Park, Kenya ; Ecosystems ;

Abstract:

Communication is a vital tool for transferring meaning in organisations. Communication is a mechanism through which people shape relationships. Thus, the attainment of organisational goals is dependent on effective communication. Over the years, the wildlife and forests of the Aberdares faced numerous threats arising from human activities, including poaching, bush-meat hunting, snaring, illegal logging, charcoal burning and encroachment. Regular crop damage by wildlife, especially elephant, was a major problem for the farmers, who suffered great losses. Encounters between farmers and wildlife occasionally led to human fatalities Rhino Ark Charitable Trust, (2010). The objective of the study was to investigate the role of interpersonal communication in environmental conservation of Aberdare ecosystem. This study adopted a case study research design. The population of interest for this study was the Aberdare national park employees and senior management who may have the relevant information. Stratified random sampling was used to pick 30% of the target population which was 72 respondents. The study used both primary and secondary data collection in gathering data. The study concludes that interpersonal communication has not been fully embraced at Aberdare national park. Poor interpersonal communication has affected motivation, organizational commitment, teamwork and leadership of Aberdare national park employee's. The study recommends that Aberdare national park should embrace fully interpersonal communication in order to conserve its ecosystem. . The study further recommends that there is need for Aberdare national park to understand the influence of interpersonal communication on motivation, organizational commitment, teamwork and leadership in order for them to fully embrace interpersonal communication in their goal of conservation of Aberdare ecosystem.

The impact of environmental legal frameworks and collaborations on operations of environmental NGOs in Kenya

Author: Muganda, Paul Kareri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Environmental law ; Environmental protection ; Conservation ; Nongovernmental organizations ;

Abstract:

The environment is one of the issues that are today widely debated in various forums around the world. This is because of its importance in national and global socio-economic developmeat. This has come about on the realization of the central role good environmental conditions play in the well-being of mankind on this planet both in the present and for posterity. The state of the environment has a heavy bearing on economic and social status of human populations. The destruction of the environment in various parts of the globe is posing serious challenges on livelihoods and lifestyles of people that reside in those areas. Biological diversity is not spared either as the populations of many of them become diminished or even extinct. The increasing awareness of the significance of environment has led to the emergence of many actors whose objectives are to promote sound environmental conservation methods as well as address factors that lead to degradation of the environment. One group of these actors is the Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs). Over the years, ENGOs have grown in numbers and influence and currently playa crucial role in the efforts to enhance the conservation of the environment world over. They engage in diverse sectors of the environment and interact with a wide range of other actors in making sure the conservation of the environment is undertaken in a more aggressive way. In Kenya the environmental NGOs have been around since independence and their numbers have increased steadily over the years. Currently the presence of ENGOs is visible in various parts of this country and they engage on their own and also collaborate with other players in activities geared to promote conservation of the environment. The crucial role of the environment in the lives of mankind inspired interest and choice of this field study. This study sets out to find out how environmental NGOs have fared in their environmental conservation objectives and endeavors and what factors 'have affected their performance. With this in mind, the study analyses the collaboration between ENGOs and the government in environmental conservation, and the environmental legal frameworks in Kenya. The core of the study is the analysis of the impacts these collaborations and environmental legal frameworks have had on operations of NGOs in the field of environmental conservation in Kenya. One of the findings of the study is that the environmental legal frameworks currently obtained in Kenya are adequate for effective conservation of the environment. The study has concluded that the major impediment to environmental conservation in the country has been the failure to adequately implement exiting environmental laws. Some of the factors behind the poor implementation of environmental laws in Kenya are the weaknesses in institutional capacities of governmental institutions mandated to enforce laws, lack of political will and inadequate funding of government institutions that conserve environment and biodiversity. The study concludes that shoddy and inadequate implementation of environmental legal frameworks by governmental agencies concerned have undermined the operations of ENGOs in the country. The study has also established that the current levels of collaborations between environmental NGOs and government in Kenya are not adequate for efficient and effective promotion of environmental conservation. Weak linkages and lack of transparency are some of the factors cited for undermining effective collaboration of environmental NGOs and governmental institutions in the country. The data for the study was obtained through both secondary and primary sources of data collection. The secondary data came from both published and unpublished documents, while the primary data was gathered through both interactive interviews and structured questionnaires. One of the recommendations of this study is that the government should improve and strengthen the

Environmental diplomacy and economic developement : the impact of climate change on Agriculture in Kenya, 1970-2010

Author: Kaei, Robert Kibor

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Climate change/Agricultural economics/Environmental protection ;

Abstract:

The significance of environmental diplomacy is becoming more elaborate by the day since environmental issues ranging from climate change, hazardous chemicals to biodiversity loss are affecting almost every aspect of policy making in the world. Environmental protection and sustainability remain paramount due to the complex and highly important reality of current environmental challenges that threaten human survival. Although efforts to counter and manage environmental problems anchor on international collaboration through international environmental governance involving many actors for example the emergence of United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and other agencies, there seem to emerge other complex challenges in regard to environmental protection and sustainability most noticeably climate change. This study seeks to address the impact of climate change on agriculture in Kenya with a special focus on agriculture as the leading sector in the Kenyan economy in terms of its contribution to real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 1970 to the year 2010. The performance of the agricultural sector is determined by crop production which depends on a number of factors; most importantly country's endowment of soils and climate resources. Owing to the significant role agriculture plays in Kenya, economic development is largely dependent on the performance of agriculture. Indeed Kenya recorded the highest GDP of 7.8 per cent and 5.8 per cent in the national economy and agriculture respectively in the period between 1970 and 1974. The study indicates that agriculture contributes significantly to economic growth in Kenya by providing raw materials for industries, contributing to employment and providing food security. Sustainable agriculture is therefore critical in ensuring economic profitability, environmental stewardship and improved quality of life of the people of Kenya. The study establishes that like other environmental challenges, climate change is trasboundary in nature and requires concerted efforts from states, international organizations and non-states actors. Based on the theory of international cooperation, the study notes that environmental problems that lead to climate change require collective action of both state and non-state actors due to the anarchic nature of international system. The study further establishes that cooperation is motivated by a balance of absolute and relative gains and the extent of durability of such a cooperative arrangement. The study identifies possible ways of managing climate change in Kenya with regard to preserving ecosystems and biodiversity on one hand and adaptation on the other so as to enhance sustainable agriculture, hence economic development. This stems from the notion of international environmental governance through international negotiations that would cascade to the domestic level. Data for the study will be collected using content analysis, scientific analysis and interview methodologies.

Water consumers' willingness to pay for conservation of watersheds : a case of Nairobi County

Author: Mose, John Nyaoko

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi County ; Water supply ; Water conservation ; Environmental protection ;

Abstract:

Kenya's population of almost 40 million as per 2009 housing and population census exerts great pressure on natural economic resources like water. Kenya is classified as a water scarce country. The fresh water covers two per cent of the total surface area. The per capita' availability of water in 2007 was 647 M3/year against the recommended minimum of 1000 M'zyear by the United Nations and is projected to fall to 235M3/year in 2025 (Kenya's Vision 2030). This is a scaring trend considering that the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year (KNBS Census Report, 2009). To manage watersheds in Kenya, water users may be required to pay more . for water so as to give the communities around the catchment areas an incentive for them to conserve. This will contribute significantly to improvement of the environmental ecosystems by ensuring continuous supply of environmental services. The existing literature indicates payment for ecosystem/environmental services (PES) is working either for carbon or water (Landell-Mills and Porras, 2002; Pagiola and Platais, 2007). This study will explore the PES as a mechanism for financing conservation in Kenya. The study applied a dichotomous binary response probit model on primary data from a simple random sample of 128 randomly selected households. A descriptive technique was followed in the analysis. We noticed that the bid amounts (BA), age, monthly water expenditure were some of the factors affecting WTP. There are benefits of adopting conservation of our watersheds as it ensures a continuous flow of environmental services. Education had a negative relationship with WTP; perhaps more educated individuals felt that there could be alternative ways of assuring sustained water supply. They also focused on reducing water wastage, exploring alternative sources of water and educating people at catchment areas about the importance of protecting their own lands. Males were found to be more intent on paying for conservation than females.

Willingness to accept compensation to stop charcoal trade; a case study of charcoal trade in Webuye and its environs

Author: Muganda, Lazarus Songoro

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Webuye, Kenya ; Environmental protection ; Conservation ; Trees ;

Abstract:

Environmental issues are at the forefront of global media and political debates. Around the world, people are increasingly becoming aware that economic activity can generate significant environmental damages, with potentially serious repercussions for human welfare. It is increasingly recognized that forests provide a range of goods and services, some of which have significant economic value. These include fertile soil, timber, non-timber products, recreation, landscape value and a wide range of environmental benefits such as climate regulation, watershed protection and the conservation of biodiversity. Conservation of trees is a merit good with a lot of social benefits. The biggest challenge today is how to maintain equilibrium between human beings, the ecosystems and development and how to meet the needs of human beings without necessarily compromising the quality of the environment. There is therefore a conflict between meeting the needs of human beings and conservation of trees. The general objective of the study was to estimate the value of trees around Webuye town, through determination of appropriate monetary values based on willingness to accept (WT A) compensation of charcoal traders in order to forgo trading in this product. Primary data using a questionnaire is collected from 148 respondents who are charcoal traders. A Tobit model is because the questionnaire was open-ended, eliciting a continuous variable of the amount to be compensated and the need to take care of the zero responses. It is hypothesized that willingness to accept depends on the knowledge of charcoal traders on issues to do with environmental protection and conservation. Environmental conservation knowledge is important in informing whether the respondents will be willing to leave activities that are detrimental to the quality of the environment. The study establishes that environmental knowledge on conservation is quite significant. Another significant variable is the number of children that the respondent has in the household which has a negative relation with willingness to accept. Therefore, educating local communities on the importance of environmental conservation is important in order to built knowledge capacity to .communities on environmental issues.

Characterization of soil bacteria capable of degrading selected organic pesticides applied in Horticulture farms in Kenya

Author: Miriti, Philip Mwenda

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Soils ; Bacteria ; Pesticides ; Horticulture ; Environmental protection ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The role of tour guides in the conservation of cultural landscapes in Kieni East Division, Nyeri North District

Author: Wanderi, Hoseah

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kieni East District/Mount Kenya/Conservation/Environmental protection/Ecotourism/Tour guides (Persons) ;

Abstract:

This study sought to bring out the role of tour guides in the conservation of cultural landscapes. The research specifically probed their potential role in the conservation of Mount Kenya which is faced with threats to its wellbeing. The research was carried out in Kieni East Division in Nyeri North District. The study had two objectives: to investigate roles that tour guides can render in the conservation of Mount Kenya cultural landscape and to examine how the roles can be integrated in the conservation programmes of Mount Kenya cultural landscape. It was guided by the value- belief-norm theory of the environmental movement. Probabilistic sampling design was used to select a study sample of thirty individual tour guides who became the key respondents. Primary data were obtained through interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation while secondary data were obtained from written texts in libraries and internet journals. The data were then processed into tables and analyzed in percentages while information from direct observation and secondary data was recorded in direct speech, quoted or recorded on digital camera. The information acquired from the study indicated that tour guides are keen on current conservation problems and needs of Mount Kenya and are willing to be part of the solution to the problems. It emerged that tour guides are aware of the effects of degradation both within and without the Mount Kenya protected area in which case they were able to correlate the human economic activities that may be a danger to the well being of the mountain environmental well-being. It was also established that the tour guides have in the past offered environmental care to the mountain despite the fact that their continued participation in the conservation work has been curtailed by authorities. Their participation has been kept superficial in the sense that they sometimes receive invitations to attend educational forums such as workshops and seminars on conservation but do not get space to practice what they learn and from their practical experience on Mount Kenya. The research, therefore, recommends that the tour guides' knowledge obtained through experience needs to be utilized to enhance government's conservation efforts. Their conservation initiatives ought to be supported and encouraged by conservation agencies. The training of tour guides also need to be enhanced and sustained. Finally, ways of motivating tour guides need to be initiated to perpetuate and sustain their eagerness in giving care to the threatened Mount Kenya cultural landscape.

Track two diplomacy in environmental security in the Nile Basin

Author: Kingoina, Enock Omweri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nile River/Diplomacy/Environmental protection/International relations ;

Abstract:

This study examines the role of track two diplomacy in environmental security in the Nile basin. It analyses the study under three themes namely; security, track two diplomacy, and environmental security in the Nile basin. The study used primary and secondary sources of information to collect data. Primary data was pursued under two categories, unpublished primary data and published primary data. Particular non governmental organizations were identified, these organizations are involved in Nile issues, information from them was used to develop literature review and also Chapters Three and Four. Unpublished primary documents were sourced from these identified organizations. Apart from non governmental organizations, information was also sought from the Nile Basin Initiative country office in Kenya, this was useful in understanding the role oftrack one actors in the Nile basin. This study used the liberalism theory as the framework of study. Liberalism theory was important since it recognizes the fact that in the conduct of international relations, states are not solitary actors, but are substituted by non state actors. From the research study, it emerged that, track two actors enhance cooperation of relations among state actors in the Nile basin, although they don't substituted the role of states, they are useful because of their skills, technical knowledge and ability to lobby. It also emerged from the study that environmental security in the Nile basin has not been secured. There are numerous threats to environmental security, like land degradation, pollution; population growth and loss of wetlands. The main reason why states have failed in securing environmental threats is because, they pursue policies as solitary actors yet the Nile resources is a trans boundary issue. It also emerged that internal conflicts within states deter stares from pursuing environmental security.

Effects of environmental conservation and management practices on sustainable livelihood of Wetland community in Trans-Nzoia District, Kenya

Author: Kingasha, Leonard Wamocho

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Trans- Nzoia District/Wetlands/Conservation/Environmental protection ;

Abstract:

The probable causes of the adverse and erratic weather patterns, failed rains and resultant food shortages relates to environmental interferences by human activities for resource use (Drudie, 1993). Based on researchers experience in his rural residential farmlands. we can notice that the heavy rains we experienced in the past are no longer natural. A close observation of activities that could be cause of drought reveal deforestation, environmental degradation and interference of wetlands through deep terracing as possible causes of erratic weather patterns along rivers, wetlands and common plantations that are water consumptious as opposed to indigenous trees that preserved water tables. The study aimed to establish facts on environment and climate that have a direct bearing on the changed rainfall patterns and the adverse environmental degradation. The gamut of the study was to develop a conceptual write up that can be a basis and argument to assist NEMA. Pre-independent Kenya laws prohibited natives and anyone from cultivating 50 metres from a riverbank: In the same breath, grazing of livestock against environmental conserved locations was regulated and prohibited. For example no livestock were allowed into gazetted forests. The chiefs and Agricultural Officers were allowed mandated to inspect, supervise and ensure no one interested with swamps in order to maintain the water-table within accessible limits of about 25 feet deep. Only selected tree plantations were allowed to grow at water catchments. The then imported Eucalyptus tress were planted by a particular conservationists at specific locations with great care taken not to be planted close to water reservoir. Felling trees was prohibited by the Colonial government. Forest settlements were not permitted at all. There is difference today. Wetlands have been turned to farmland, forests network depleted and cultivation for cropping extending just one foot from the rivetbeds. Simply human activity overwhelmed the natural environment to the extent that gradually affects weather patterns. The research showed the sufferers are the very community responsible for environmental degradation. Thus 10 sustain livelihood, the environment has to be conserved and well managed by use of environmental friendly activities.