59 Records out of 22207 Records

Understanding the role of intermediary organizations in empowering communities

Author: Murambi, Eunice Nasimiyu

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: United States International University-Africa Library ;

Subject Terms: Organizations ; Community development ; Development economics ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Policy shifts and foreign direct investment in Kenya with reference to the industrial sector

Author: Katumo, Wiberforce Mwinga

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Foreign investment/Development economics ;

Abstract:

The amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow to Kenya has fluctuated since independence with adverse repercussions upon the growth of the industrial sector. FDI inflows have dropped to as low as US $ 0.39 and risen to as high as US $ 729 in the year 1988 and 2007, respectively. This study sought to explain the fluctuation from the stand point of national policy orientation regarding the contribution of FDI in national development. The study has in so doing discussed the factors that curtail FDI inflows and thereby shed light on the influence of FDI in the national economy. The study is preced on the view that FD I transcends national boundaries and hence blurs the distinction between national and international affairs. As a result the relationship between host-governments and FDI is dynamic and open-ended with regards to the future trajectory. Therefore, the form and function of the State are compelled to adapt as host-governments seek coherent strategies of engaging with FDI in a more interconnected world. The study analyses the content in primary documents specifically the government policy papers and statements and statistical abstracts to obtain the levels and identify the policy on FDI. The study concludes that the policy of Kenya government, since independence has consistently been to promote FDI. Specifically the government has displayed four main policy objectives in promoting FDI in the country's industrial sector: investment incentives, liberal FDI entry regime, moderate nationalization and privatization of the economy. The government selects FDI undertakings that it considers beneficial to the nation. This explains the annual variations of FDI inflows to Kenya.

Fiscal decentralization in Kenya and the growth of government : the Constituency Development Fund.

Author: Bagaka, James O

Awarding University: Northern Illinois University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Political science ; Decentralization ; Development economics ; Funds ;

Abstract:

Existing literature on fiscal decentralization suggests that decentralization programs funded by common pool resources such as grants and transfers break the link between taxes and benefits and this creates fiscal illusions among local units of governments. Decentralization designs funded by common pool resources have also been associated with faster growth in the overall size of government spending. This study examines how Kenya's fiscal decentralization program through the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) promotes fiscal illusions. As a process evaluation, the study examines the financial impacts on the central government's operating budget caused by capital projects constructed through the CDF funds in two sectors: healthcare and the police. The study also examines how the CDF has promoted equity and efficiency. This study explores qualitatively, the total number of capital projects such as clinics and police posts, the number of these capital projects already gazetted by the central government and the annual cost of running them. The analysis then tests quantitatively two recursive causal models for local expenditure decisions in the healthcare and police sectors by utilizing data gathered from various government official websites. The study finds that the CDF program has promoted equity and efficiency. Based on available data, the study finds that CDF capital projects appear to increase the size of the central government's operating budget. To mitigate the dangers of overfishing the common pool resources, the study offers a probable solution that mimics the benefit-taxation principle. These findings have policy implications for fiscal decentralization in Kenya and other developing countries. By granting flexibility to incur expenditure decisions, decentralization promotes equity and efficiency at the local level. Decentralization has also expanded public services to formerly neglected regions of the country. For the central government decision-makers, the CDF threatens to overfish the common pool resources and thus lead to the 'tragedy of the commons.' For scholars, this study is a good case study that speaks to the literature on fiscal illusions. The study recommends amendments of the CDF Act to allow constituencies to incur operations and maintenance costs from a portion of their annual allocations while at the same time initiating new development projects.

Three essays in development economics [Kenya].

Author: Ferre, Celine

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Essays ; Development economics ;

Abstract:

This dissertation presents three topics of development economics that try to unravel different aspects of poverty dynamics: internal migration towards urban centers, early fertility reduction and urbanization are three fundamental potential factors of poverty reduction. In Chapter 1, we look at whether internal immigration fostered poverty in urban centers, looking at headcount ratio, basic infrastructure access, polarization, and municipality budget. We use data on Brazilian migration between 1995 and 2000. We instrument the proportion of new immigrants using a combination of three variables: unemployment volatility at origin, proportion of population who left the place of origin, and travel distance between origin and arrival. We find that domestic immigration reduced poverty in urban centers, increased infrastructure access, but did not increase local polarization. The positive effect is mainly due to categories of migrants that have adaptive skills and characteristics complementary to locals'. In Chapter 2, we investigate whether education could reduce early fertility in the context of Kenya, using data from the DHS surveys of 1989 to 2003. We instrument the number of years of education with the 1985 education reform, which increased by one year time spent in primary school. We find that one more year spent in school decreases by 10 percentage points the probability of teenage childbearing, or a reduction of 15% of teenage fertility rates. One additional year of schooling curbs the probability of pregnancy each year by 7.3% (respectively 5.6) for women with at least a primary (secondary) degree. Investing in education can therefore have positive spillovers on health. In Chapter 3, we draw upon small area poverty estimation to investigate the relationship between poverty and city size in six developing countries. We find substantial variation in the incidence and depth of consumption poverty across city sizes in five of the six countries. For all five countries where the data permits a disaggregation of the incidence of public service access, there is also considerable variation across city sizes. In all cases, poverty is lowest and service availability is greatest in the largest cities, precisely those where governments, the middle-classes, opinion-makers and airports are disproportionately located.

Essays in experimental development economics [Kenya].

Author: Jakiela, Pamela

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Development economics/Essays/ ;

Abstract:

Experimental economic methods are used to explore individual decision-making in poor communities with limited access to the formal credit and insurance markets. I explore preferences for sharing in the United States and rural Kenya using experimental dictator games which measure altruism and inequality-aversion in non-strategic environments. In a sample of U.S. undergraduates, I find that the context of a dictator game impacts the level of selfishness and altruism observed, but not the willingness to sacrifice efficiency to enhance equity. In a related study, I measure the willingness to reward individual effort, relative to underlying preferences for sharing unearned income, among rural Kenyans and U.S. undergraduates. The results suggest that Kenyan subjects are more generous on the whole, but that they do not reward others for their labor; U.S. subjects, on the other hand, share more with those who have exerted effort than with those who have received lottery winnings--just as they are more generous with their own unearned income than with wages they received for exerting effort. In the final study, I report the results of a framed field experiment testing the impact of microfinance contract structure on moral hazard in project choice. I find that joint liability contracts encourage free-riding and risky investment decisions, but that the costs to the lender are more than compensated for by forcing borrowers to insure each other.

The effects of community financed projects : the case of Harambee verses Constituency Development Fund (CDF)

Author: Amayamu,WilasAsila

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Community development ; Development economics ; Project finance ; Constituency Development Fund ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Improving economic equity through ICT for development in Kenya : a case of Nairobi and Mombasa

Author: Kariuki, Gatana Gitari

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Development economics/Information technology/Communications networks/Economic conditions/Nairobi, Kenya/Mombasa, Kenya ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Community and private sector approaches to development in Kenya.

Author: Leino, Jessica Leigh

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Development economics ; Community action ; Private sector ; Economic development ;

Abstract:

Economic development policy increasingly emphasizes the role of communities and the private sector. Communities may enjoy informational advantages in providing services, while the private sector can provide considerable employment and growth opportunities. This dissertation presents three essays that investigate the impact of community and private sector approaches to development in rural Kenya. The first two chapters explore the design of community-based institutions that provide and maintain rural water infrastructure. The third chapter examines the productivity of teams in commercial agriculture. Chapter 1 studies the extent to which women's participation in local public goods management is enhanced by advocacy efforts and how increased women's participation affects water infrastructure maintenance. Gender advocacy can be a useful means of boosting women's participation, with little distortion in the effectiveness of these committees in delivering public goods. However, there is no evidence that enhanced participation by women results in greater project sustainability. Chapter 2 examines the health impacts and valuation of improved water sources, and the potential effects of alternative property rights institutions. Improvements in water infrastructure lead to large improvements in source water quality, increased use of improved water sources, moderate gains in home water quality and to a one quarter fall in reported child diarrhea incidence. Households appear willing to spend an additional 100 hours per year to walk to improved water sources. Simulations suggest that a social planner would only improve water sources with many nearby households. Allowing landowners to charge households for protected water only if they continue to provide access to unprotected water is Pareto improving relative to the status quo. Chapter 3 studies the productivity of teams of casual workers in Kenya's commercial agriculture sector. Workers choose to sort into more ethnically homogenous teams than would be expected with random matching, but ethnically diverse teams are more productive even after controlling for individual fixed effects. Workers may prefer to trade off higher earnings for opportunities to socialize or for mutual insurance, both of which may be easier to provide within tribal groups. Productivity may thus be improved by facilitating inter-ethnic team formation or by offering formal insurance schemes.

Three seemingly unrelated essays in development economics [Kenya].

Author: Baird, Sarah Jane

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Development economics ; Essays ; Comparative studies ;

Abstract:

Mitigating risk, new technology adoption and improving health and education are key mechanisms for lifting households out of poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In this dissertation we use micro-level analysis to investigate these issues in the contexts of Vietnam, India and Kenya. Although all three chapters look at diverse topics in different settings, at the heart of each analysis is an attempt to address issues essential to improving the well-being of households in developing countries. In Chapter 2 we draw on the full-insurance literature to examine the ability of households in Vietnam to smooth consumption when faced with idiosyncratic income shocks. Given the potential vulnerability of households in developing countries to weather shocks, illness and other sources of income variability, it is important to understand the extent to which households can cope with an uncertain income flow. We modify the standard approach taken in the full-insurance literature by focusing on smoothing of quantities, as opposed to expenditures. This is an important distinction because quantities, not expenditures, are what really matter for household welfare. In addition we allow for a more general characterization of preferences. We develop a simple model that leads to an estimation equation which we then test using panel data from Vietnam. We still reject full insurance across all goods, although the degree of insurance varies across goods. In particular we find that households are better able to smooth normal goods, such as rice, as opposed to more luxury goods such as meats. Chapter 3 looks at the factors that drove technology adoption of high yielding variety seeds in India during the Green Revolution. We test alternative models of technology adoption using household level panel data from a nationally representative sample of rural Indian households from 1968-1971, years that correspond with the onset of the Green Revolution. The 'price model' emphasizes input availability and price as the key determinants of the scale of adoption, while the 'learning model' focuses on learning and experience. Using decision rules derived from these two alternative models we find that although both models capture certain aspects of the adoption decision, they each disregard important components of the alternative model. We then propose a third model that combines aspects of these two approaches and use it to characterize the decision both on the scale of adoption as well as whether or not to adopt. Chapter 4 examines the long run health and education impacts of a deworming intervention in primary schools in Western Kenya. We collect a panel dataset of Kenyan youth from 1998 to 2005 to examine the medium to long term impacts of the intervention on health and education outcomes. Our results suggest that deworming treatment does have some medium-run effects, particularly on health. We find positive impacts of deworming on height, weight and a subjective measure of general health. These results seem to be largely driven by benefits to females, students in lower grades in 1998, and students living in higher infection areas, particularly high schistosomiasis areas. We find some impacts of deworming on education outcomes, most notably on dropout rates. Overall, our results suggest that a larger scale deworming project targeted at specific vulnerable sub-groups of the population may have fairly substantial health and education benefits.

Essays in development economics based on fieldwork in Western Kenya.

Author: Robinson, Jonathan

Awarding University: Princeton University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Essays/Development economics/Western Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

This dissertation consists of three chapters based on original data collected through fieldwork in Western Kenya. The dissertation is focused on whether poor individuals in developing countries are able to cope with the considerable risk that they face, and on what constrains their adoption of new technologies which appear to have the potential to considerably improve their incomes. The first chapter, entitled 'Limited Insurance within the Household: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Western Kenya,' employs a field experiment to test whether married couples are able to efficiently insure income risk between themselves. The experiment followed 143 daily income earners and their spouses for 8 weeks. Every week, each individual had a 50% chance of receiving a 150 Kenyan shilling (US $2) income shock. This chapter has 2 main results. First, households do not efficiently pool risk, as male private consumption increases in weeks in which the husband receives the experimental payment but does not change in weeks in which the wife receives the shock. Second, I explore whether limited commitment due to contract unenforceability is a possible explanation for this observed failure of full insurance. I split the sample into 3 Treatment Groups with varying levels of intra-household correlation in the experimental payments. If insurance is constrained by limited commitment, transfers should be highest when spousal incomes are uncorrelated or negatively correlated. I find evidence that women transfer more of the shock to their husbands when the shocks are independent or negatively correlated, a result which suggest that limited commitment is an important constraint on even within-household risk sharing. The second chapter (co-authored with Ethan Yeh), entitled 'Sex Work as a Response to Risk in Western Kenya,' is also concerned with how poor individuals cope with risk. This paper studies whether commercial sex workers in Kenya choose to increase their supply of better compensated but riskier unprotected sex in order to cope with unexpected income shocks. Using a panel dataset constructed from 234 self-reported sex worker diaries, we find that sex workers are more likely to see clients and have anal or unprotected sex on days in which a household member falls ill, or on days just after recovering from the symptoms of an STI. Since the HIV prevalence is 9.8% in this part of Kenya, and since health shocks are extremely common among this sample of sex workers, these choices entail significant health risks and have important implications for the spread of HIV/AIDS. The third paper (co-authored with Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer), entitled 'Understanding Technology Adoption: Fertilizer in Western Kenya,' studies why it is that only 31.1% of farmers in Western Kenya have ever used fertilizer, even though it appears to be a profitable investment. This paper reports the results from a series of field experiments designed to determine which barriers are most important in constraining technology adoption. The results suggest that learning demonstrations on farmers' plots have relatively large impacts on fertilizer adoption, but that programs which provide farmers an opportunity to commit their harvest income towards future fertilizer use may have even bigger effects. These savings programs suggest that the inability of farmers to save for even a short period of time is a significant impediment to technology adoption.