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The role of media in curbing corruption in Kenya : the case of the Nation and the Standard media groups

Author: Mutala, Ruth Ngina

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2912

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Media coverage ; Corruption ; Nation Media Group ; Standard Media Group ;

Abstract:

This study focuses on corruption in Kenya and the roles that the media play in curbing the problem. According to the Transparency International corruption Index 20 II, Kenya lies towards the bottom as one of the most corrupt countries, at position 154 out of 183 with a perception Index of2.2. Over the years, billions of shillings have been lost through numerous corruption deals, hence deepening the levels of poverty in the country. The problem of corruption in Kenya has existed since independence and seems to only have increased with every new government. Due to the magnitude of the problem, it has become necessary to use all means possible to curb the menace. This study examined the roles that media play in the fight against corruption. Through the agenda setting function, the media have the potential to create awareness by keeping the corruption stories high on the public agenda. At the same time, the media through various gatekeepers, the reporters, the editors and the managers decide what information gets to the masses. The amount and type of information published in the dailies is influenced by various factors such as governance, media regulation and ownership. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used to investigate the roles that media play, the effect of reporting corruption stories and some of the challenges the media experience in performing these roles. Among the findings of the study were that the war against corruption cannot be won without the involvement of media. That the media playa crucial role in creating awareness as well as in putting the government in check and pressuring it to prosecute cases that were reported. It was also found out that a lot of gatekeeping was done from the various levels of management, the editorial team and that many corruption stories went unreported. The media were experiencing numerous challenges such as political influence and the influence of the owners of the media firms. There was need to enhance the freedom of the press (to protect journalists) both through the law and the in-house regulation, thus to ensure more effective and objective reporting of corruption stories and other stories of human interest.

Corruption and traditional African morality : a case of the Kabras community of Western Kenya

Author: Kivoi, Douglas L A

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kabras (African people)/Ethnology/Traditions/Corruption/Morality/Social psychology/Abakabras USE Kabras (African people) ;

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to establish the link between corruption and anachronistic African traditional moral value systems within the context of the Kabras morality of western Kenya. Thus this dissertation focused on socio-cultural 'moral' value systems that it believed are responsible for abetting corruption in the Kenyan society since traditional communal attitudes and beliefs seem to have 'toned down' condemnation of corrupt persons especially if the suspect comes from 'ones' community. Perpetrators of corruption often find some rationalizations to pacify their consciences off feelings of guilt and shame. The main argument of this study was that some traditional African 'moral' values have undermined the fight against corruption. The study has established that moral values like respect, reciprocation and trust can become vices if they are interpreted and practiced wrongly. For example, authoritarianism silences critical inquiry, probity and accountability all in the name of 'respect for authority.' If trust is wrongly interpreted it negates common sense which is vital for human well being. Negative ethnicity breeds egoism at the expense of the common good. We examined various elements of the Kabras culture (their proverbs and WIse sayings) and their significance in the creation of philosophy. Here knowledge claims made by community elders and empirical data collected through anthropological, sociological and historical activities was discussed and analysed through logical and conceptual analysis. Qualitative data was gathered from in-depth unstructured interviews, direct observation, written document reviews and other secondary sources Qualitative research was aimed to gathering an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigated the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples were used in this research. This was in agreement with Bent! who argues that qualitative methods and case study research may be used both for hypotheses-testing and for generalizing beyond the particular cases studied. It also involved participant observation where the researcher systematically seeked out and organized data concerning what was being studied based on humanism theory and methodology rather than focusing on achieving a situationally defined goals. Quantitative data was collected through structured interviews both formal and informal, personal observation and individual participation in community sessions especially during settling disputes amongst community members and other communal gatherings. This study viewed corruption as a moral problem hence its adoption of humanism theory. Humanism among other characteristics extends moral equivalence to all persons. Humanism is a philosophy that espouses reason, morality, and the search for human fulfillment while rejecting supernatural and religious dogmas as the basis of morality and decision making. This requires human beings to evolve from the tendency to identify with groups thus propagating corruption, to a tendency to identify with all persons. This study found out that traditional African moral values and customs have contributed to the flouting of moral rules and regulations that govern human : relationships thus opening up avenues for corruption to thrive. Some African traditional moral values seem to encourage disrespect for formal procedures and regulations thus promoting nepotism hence violating the principle of objectivity and fairness. This study also found out that people whose conscience (s) has not been properly nurtured are deceived by misinterpreted forms of reciprocation, authoritarianism, aversion for scrutiny and ethnocentrism. This study has also highlighted the disintegration of moral and national values as being responsible for aversion to transparency and accountability in society. The study recommends moral empowerment, civic educatio

Integration of corporate governance in strategic management at the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission

Author: Kemboi, Abraham Kipkoech

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Corporate governance/Strategic management/Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission ;

Abstract:

Corporate governance issues are of great concern in the world today because of its influences on the effectiveness and relevance of an organization's strategy. Organizations are more than ever, under increased pressure to be proactive in reforming various aspects of corporate governance to protect stakeholders' interests. A weak corporate governance results in weak organizational strategy, which seriously compromises the strategic positioning and success of an organization. The objective of this study was to determine the integration of corporate governance practices in strategic management at the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission. The research design adopted by the study was a case study. The study used primary as well as secondary data. The primary data were collected using an interview guide where as the secondary data were obtained from the Commission's manuals. The data was analyzed qualitatively using content analysis. The study found out that the commission practised corporate governance as evidenced by presence of a robust corporate governance instruments such as code of conduct, audit committee and a functional board/commissioners. Corporate governance has been incorporated in commission's strategic management as indicated in the commission's current strategic plan. From the findings, it was concluded that the major challenge faced in implementing corporate governance at Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission was mainly due to external political constraints and lack of internal stakeholder participation during strategy formulation. Arising from the findings, it was recommended that the Government of Kenya addresses political constraints affecting the Commission, and the Commission in tum encourages stakeholder participation in strategy formulation.

Curbing corruption in public procurement in Kenya : a case for mainstreaming social accountability

Author: Muraya, Julius Njire

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Corruption in government ; Purchasing ; Public enterprise ; Social responsibility ;

Abstract:

Globally, the last three decades have seen intensified reforms in public procurement in two predominant ways: Bounding discretionary powers within clearly defined transactional rules and opening government contracting to the market discipline of full and fair competition. Kenya has been no exception. Nonetheless, a growing number of scandals and value of loss through corruption in public procurement provide compelling evidence that more has to be done than merely wrestling public procurement from the government's control. This study looks at the phenomenon of corruption in public procurement to challenge the reflexive tendency to fireproof procurement through more intense regulation of the processes coupled with heavier penal sanctions for breach. It makes a case for a recast of the accountability regime. Corruption is identified as a force of an insidious nature, finding host from within and outside the prescriptive rules and the market ordering. It threatens the stability of the new accountability regime. To leverage against debilitating corruption, it is argued that infusion of the diffused social accountability mechanisms of civic oversight and participation is an imperative. This study makes a compelling case for the mainstreaming of social accountability by pointing at the space, place and potency of its mechanisms in the fight against public procurement-related corruption in the Kenyan context. Key words: Corruption, public procurement, social accountability.

A critical assessment of the effects of the media on students' perceptions on ethics and anti-corruption in Kenya : a case study of the University of Nairobi

Author: Mwangangi, Stephen Mbaluki

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media ; University students ; Perceptions ; Ethics ; Corruption ; University of Nairobi, Kenya ; Colleges and universities ;

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to identify the effects of the media on the perceptions of University of Nairobi students towards ethics and anti-corruption in Kenya. The research only focused on the University of Nairobi students as the key respondents. This study used qualitative methods including interviews, focus group discussions and participatory observation and applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The study used purposive random sampling in selection of survey respondents. 200 respondents from the six colleges of the University of Nairobi were involved in the study. 12 Focus Group Discussions were held with 10 participants per group. Quantitative data was expressed in terms of numbers while qualitative (categorical) data was expressed by description summary and descriptive statistics gathered. The findings of the study showed that the media has positively affected students' perceptions towards ethics and anti-corruption. However, although knowledge and awareness on corruption in Kenya and in the University of Nairobi is high, adoption of ethics and anti-corruption is still low. Majority of Kenyans and university students still practice various forms of corruption. However, it is evident that the work of the media and CSOs in the fight against corruption in Kenya is being recognized. Awareness has not translated into perception change as most people would expect. This shows that other ways to educate people than the ones currently being used must be put in place. It is clear that use of other media platforms especially social media in the struggle can achieve a lot. The study has included recommendations to address corruption and change of perception towards ethics and anti-corruption in Kenya and in the University of Nairobi.

Slaying the corruption dragon with bare hands : a case for granting prosecutorial powers to Kenya's Ethics and Anti-corruption Commission

Author: Olola, James Otieno

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Corruption ; Attorneys general ; Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission ; KACC use Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission ; Prosecutions ; Law enforcement ;

Abstract:

The study begins by acknowledging that corruption is not a new phenomenon in Kenya. As early as 1956, The Colonial Administration saw it fit to put in place a legislative framework for fighting corruption through the enactment of the Prevention of Corruption Ordinance. The 1963 Independence Constitution continued this trend by creating a powerful office of the Attorney General (AG) who by dint of Section 26 thereof was empowered to exercise near exclusive powers of prosecution on behalf of the State. The AG's office is stated in the Constitution to be an office in the public service and as such the holder is expected at all times to act in the public interest. In this regard, Section 26(6) of the Constitution granted and guaranteed the holder of the office independence in the discharge of hislher duties. However, notwithstanding such express declaration of independence by the Constitution, available evidence indicates that it has virtually been impossible for the AG to independently commence and complete prosecutions against individuals who are part of the government and/or who enjoy the protection of powerful people in government. Nowhere is the lack of independence and failure to act in the public interest more manifest and evident than the area of prosecution for corruption and economic crimes. Since independence in 1963, Kenya has experienced some of the most high profile, international corruption scandals in the region. These include the Goldenberg and the Anglo Leasing Finance scandals. In late 2002, the newly elected NARC government took office on anti-corruption platform and proceeded to enact the Anti- Corruption and Economic Crimes Act, No.3 of 2003. The Act established the Kenya Anti- Corruption Commission (KACC) with a statutory mandate of fighting corruption and economic crimes. The structure of KACC assumes a three-pronged strategy based on investigation, public education, prevention and advisory services, and civil recovery and restitution. Since its establishment however, KACC's ability to deter and combat corruption has been weak. This study attributes this weakness to the fact that the Commission does not have prosecutorial powers on its own and can only recommend cases to the AG for prosecution. While there are a number of variables that could play a role in explaining the perceived failures, this study finds that the absence of a specialized, in-house prosecution unit and the lack of inter-agency co-operation and coordination between the Commission and the AG's office is arguably one of them. Comparing KACC to Nigeria's Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) which is endowed with prosecutorial powers, the study notes that while Nigeria faces even higher levels of corruption than in Kenya, the EFCC has largely managed to execute its mandate effectively and efficiently. The underpinning argument advanced in this study therefore identifies law enforcement and prosecutorial functions as a factor in achieving this success.

Factors influencing staff engagement in corruption in the Public Service of Kenya : a case of the Department of Immigration

Author: Mbogo, Cyrus Murithi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Department of Immigration (Kenya) ; Government employees ; Corruption ; Bribery ; Corporate culture ; Public opinion ;

Abstract:

The study sought to establish the factors that influence staff engagement in corruption in the Department of Immigration in Kenya. The study was identified based on the high corruption perception index of the Department of Immigration in Kenya and equally high corruption perception index of the country worldwide. This is despite the measure put in place to fight corruption. The study objective was to investigate influence of organizational culture, level of automation, legal framework, staff motivation and public perception in the engagement of staff of the department in corruption. The importance of the study was to assist the government to unveil the secret behind the continued corruption in the department despite the efforts to fight the vice. The study used purposive sampling technique and descriptive survey design. The data was collected using mail questionnaires for areas outside Nairobi with additional observation methods. The data analysis used both descriptive qualitative and descriptive quantitative methods. The findings were analysed through comparison of the raw data presented in tabular forms and other illustrative diagrams. The major factors that influence staff to engage in corruption were found to be bad organizational culture and the high public perception that the department is corrupt. The study recommends the department to review the regulations and requirements for clear understanding by the customers, put in place proper and effective automation systems to deal with numerous corruption malpractices, appropriate measures be put in place and seal loopholes that enhance opportunities for bribery by the service seekers. Further, to undertake specific case studies and also motivate public sector employees.

The African Union Legal regime for combating corruption : a critical assessment, 2003-2010

Author: Tuta, John Kithome

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Corruption/African Union/Legislation ;

Abstract:

Corruption has been a constant feature in human society since time immemorial. In Africa, corruption is estimated to cost the continent about US$150 billion per annum. After the Second World War, international regimes have become a common feature of the workings of the international system, especially in the financial sector. Such regimes regulate the conduct of states and other actors to ensure that there is an orderly way of conducting affairs, especially business, so that the conduct of one actor does not unduly prejudice the interests of others due to the interdependency of the international system. For some time now, corruption has been a big issue in the international arena especially after the enactment of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (United States), which led to the current international anti-corruption movement. Since the end of the Cold War, the world has witnessed an evolution of an international anti-corruption regime. This is evidenced by a deluge of anti-corruption instruments (treaties, statutes, acts or constitutions or declarations) adopted at international, regional, sub-regional and national levels. Consequently, states and non-state actors have been under a lot of internal and external pressure to abide by this regime. The overall goal of this regime is to prevent and combat corruption and facilitate equal access to opportunities and enjoyment of human rights. While noting that Africa has suffered the brunt of corruption and also poor governance ratings, this paper seeks to interrogate and assess the efficacy of the African response to this new anti-corruption regime. Thus the paper examines the legal, policy and institutional framework that the African Union (AU) has put in place for preventing and combating corruption. The paper seeks, inter alia, to critique the African Union Convention Preventing and Combating Corruption in the light of its philosophical foundations, strengths, weaknesses, structure, and strategy. The paper seeks to examine the phenomenon of corruption and anti-corruption in Africa in the context of the following issues: the philosophical framework; the role of treaties in fighting corruption; the roles of various actors and organs in the fight against corruption; whether international organizations, such as the AU, can regulate the conduct of their member states, to implement anti-corruption instruments, and what it takes to have a successful integrity system. While undertaking the study, a descriptive research design was used. Data was collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data (from leading anti-corruption actors and practitioners in Africa) was collected using non-probability and extreme case sampling techniques. The data was then analysed using quick impressionist summary and thematic analysis. With regard to the conceptual framework, the study is informed by legal positivism and shows that laws enacted by competent authorities have to be obeyed if corruption is to be eradicated. Some tenets of functionalism and international regal regime theories are also employed to show the benefits that arise from inter-state co-operation in fighting corruption. The paper concludes that enhanced implementation of anti-corruption treaties wi11lead to reduced corruption levels and relatively low corruption perception levels. Fighting corruption is not an event but a process, involving many actors, organs and a combination of anti-corruption strategies. It is imperative to review the AU anti-corruption structures and strategy to address any inherent weaknesses. And since corruption is a socio-economic problem, about 70% of anticorruption activities and resources should concentrate on prevention as opposed to enforcement and adjudication. Finally, the principles of autochthony and legitimacy should be employed in the design and implementation of anti-corruption laws, policies, programmes and institutions, especially for countries emerging from long years of c

Factors contributing to persistent fresh water shortages in major urban areas in Kenya : the case of Mombasa Municipality

Author: Kigen, Tuitoek Kipkorir

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mombasa, Kenya/Water supply/Corruption/Mombasa Water and Sewerage Company ;

Abstract:

Water is a basic human right as it is fundamental to life and death. It is a key factor in improving health, economic productivity and social well being of the human populace as both social and economic activities rely heavily on the quantity and quality of water. Despite its significance in sustaining human. livelihoods, access to water largely remains a pipe dream for many people globally and particularly in developing countries. Like many other developing countries, provision of water has remained one of the greatest challenges for the Kenyan government to surmount. Mombasa, Kenya's second largest city has over the years borne the brunt of persistent water shortages. With a daily water demand of 180,000 cubic metres against a total supply of 40,000 cubic metres a day, the city is left with a water deficit of 140,000 cubic meters a day. The study sought to ascertain the factors contributing to persistent fresh water shortages in major urban areas in Kenya, with Mombasa City. as its case study. Of key concern to the study was the contribution of factors such as corruption, political interference, financial constraints and staffmg, to persistent fresh water shortages in Mombasa Municipality. The survey research design was employed by the study. The study targeted employees from Mombasa Water and Sewerage Company, the Coast Water Services Board, the Municipal Council of Mombasa, as well as water kiosk operators as its target population. Purposive and stratified sampling was used to select 89 respondents from the target institutions for the study. Questionnaires and key informant interviews were used as the main data collection instruments/methods. The statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) was used to analyze data which was presented in form of frequency tables supported by percentages and narratives. Cross tabulations were also used to examine the relationships between various variables. The study found out that corruption was a common phenomenon in the management of water resources in Mombasa; political interference was also evident in the operations of MOWASCO; financial constraints also emerged as the leading obstacle behind MOWASCO's limited investment in water infrastructure and lastly, staffing challenges such as poor motivation contributed significantly to the involvement of MOW ASCO staff in corrupt dealings. The study concluded that corruption had contributed to persistent water shortages by denting the company's income; political interference on the other hand was responsible for the leadership vacuum in the company as evidenced by the absence of a Board of Directors; financial constraints were affecting the company's ability to invest in new water infrastructure; and finally, poor remuneration and the lack of an effective staff rewarding system had contributed to staff involvement in harmful practices such illegal water connections.

The impact of corruption on structural violence in Africa : a case study of Kenya 1993-2008

Author: Ochieng', Felgona Atieno

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Corruption ; Conflict ;

Abstract:

The specific objectives of this study are to examine the link between corruption and violence and to investigate the impact of corruption on structural violence in Kenya. The study is divided into five key sections. The first chapter introduces the research and the overall aims of the study. The second part examines corruption and violence trends in Kenya. The third section looks into the impact of corruption on structural violence in Africa, specifically Kenya. The fourth part is questionnaire administration and analysis and the final part highlights .conclusions and recommendations. The study found that: (i) though many appreciated corruption, many did not believe there is a common definition for it(ii) most Kenyans believes that there is a either a very strong or strongly link between corruption and violence (iii) lack of political will is the major impediment in the fight against corruption (iv) the governance framework in Kenya contributes to corruption and conflict (v) 100% of the respondents said that countries with high levels of corruption are more likely to have conflict (vi) respondents did not think that lack of common understanding on corruption is likely to lead to unsuccessful anti-corruption initiatives.