650 Records out of 22207 Records

The politics and administration of agricultural development in Kenya : the Kenya Tea Development Authority

Author: Steeves, Jeffrey Sayre

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 19975

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Politics/Agricultural economics/Kenya Tea Development Authority/ ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Tea Development Authority is one of the most successful agricultural development programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike re-settlement schemes such as the Gezira in the Sudan or the ujaama villages in Tanzania, the Authority has introduced a new cash crop among widely scattered small farmers within the former African Reserves of Kenya. Its achievement seems even more remarkable in that it has introduced a technically demanding estate crop as a viable smallholder enterprise. Utilizing an integrated approach to agricultural development, that is, the provision of a wide range of services for the farmer within one institutional framework, the Authority has staked a leading position within the world tea industry. The central reason for this success has been the institution's early ability to generate local enthusiasm for tea-growing and a system of tight central control. The first can be traced to a credit system which offered credit in kind and on terms sufficient to allow all strata within the farming community to participate in the programme. The second is due to a system of close field supervision with strong links to the central offices. Over time, however, for financial reasons the K.T.D.A. found it necessary to restrict and then eliminate credit; this led to a fundamental challenge to the Authority's structured system of control. It was found that the ability of the institution to plan, direct and implement its policies depended directly on the participation of all strata of the farming community. This study identifies the strata which were relevant to the tea programme and their significance for central goals. The research was undertaken in Kenya during 1970 and 19]1 a particularly interesting period for it was during this time that the full effects of the elimination of credit were being felt. The author spent six months studying the central offices of the Authority and in addition lived in each of Nyeri, Meru, Murang'a, Kericho, Kisii and Kakamega Districts for a minimum period of one month conducting interviews and analyzing documentary materials. Documents pertaining to the other t ea-gr-owfng districts were also analyzed in combination with follow .?.. up interviews in the core districts. The research findings reveal the complexi~y of the agricultural community, The credit revisions of the 1960's and the field reaction illustrate the importance of the strata divisions within the farming community. The full effects of the exclusion of lower strata farmers from formal and legal participation led to aq alliance between lower strata farmers and lower field staff. This alliance directly threatened central control. The study has, therefore, direct relevance to public policy formation and development efforts related to rural Kenya. The major conclusions can be stated as follows: A.Implementation of integrated agricultural development programmes requires control. B. Control depends on an organization establishing its legitimacy within the total farming community. C. The legitimacy of the organization is directly tied to the participation of all strata levels on a continuing basis in the programme of development. Thus, implementation can only be realized by the inclusion of all strata at terms and on conditions which they can meet,

Performance and dynamics of African firms : a comparative analysis of garment firms in Kenya and Bangladesh

Author: Fukunishi, T

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2013

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, England ;

Subject Terms: Labour ; Exports ; Clothing industry ; Labour economics ; Bangladesh ;

Abstract:

This thesis attempts to understand the causes behind the stagnation of the African manufacturing sector based on comparative case studies. We specifically compare the garment industries in Kenya and Bangladesh, which have similar endowments including income per capita and business environment, but contrast in the development of the typical labour-intensive industry. Our comparison between countries with similar endowments simplifies the causes of the divergent performance, since it effectively controls possible reverse causation. Additionally, the focus on a labour-intensive industry demonstrates obstacles at the early stage of industrialisation. The fact that the Kenyan industry had growth opportunity in the period of analysis, from 2002 to 2008, makes the comparison meaningful. Using firm data and in-depth interviews, the comparison is based on a microeconomic perspective so that it incorporates firm heterogeneity. The main analysis is extended in three chapters. Sources of the competitiveness gap between the two industries are explored in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 demonstrates the dynamics of non-exporters in Kenya, while the dynamics in the export market, namely export participation, are analysed in Chapter 6. We found that the most influential source of the competitiveness gap is labour cost rather than productivity; the wages in Kenya are far higher than those in Bangladesh. Due to the large cost gap, the Kenyan garment industry experienced a drastic contraction in the liberalized local and export markets. Consequently, Kenyan local firms specialised in the local uniform growth and discouraging participation to the export market. High labour costs relative to income per capita can be an important cause of the stagnation of the manufacturing sector in some other African countries where the labour cost is as high as it is in Kenya.

The effect of macroeconomic factors on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya

Author: Illo, Anne Deraso

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Macroeconomics/Economic impact/Financial performance/Commercial banks/Banking industry ;

Abstract:

The aim of this descriptive as well as correlational study was to detennine the effect of macroeconomic factors on financial perfonnance of commercial banks in Kenya. The perfonnance measure of commercial banks used was the Retum on Asset (ROA) which was regressed against the macroeconomic variables including GDP growth rate, the exchange rate (US dollar), the money supply (M3), Inflation (CPI), and Lending Rate of the sampled commercial banks. The period ofthe study was ten years from June 2002 to June 2012. The study employed quarterly secondary data which was obtained from the Central Bank of Kenya, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics and published quarterly financial statements from commercial banks selected in the sample. Data was analyzed using pooled Least Square Method which assumes linearity between the dependent variable and the independent variables and the analysis technique was multiple regression aided by research software 'eviews' version 7. The financial performance of commercial banks as measured by ROA was found to be positively correlated with GDP growth rate, money supply (M3), lending interest rate of individual commercial banks and inflation, and negatively correlated with exchange rate. The findings confinned the researcher's priori expectation that ROA would be both positively and negatively correlated with the independent variables. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: chapter one covers introduction to the study by addressing issues related to background of the study, statement of the problem, study objective and the significance of the study; chapter two focuses on literature review; chapter three is about the research methodology; chapter four covers data analysis, results and discussion; and lastly chapter five addresses summary,? conclusion and recommendation.

The role of logistics outsourcing in leveraging operational competitiveness among Blue Chip Companies in Kenya

Author: Achola, Vincent Odhiambo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Supply chains ; Logistics outsourcing ; Transaction cost economics ;

Abstract:

The concept of logistics outsourcing is not new since it has been applied in businesses for over thirty decades. It emerged as a result of the need for companies to concentrate on their core business activities and leave non-core activities to other companies to run. Logistics management being lifeline of supply chain management, it emerged that managing it efficiently would ultimately be reflected on the positive results from supply chain management as a whole. This study therefore attempted to delve into the depths of logistics outsourcing and how it can result into operational competitiveness of a company. The researcher used the blue chip companies that trade in Kenya's bourse market, Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE), to determine the validity of this hypothesis. The literatures reviewed demonstrate how outsourcing logistics functions can achieve operational competitiveness. Researchers contend that efficacy IS obtainable with logistics outsourcing hence the realization of operational competitiveness. Scholars articulate such theories in a more understandable pattern that brings out their cost reduction potentials. These theories, for instance, are transaction cost economics (TCE), resource-based theory (RBT), and network theory (NT). Moreover, a number of logistics engagements are outlined as out-tasking, core-managed services, managed services, and full outsourcing. The researcher then used a descriptive survey design to study these variables; SPSS-enabled factor analysis and Chi Square Tests revealed that logistics outsourcing and dependent variables outlined in the conceptual framework. However, the Chi Square Test affirmed the null hypothesis. Nevertheless, some companies did confirm that logistics outsourcing helps them leverage on their operational competitiveness. II was recommended that companies in all industries should strive to embrace logistics outsourcing while managing their supply chain systems due to its efficacy. The benefits that come with employing this process have the potential to turn around businesses that are detouring from their core business activities. Lastly, it was suggested that research be done on companies that are not listed as blue chips at the NSE to compare the fmdings.

The relationship between selected macroeconomic variables and stock return at the Nairobi Securities Exchange

Author: Songole, Ronald Kisuza

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Macroeconomics/Economic trends/Stock prices/Securities markets/Nairobi Securities Exchange ;

Abstract:

The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between selected macroeconomic variables and stock return at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study focused on Consumer price index (CPI), market interest rate, Industrial Production Index (IPI) and Foreign exchange rate (FEX) using monthly data for a nine year period between January 2003 and December 2011. Regression, Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA) and the t tests was used to summarize, describe, analyze and present the study findings. The main findings were that Market interest rate, consumer price index and exchange rate have a negative relationship with stock return, while industrial production index exhibited a positive relationship.

Macroeconomic consequences of budget deficit in Kenya : an empirical analysis

Author: Wachira, Patrick Ndegwa

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Macroeconomics/Budget deficits/Economic impact/ ;

Abstract:

Developed countries are deemed to have strong fiscal structures with reduced deficit problems while on the other hand developing countries lack the fiscal discipline and encounter huge , economic ills associated with high levels of budget deficit. This paper examines some of these economic ills in Kenya and their relationship with budget deficit. The broad objective of the paper was to determine the effects of budget deficits on selected macroeconomic variables in Kenya for the period 1980-2010. The variables included; GDP, inflation, balance of trade, interest rates, exchange rates, government expenditure and private investments.We used time series techniques to investigate whether there is a long run relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic variables. Co integration and Error Correction Models were used as the econometric techniques. Causality relationship was also established and wald test utilized. Our empirical findings suggest that Current GDP, balance of payment and private investments rates are significant determinants of budget deficit. There was also a significant negative relation between budget deficits and previous year's private investment and exchange rates. We therefore found a long run equilibrium relationship between budget deficit and these macroeconomic variables. The Granger causality test revealed that the twin deficit hypothesis in Kenya is not supported by this study. The direction of causation between budget deficit and current account balance runs only from budget deficit to current account and not vice versa. Deficits were noted to be inflationary given the positive significant relationship established with inflation. Crowd in effect was also established. It is therefore evident that government should adopt prudent fiscal and monetary policies that guarantee budget deficits are sustained at low levels. Appropriate monetary measures to prevent inflationary pressure and stable exchange rates, productive investment, tax reforms, sustainable rate of economic growth and diversification of goods for exports are some of the main policies the government should emphasis on to ensure minimized effects of budget deficit in the economy

Comparison between representative tax system and macro basis for revenue equalization systems in Kenya

Author: Kioko, Boniface Kilonzo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Taxation economics/Revenue sharing/Tax reform/Tax revenues ;

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare the Representative Tax System and macro basis of revenue allocation in Kenya, in relation to equalization systems. The study sought to address the following research question, do the representative tax system and macro basis of revenue allocation ensure equity in the transfer of resources in Kenya. The population of the study comprised of all the 142 (one hundred and forty two) local authorities in Kenya. The study used descriptive design and a census method. Descriptive survey designwas preferred because it enables the researcher to describe the area of research and explain the collected data in order to properly investigate the differences and similarities. The study used secondary data for the last 10 years derived from the financial records of the 142 local authorities in Kenya. Secondary data is important in establishing the relationship between the dependent and the independent variable's. The results of the study indicate that the macro model performs better the variations in funds allocated to counties than the representative tax system. The results alo show that population carried the highest weight in explaining factors that affect funds allocated to local authorities with an index of 60%. Other factors which included land area, equal share, fiscal discipline and poverty level had explanation weight of 31 %, 27%, 26% and 14% respectively. The findings indicate that, the relationship between all the variables (that is, poverty level, equal share, land area, fiscal discipline, and population as well as funds allocated to local authorities) with each other is significant at 95% confidence level. The study revealed that, for equalization transfers to county government, population within a particular county is the main consideration given that, the higher the population, the more cost of maintenance of infrastructure given the latter's rate of usage. Given the large jurisdiction to the local authorities the minimum amount allocated to such county will be far much higher.

Factors influencing sustainability of remitances to National Hospital Insurance Fund by workers in informal sector in Bomet Central Division, Bomet County, Kenya

Author: Kipyegon, Wesley Langat

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Health insurance/Remittances/National Hospital Insurance Fund (Kenya)/Informal sector (Economics)/Bomet Central Division ;

Abstract:

This research study does address issues that informal workers face when contributing to NHIF funds. NHIF is Kenya's largest financier of health services. It was a statutory social insurance fund whose responsibility was to provide health insurance coverage for its members and their dependants. The purpose of the study was to establish factors contributing to sustainability of informal workers remittance towards NHIF. The study was guided by the following objectives; To investigate how Background factors; Socio-cultural factors; sensitization levels; and health insurance legislation factors influence the sustain ability of informal workers remittance to NHIF in Bornet Central Division. The sample size is 132 respondents from the informal workers within Bomet Central Division. Stratified random sampling was used to select respondents from the divisional diverse surroundings. A descriptive research survey design was adopted and questionnaires were used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data to answer the research questions. Data collected for the study was reviewed and cleaned at collection point and every evening prior to entry into an MS Access data base in order to minimize errors of omission and commission. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 12.0.1 was used to analyze the data in order to give descriptive statistics and presented in tables in the form of frequencies and percentages on how the various variables influenced the sustain ability of informal workers contribution to NHIF', report and recommendations was done. The study recommends NHIF to contract community based organizations to recruit and collect contributions on behalf of NHIF. A multi prolonged awareness creation strategy would go a long way to ensure a well informed community with respect to health insurance. Further research is suggested on challenges facing the implementation of the legislation to increase the NHIF contribution rate, the impact of computer based information system in the management of NHIF operations and the management of funds contributed by the informal sector.

Factors explaining female labour participation across different sectors in Kenya

Author: Kiranga, Francis Munyua

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Women owned businesses/Self employment/Female employees/Informal sector (Economics)/Economic trends ;

Abstract:

The general view of the informal sector is that it comprises of activities primarily of petty traders involved in such activities as selling second hard clothes, shoe shining, food selling and repair etc. Most of the informal sector workers operate mainly from streets of main urban centres.These activities generate income and profits though on small scale, uses simple skills and are dynamics and not tied to regulation of the activities. They have fewer employees (especially home based enterprises), they operate for a shorter period and have poor access to water and electricity (World Bank, 2006 P.32). In Kenya, married women enter into informal sector probably to help husbands in boosting the family's income. The husband provides in most cases the capital for starting the business. However, sometimes the husband may feel threatened by the success of such businesses and withdraw the financial support or bar women from operating the business. The labour market in Kenya has undergone several changes since the country's independence in 1963. For instance, owing to a rapid expansion of its education system, the supply of educated labour has increased over time. Furthermore, since the 1970s real wages have dropped steeply and the implementation of structural adjustment reforms (SAP) in 1980s has been accompanied by changes in the structure of employment, incomes and poverty. The economy has performed poorly as evident from low GDP growth and declining real earnings and standard of living. Both unemployment and informal sector employment have increased (informal sector employment has increased from 20% in 1988 to 79.1 % in 2007) while formal sector or modem wage employment has declined (from 77.5 % in 1988 to 20.2 % in 2007). This paper analysis what drives women to respond to different sectors of the labour force in Kenya in particular the informal sector especially given the renewed interest by the government and the private sector in Kenya today.

The relationship between selected macroeconomic variables and bond yield : evidence from the Nairobi Securities Exchange

Author: Nyakeri, Douglas Barongo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Macroeconomics ; Variables ; Bonds ; Yield ; Nairobi Securities Exchange ;

Abstract:

The financial sector plays a crucial role in economic development. A well functioning capital markets increases economic efficiency, investment and growth. Kenya's capital market is described as narrow and shallow. The stock and bond marleet have been raising less than 1 % of growth financing. The vision 2030 development plan targets an annual economic growth rate of 10% with an investment rate of 30% to be financed mainly from mobilization of domestic resources. This has led to significant focus on the capital market with the institutional development of the stock market and introduction of new instruments in the bonds market. On the other hand, the economic environment is generally unstable and unpredictable. The relationship between macroeconomic variables and capital market development has been a subject of interest to both academicians and practitioners. The price movement of company's securities is dictated by certain fundamentals specific to that organization. However, it is believed that government economic policy and macroeconomic variables such as; interest rates, inflation rates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GDP growth rates and exchange rates, that are external to organizations have a significant influence on the movement of security prices. The study seeks to establish the relationship between bond yield to maturity and selected macroeconomic variables in Kenya for a five year period from January 2007 to December, 2011. The study uses bond yield to maturity as a measure of bonds performance. On the other hand, inflation rates, exchange rates, GDP growth rates and interest rates are the selected macroeconomic variables for the study. The relationship between bond yields to maturity and the selected macro economic variables are analyzed using the multiple regression models. Data for the study was obtained from: NSE quarterly reports, Central bank of Kenya reports and publications, annual economic survey reports. It is evident from the literature reviews that macroeconomic variables have a significant influence on the performance of bonds. The finding of the study indicates that macroeconomic variables do not a have a significant influence on performance of bonds. However, policy makers should develop and implement prudent macroeconomic policies that will promote development of the capital market in Kenya particularly the bonds market.