38 Records out of 22207 Records

Rethinking the practice of representative democracy : a case for increased public involvement in the law-making process in Kenya

Author: Sitienei, James Kiplagat

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Political representation/Democracy/Judicial process/Legislation/Kenya Constitution 2010/Constitutions/Kenya National Assembly Standing Orders/Public opinion/ ;

Abstract:

Every democracy ought to have a mechanism through which the public participate in the management of public affairs, including the law-making process. Sovereignty, including that of Parliament, belongs to the people but owing to the impracticability of every citizen participating in the legislative process; their representatives in Parljament represent their views. Kenya, a representative democracy has adopted this model. However, the 2010 Constitution of Kenya introduces aspects of participatory democracy by requiring that the public be involved in, among others, the legislative process. These provisions are yet to be fully implemented since a framework to facilitate public participation has not been put in place. The practice prior to the new constitutional dispensation still obtains, although some attempts have been made to allow the participation of the public. That said, various pieces of legislation have been passed without public input. The lobbying preceding such legislation has invariably put Members of Parliament in a dilemma between serving their own interests and those of the electorate. The concept of public participation is not entirely new; international instruments recognise the right to participate in public affairs, while some countries have put in place mechanisms for public participation in the law-making process and in some instances, the court has nullified legislation passed without the requisite participation of the public. Although the Kenyan Parliament has been strengthened over the years, it has not been responsive to public view. This paper evaluates the existing mechanisms for public participation by examining the Constitution, Standing Orders of the National Assembly and the practices in place for public involvement in the legislative process. The evaluation is based on an analysis of print and electronic material and on the basis of data generated. This paper identifies the existing avenues for public participation and recommends measures to give effect to constitutional provisions on public participation in the law-making process.

The diplomacy of democratization : Kenya's negotiations with Brettonwood Institutions 1989-2002

Author: Kiambati, Sheila

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Diplomacy/International relations/Democracy/Bretton Woods System/Economic growth ;

Abstract:

Sub~Saharan Africa has at least since 2nd World War; been highly integrated into the world economy. On the face of it, this integration should have lead to a higher sustained growth. It however has not but instead African Populations have continued to dwell in abject poverty. Debt and aid dependence have also exposed every African country, including Kenya to the multi-lateral lending programmers of the IMF and WB. The lending programmers focused on a standard set of macro-economic issues; public service reforms which included reduction in Public expenditure, the wage bill, liberalization of trade, domestic commodity prices and exchange rates, Privatization and other reforms. Policy reforms were first pursued by the BWI through SAPS. Since the early 1980s, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies jointly exerted pressure on recipient governments like Kenya to implement major changes in the way they managed their econotrnes. . BWI have sought to influence the government policy towards poverty reduction and democratization. Through the SAPs programmers, BWI often sought ownership of these programmers by government. The way to do this is often through diplomacy which is at the core of the business of IR. Diplomacy is the exercise by governments of power in the international component of national life. It includes management of IR through negotiation. This study examines the diplomatic process between Kenya and BWI in the period 1989-2002. It looks into how this process was influenced by the inter - play of both international and domestic politics; the negotiations that took place and its impact on the democratization process in Kenya. The study in conclusion, gives its own findings on whether democratization was part of the diplomatic process.

The role of international non-governmental organisations in the promotion of the rule of law in Kenya

Author: Kimangou, Michel

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: International relations/Nongovernmental organizations/Amnesty International/International Commission of Justice/Konrad Adenauer Stiftung/National Democratic Institute/Legal reform/Human rights/Democracy ;

Abstract:

The study examines the contributions made by International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) in the promotion of the rule of law in Kenya and it focuses on four organizations namely, Amnesty International, International Commission of Justice, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and the National Democratic Institute. A descriptive research design was used and stratified random sampling was used using the proportionate allocation method. The researcher has reviewed the relevant literature ors the subject of the four International Non-Governmental Organizations their role on the promotion of the rule or law and the strategies they have used. The researcher will critique the past studies on the rule of law and identified gaps in the literature for possible future research. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information, and the data collected was interpreted and critically analyzed. The study draws its theoretical framework from the concept of transnational theory proposed by Nye and Keohane as a guide to its analysis. Relations between states, international organizations and non-governmental organizations have changed and this has put into question the usual theories in International Relations. A transnational relation is the interaction between a state and at least one actor who is not an agent of the state. In this study, the nature of interaction is transnational for it involves a state, Kenya, and non-state actors like the ICJ, Amnesty International, KAS and NDI. The study has established that contributions have been made under the following thematic areas: Legal reforms (judicial reforms, electoral reforms, police reforms); human rights, access to justice, transparency and accountability, increasing citizen empowerment, democracy and good governance, fight against impunity and devolution. All these thematic areas are interlinked for they are dependent on each other and are all covered in the constitution. The study recommends that the government collaborates more with the INGOs by putting in place measures that ensure that the environment is conducive for the NGOs to carry out their mandates in the country and to speedily implement the propositions made by task forces on the various reforms in the country.

Ethnic minorities in Kenya's emerging democracy : philosophical foundations of their liberties and limits

Author: Oduor, Reginald M Juma

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Minority and ethnic groups ; Democracy ; Justice ; Equal rights ;

Abstract:

This study focused on the problem of the domination of Kenyan ethnic minorities by their majority counterparts. Its objective was to undertake philosophical reflection, with a view to providing a rationale for a set of moral principles to serve as- a basis for the constitutional protection of ethnic minorities in Kenya's emerging democracy. Its theoretical framework comprised of John Rawls' two principles of justice, namely, the principle of equal liberty and the principle of difference, with their emphasis on the need for society to be ordered in such a way as to cater for the interests of the least advantaged in it. The study proceeded from the assumption that political philosophy can provide a rationale for a set of moral principles upon which to build a just constitutional order. It employed two methods of inquiry, namely, description and philosophical reflection. The main finding of the study was that contrary to the liberal democratic orientation of Kenya's .constitutional order since the attainment of independence in 1963 to date, there is a sound rational basis for the constitutional protection of ethnic identities and interests due to the need to mitigate the economic, social and political domination of ethnic minorities by their majority counterparts. The study concluded that this would be best achieved by re-ordering John Rawls' two principles of justice, so that the principle of difference takes precedence over that of equality. In addition, a third principle, that of the recognition and protection of ethnic identities and interests, ought to be upheld. It recommended that the three principles be incorporated into the country's constitution as part of the national values and principles of governance.

Ethnicity and Kenya's transition to democracy, 1990 to 2007

Author: Imbenzi, Alexander Muteshi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Democracy/Political power/Minority and ethnic groups ;

Abstract:

This study examines the influence of ethnicity in the democratic transition in Kenya between 1990 - 2007. The study specifically responds to two core tasks using the Relative Group Worth Approach. Firstly, it examines and attempts an explanation on the centrality of ethnic instrumentalization and mobilization in Kenya Secondly, it analyses the impact of ethic instrumentalization and mobilization on the democratic process in Kenya. The study argues that the sluggish pace of Kenya's transition to democracy is a function of instrumentalization of ethnicity by political entrepreneurs to the extent that they derive values by polarizing identities. The study recommends that the requisite institutional framework needs to be put in place to mediate on the negative impact of ethnicity.

The role of political parties in the transition to democracy in Kenya, 1990-2002

Author: Chelogoi, Davis N

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Political parties ; Democracy ;

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is to assess the role of political parties in the transition to democracy in Kenya, 1990 - 2002. In pursuit of this objective, the research answered the following questions: To what extent have political parties promoted meaningful and extensive competition for state power? How have they enhanced political participation and sufficient civil and political liberties? It is hypothesised that the deepening of democracy and the widening of the democratic space is a direct consequence of the activities of political parties. The implication is that Political parties have a role to play in the transition to democracy. Political parties are treated as independent variable, while democracy as a dependent variable. The study found that political parties to some degree enhanced political freedom, participation and inclusiveness in the democratic transition in Kenya. Their contribution to constitutional reforms from 1990 - 2002 led to improved and widened political space, minimal voter education, nomination and selection of candidates during the 1992, 1997 and 2002 general elections, enhanced registration of many political parties, NGO's, CBOs, women organisations and welfare associations. Furthermore, political parties promoted media freedom and women empowerment. Never the less, they experienced serious obstacles that included lack of institutional framework, limited financial resources, ethnic cleavages and personality cults. It is the recommendation of this research that political parties should provide good leadership to inspire the people; the leaders should be honest, transparent, accountable and committed to the ideals of democracy. On the other hand, the government should provide a conducive environment for political parties to actively engage in political processes. It should avail an impartial free press in order to raise political awareness among the citizens. Furthermore, the government should provide adequate funding to all registered political parties. Voter education should be fully funded by the government.

Education and democratisation : the political socialisation of university undergraduate students in Kenya

Author: Ombaka, Dickson Mudhune

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: University students ; Politics ; University education ; Democracy ; Academic freedom ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

'Donor-driven' neoliberal reform processes, 'democratization' and the production of deforestation in Kenya : the case of Karura and Oloolua forests in Nairobi.

Author: Njeru, Jeremia

Awarding University: University of Wisconsin, Milwakee, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Geography ; Deforestation ; Karura Forest, Nairobi, Kenya ; Oloolua Forest, Kenya ; Foreign aid ; Democracy ;

Abstract:

In sub-Saharan Africa, like most of the developing world, democratization has coincided with neoliberal economic reform. Yet, studies of democratization and neoliberalism tend to remain separate, failing to recognize their complex interconnections, both in their material and discursive dimensions. At the heart of this dissertation research is the question of how these interconnections are manifested in the environments of urban sub-Saharan Africa. The dissertation examines the role that combined processes of implementing neoliberal adjustment programs and electoral democratization in Kenya played in the deforestation of Karura and Oloolua forest reserves. The forest reserves are located in Nairobi, the nation's commercial and political capital. Both forests underwent accelerated loss of trees and land in the 1990s, a period during which state elites were grappling with early phases of neoliberal reform and electoral democratization in the country. Additionally, the dissertation examines responses from various civil society groups and individuals to the issue of deforestation. Ideas in urban political ecology, debates around relationships between the environment and both processes of democratization and neoliberal economic reform, and discussions of collective action arising from civil society and social movements inform the analysis in this dissertation. The dissertation draws from interviews and discussions conducted with state and city officials, key individuals of various civil society groups, and ordinary Nairobi residents. The dissertation also considers relevant print materials. This study concludes that the realities of electoral democracy and neoliberal economic reform in Kenya complicate simplistic views of the interactions between democratization and neoliberalism. The study argues that the pressure to satisfy donors with a neoliberal agenda, in combination with the pressure to raise funds to compete in a multiparty election, led state elites to sell and develop the public forests to reserve their power, under the pretense of privatization and reform.

The impact of ethnicity on Kenya's democratic transition 1990 - 2007

Author: Ng'ang'a, Watau

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : Master of Internatio

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Impact analysis ; Multiculturalism and pluralism ; Minority and ethnic groups ; Democracy ; Political power ; History ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Microcosms of democracy : Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and their impact on political attitudes and behaviour in Kenya.

Author: Liston, V

Awarding University: Trinity College Dublin, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Index To Theses ;

Subject Terms: Political science ; Democracy ; Nongovernmental organizations ; Political behavior ;

Abstract:

This study contributes to the general question of whether the democratic functioning of civil society organisations is a necessary condition for building a democratic political culture. Specifically, it empirically tests the effect of internal governance structures of non-governmental organisations in Kenya on employees? political attitudes and behaviour. Current literature is characterised by a debate on the contribution of civil society to democratisation (Diamond, 1999; Bratton & de Walle, 1997; Dicklitch, 1998; Nzomo, 2003; Chabal and Daloz, 1999; Orvis, 2001; Murunga, 2000; Kinyanga, 2003) as well as the role of democracy ?all the way down; in achieving democratic consolidation (Rosenblum, 2002; Shapiro, 1999). Whereas the pluralist school holds that a proliferation of associational organisations is necessary for a democratic society other authors argue that these organisations will only contribute to democratisation if they themselves practice internal democracy. This dissertation empirically tests two questions. Firstly, do experiences of democracy result in internalisation of democratic values and behaviours and secondly, do these values and behaviours transmit to networks and other organisations? The study is conducted among 159 employees of 36 international and pan-African NGOs in Kenya. It finds that, contrary to the assumptions of the development paradigm, democratic values do not transmit as a result of democratic experiences. It finds that higher levels of political behaviour are attributed to ethnic sentiment and resistance to political discussion within the family. There is no evidence, however, that this political behaviour is targeted towards democratic goals. In summary, findings suggest that experiences of micro-level democracy do not contribute to the acquisition of democratic attitudes or transmission behaviour as postulated by civic culture theory.