220 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors that influence employee performance in Kenya Wildlife Service

Author: Sokoro, James Mogaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Employee morale/Motivation/Job satisfaction/Quality of service/Kenya Wildlife Service/Wildlife conservation ;

Abstract:

Understanding the factors that influence employee performance is vital because the organization will reinforce those factors to improve performance. State Corporations and Private Companies play a key role in the Kenyan economy; however adequate attention has not been focused on understanding the factors that influence employee performance. The main objective of this research was to determine the factors that influence employee performance in Kenya Wildlife Service. A survey questionnaire was designed and utilized to collect data regarding several factors that affect employee performance. The data was collected and analyzed statistically to support or reject the propositions in the research. The findings of the research indicated that seven factors predominantly influenced employee performance. The results provided support for the research proposal that a number of factors influence employee performance in Kenya Wildlife Service. From the study it was concluded that organizational factors such as the organizational structure, work environment, nonmaterial incentives, and individual factors such as knowledge, skills, attitude and rewards influence employee performance. This study examined factors that influence employee performance usmg a descriptive case study of Kenya wildlife service. To this end therefore the same study should be carried out in other organizations to determine if the same results would be obtained: The study used a sample size of 316 respondents and thus the study suggests that for other studies determining factors that influence employee performance, a larger sample size should be used to obtain more accurate conclusions on this subject.

Displacement conservation in Kenya : the case of the Mau Forest Complex

Author: Oluwafunmilola, Aderonke Adekeye

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conservation ; Social impact ; Mau Forest, Kenya ; Forests ; Okiek (African people) ;

Abstract:

The project reviews existing literature which examines the Kenyan government's defense on displacement for conservation in the Mau Forest complex. Although evidence abounds that certain human activities such as logging, forest burning, plantations, etc have caused degradation of forests and endangered no evidence shows that the Ogiek undertake theses practices and therefore despite the government's good intentions displacing the Ogiek would be 'contrary to the aim of conserving the critical resources in the Mau Forest Complex. The study examines how displacement can also be a source of conflict by displacing a population they become even more impoverished with their lifestyle being altered as a result. The aim of the study was to give an overview of how conservation can be a form of natural resource conflict through the practice of displacement. Also shows that displacement of indigenous people is either justifiable or not but also what are the repercussions on politics and ecology. Recommendation from this study highlighted the need for alternative conservation practice the most favored was participatory approach to conservation which involves ail the stakeholders conserving the forests while removing the poverty element that results from access denial. Information gathered for the study were from interviews held, articles from books, magazines, internet search. Some of the key findings for the study outlined the fact that displacement while it is good intentioned it is detrimental to those who are affected by the practice the Ogieks who become impoverished as a result of being displaced from their habitation. Secondly, displacement is an expensive process should policy makers decide to resettle the indigenous people the cost of the land, the host community would also require. compensatio~ of some form for allowing an increase in their community, risk of conflicts between the settlers and the host community due to resource scarcity . participatory conservation is seen as the best option for forest conservation. This ensures all stakeholders are catered to, preventing the feeling of loss by one side.

The role of community-based conservation on poverty reduction in Westgate community conservancy in Samburu

Author: Lalampaa, Tom Jonathan

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Westgate Community Conservancy ; Samburu County ; Conservation ; Low income groups ; Rural development ; Tourism ;

Abstract:

Protected areas have always been seen as a kind of alien elements, another heritage from colonial times, mostly more beneficial to tourists from rich countries than the country's own poor population especially the people living around the parks. The problem with many of the past efforts to conserve nature has been that nature conservation has taken place without paying any attention to the interests and needs of local people. Local communities seldom had any advantages from tourism. The income primarily went to the tourism industry and to the central government. In most cases only a limited part of the revenue was reinvested in the parks and an even smaller part was allocated to development of local communities' adjacent to the protected areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of communitybased conservation on poverty reduction in Westgate Community Conservancy in Samburu County. This study was a descriptive survey. Descriptive survey was preferred for it is used to obtain information concerning the current status of a phenomenon. The population for this study was the seven management official of the Westgate conservancy and the 987 community members living in areas surrounding Westgate conservancy. The research used a census approach to pick all the seven management staff in Westgate conservancy. As for the community living in areas immediately surrounding Westgate conservancy, the study used systematic sampling to select the manyattas and then select the head of households within the manyattas using purposeful sampling so as to come up with 10% of the target population. The researcher therefore selected 98 community members from areas surrounding Westgate conservancy. The sample size of this study was 105 respondents. A questionnaire was used to gather information from community members from areas surrounding Westgate conservancy. In addition, the study also used interview guides to collect data from the seven management officials in Westgate conservancy. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were employed in the analysis. The study found that improved security influences poverty reduction at Westgate Community Conservancy in Samburu County most followed by enterprise development, institutional governance, improved range management and wildlife conservation was influencing poverty reduction least. The study recommends that the government and non-governmental organisations should focus on improving infrastructure of the area and also enhance the accessibility of financial resources to the residents for them to come up with businesses that are related to tourism for instance hotels and restaurants. This study also recommends that a lot of attention and resources be accorded to the security docket. This will ensure that tourism will thrive and with it the economy of this region.

Effects of soil and water conservation practices on food security of small scale households : a case study of Machakos County, Kenya

Author: Madara, Audrey

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Soil conservation ; Water conservation ; Food security ; Farmers ; Machakos County ;

Abstract:

The economic performance and development prospects of many developing countries like Kenya are largely dependent on cash crop production. The heavy dependence of these developing countries on agricultural commodities exposes them to adverse economic impacts, sometimes with harmful consequences for growth and the reduction of poverty (Doppler, 2004). The study covered Muisuni are in Kangundo, Machakos district in a quest to establish the effects of soil and water conservation practices of food security. The study had a response rate of 52 per cent where 57.7 percent (i.e. 30) respondents were male and 42.3 percent (22) were female. 61.5 percent were of secondary & above education levels, as expected, 71.2 percent were elderly with 41 years arid above and the majority 90.4 percent was married. The study was looking at answering its research questi of a) to establish how farmers in the study area are exposed to agricultural extension educative efforts; b) to establish the level of food security among the households sampled; c) to examine the characteristics of the households sampled; d) to find out the types of soil and water conservation practices recommended and used and finally e) their level of adoption by households. The study mainly used frequency tables on every variable to try and look at the significance in relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable in our case being food security. This study focused on water and soil conservation to impact on the food production (maize) and security in developing countries Was a modest attempt to bridge the knowledge gap on the various ways to deal with rain water sources, reduce soil degradation and increase food production. From the multivariate level, there were 5 household characteristics variables in the model, the model showed a weak relationship where 37.98 percent of the variation in food security is accounted for by the independent variables in the model. From the results as well, age was seen as having the highest strength in variation as compared to the other four independent variable, meaning that for the age variable, we would expect an increase of 20.95 percent in the food security variable score for every one unit increase in age value assuming that all the other variables in the model are held constant. According to the model, it also shows that gender has a highly negative variation to the dependent variable food security. The study therefore concluded that Age is a very important factor to food security as amongst others, it show that the respondents are well exposed to information and are conclusively aware of what to expect and where to go to in cases of agricultural deficiencies. The study recommended further research to food security as food security does not only focus on crop yield. The study therefore recommends further conclusive research be done to combine the various components of food security in order to get the conclusive impact of independent variables to food security. Early warning systems should be put in place in order to assist the farmers plan and have knowledge on what decisions to make on their farming practices. Partnering with the private sector should also be encouraged this will facilitate sharing of information.

The role of interpersonal communication on environmental conservation : a case study on the Aberdare Ecosystem

Author: Mwangi, Catherine Wambui

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Interpersonal communication ; Environmental protection ; Conservation ; Aberdares National Park, Kenya ; Ecosystems ;

Abstract:

Communication is a vital tool for transferring meaning in organisations. Communication is a mechanism through which people shape relationships. Thus, the attainment of organisational goals is dependent on effective communication. Over the years, the wildlife and forests of the Aberdares faced numerous threats arising from human activities, including poaching, bush-meat hunting, snaring, illegal logging, charcoal burning and encroachment. Regular crop damage by wildlife, especially elephant, was a major problem for the farmers, who suffered great losses. Encounters between farmers and wildlife occasionally led to human fatalities Rhino Ark Charitable Trust, (2010). The objective of the study was to investigate the role of interpersonal communication in environmental conservation of Aberdare ecosystem. This study adopted a case study research design. The population of interest for this study was the Aberdare national park employees and senior management who may have the relevant information. Stratified random sampling was used to pick 30% of the target population which was 72 respondents. The study used both primary and secondary data collection in gathering data. The study concludes that interpersonal communication has not been fully embraced at Aberdare national park. Poor interpersonal communication has affected motivation, organizational commitment, teamwork and leadership of Aberdare national park employee's. The study recommends that Aberdare national park should embrace fully interpersonal communication in order to conserve its ecosystem. . The study further recommends that there is need for Aberdare national park to understand the influence of interpersonal communication on motivation, organizational commitment, teamwork and leadership in order for them to fully embrace interpersonal communication in their goal of conservation of Aberdare ecosystem.

The impact of environmental legal frameworks and collaborations on operations of environmental NGOs in Kenya

Author: Muganda, Paul Kareri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Environmental law ; Environmental protection ; Conservation ; Nongovernmental organizations ;

Abstract:

The environment is one of the issues that are today widely debated in various forums around the world. This is because of its importance in national and global socio-economic developmeat. This has come about on the realization of the central role good environmental conditions play in the well-being of mankind on this planet both in the present and for posterity. The state of the environment has a heavy bearing on economic and social status of human populations. The destruction of the environment in various parts of the globe is posing serious challenges on livelihoods and lifestyles of people that reside in those areas. Biological diversity is not spared either as the populations of many of them become diminished or even extinct. The increasing awareness of the significance of environment has led to the emergence of many actors whose objectives are to promote sound environmental conservation methods as well as address factors that lead to degradation of the environment. One group of these actors is the Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs). Over the years, ENGOs have grown in numbers and influence and currently playa crucial role in the efforts to enhance the conservation of the environment world over. They engage in diverse sectors of the environment and interact with a wide range of other actors in making sure the conservation of the environment is undertaken in a more aggressive way. In Kenya the environmental NGOs have been around since independence and their numbers have increased steadily over the years. Currently the presence of ENGOs is visible in various parts of this country and they engage on their own and also collaborate with other players in activities geared to promote conservation of the environment. The crucial role of the environment in the lives of mankind inspired interest and choice of this field study. This study sets out to find out how environmental NGOs have fared in their environmental conservation objectives and endeavors and what factors 'have affected their performance. With this in mind, the study analyses the collaboration between ENGOs and the government in environmental conservation, and the environmental legal frameworks in Kenya. The core of the study is the analysis of the impacts these collaborations and environmental legal frameworks have had on operations of NGOs in the field of environmental conservation in Kenya. One of the findings of the study is that the environmental legal frameworks currently obtained in Kenya are adequate for effective conservation of the environment. The study has concluded that the major impediment to environmental conservation in the country has been the failure to adequately implement exiting environmental laws. Some of the factors behind the poor implementation of environmental laws in Kenya are the weaknesses in institutional capacities of governmental institutions mandated to enforce laws, lack of political will and inadequate funding of government institutions that conserve environment and biodiversity. The study concludes that shoddy and inadequate implementation of environmental legal frameworks by governmental agencies concerned have undermined the operations of ENGOs in the country. The study has also established that the current levels of collaborations between environmental NGOs and government in Kenya are not adequate for efficient and effective promotion of environmental conservation. Weak linkages and lack of transparency are some of the factors cited for undermining effective collaboration of environmental NGOs and governmental institutions in the country. The data for the study was obtained through both secondary and primary sources of data collection. The secondary data came from both published and unpublished documents, while the primary data was gathered through both interactive interviews and structured questionnaires. One of the recommendations of this study is that the government should improve and strengthen the

Factors affecting adoption of conservation Agriculture among small holder farmers in Ngata Division, Nakuru County

Author: Mugo, Beatrice Jepkorir

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Soil conservation ; Tillage ; Farmers ; Agricultural extension work ; Ngata Division ;

Abstract:

Conservation agriculture is a set of practices widely promoted to increase productivity while conserving soil through reduced tillage, mulching and crop rotation. Conservation agriculture was introduced in the Ngata division to solve the problem of soil degradation caused by poor ploughing methods. Despite its introduction in the area, adoption of these practices remains below expectations. The study was conducted to determine the factors which influence the small holder farmers' decision to adopt conservation Agriculture technology and examine information sources in Ngata division. Data was collected from selected smallholder farmers using a proportionate stratified random sampling. In the first stage, the Locations were stratified into five stratas based on the degree of conservation Agriculture extension efforts. Finally, a total of 120 household heads were selected randomly using probability proportional to size of the Location. Quantitative data were collected from sampled households using structured interview schedule. The structured interview schedule was pre-tested, revised and then administered by well-trained enumerators recruited from the study area. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviations and frequencies were used to summarize the data while t test and chi square was used to test the hypotheses .. The results indicated that age, education, farm size, frequency of contact with extension agent, and frequency of participation in field days were found to have positive and significant influence on adoption of conservation agriculture .. Family size, sex, experience did not affect adoption. Training and demonstrations were found to be the major sources of information Based on these key findings, there is need for more extension effort in terms of extension service so as to encourage farmers to adopt conservation agriculture. Improving smallholder farmers' access to farm credit through appropriate government interventions will also help smallholder fanners ensure food security at household level.

The impact of human activities on Wetlands : a case study of Ondiri Wetland in Kiambu County, Kenya

Author: Muchiri, Nancy W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Ondiri Wetland ; Kiambu County ; Wetlands ; Environmental conditions ; Sustainable development ; Conservation ;

Abstract:

Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems on the earth; they are areas permanently or periodically waterlogged which offers the neighboring communities socio-cultural, economic and ecological values. The Ondiri wetland is highly regarded for its functions and values just like any other wetland in the world. Wetlands bertefits, sometimes called 'services', may be broadly grouped according to functions ( groundwater recharge, flood control, maintenance of biodiversity), products or uses( agricultural produce, fish, building materials, fuel wood, wildlife products) and attributes (aesthetic values, cultural or religious significance). The maintenance of wetlands as functioning ecological systems often ensures that important contributions to development are maintained. This study investigated the impact of human activities on the Ondiri natural resources in Kikuyu District of Kiambu County. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of human activities on Ondiri wetland at a time both legislative institutions such as National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have been put in place to spearhead environmental conservation programs in Kenya. Disjointed efforts of conservation of wetlands which have been initiated by the government, NGOs such as Friends of Ondiri Wetland Conservation (FOWCON) and other stakeholders are yet to achieve positive gains. The study identified better result-oriented strategies geared towards sustainable use and conservation of natural resources. A total of 64 respondents were selected from the study area using stratified. random sampling technique. Structured questionnaires, interview schedules, observation and literature review were used to gather data. Quantitative data was analyzed with aid of Statistical Package for Social Scientists program (SPSS). Simple descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequencies were used to determine correlation of data variables. The results showed that human activities by the local community around the wetland were resulting in negative effects on Ondiri wetland. In particular the results singled out overextraction of water using water pumps, encroachment the bank for agricultural activities as the main human activities contributing negatively' to harmony and co-existence between the community, biodiversity and the Ondiri wetland natural resources. It was concluded that the outcome of human activities had led to environmental degradation and the respondents concurred that the wetland could as well get extinct in the near future. Conflicting policies on wetland natural resources were regarded as counter-productive and have little to show as achievements gained. Regulations need not only to be put in place, but also ensure fuere is an enpowered monitoring unit to supervise and check on all activities touching on the Ondiri wetland. Selfish interests by stakeholders were also to blame for the continued encroachment on the Ondiri wetland. It was also concluded that respondents support the need for harmonized strategies for sustainabe wetland use and conservation, residents were willing to support such intiatives. The study recommends that all conservation programs and strategies be coordinated under one umbrella body to spearhead efforts to salvage the Ondiri wetlands. The existing policy and legal frameworks have not gained a lot considering that human activities continue encroaching on wetland resources. It is also recommended that all conservation programs and bodies be harmonized in order to yield more meaningful results. The study also recommends that agricultural extension services and environmental monitoring units be revitalized so as ensure that the wetland resources are not over-utilized. Sustainable utilization and co-existence between the human activities and the natural resources is the preferred option for the moment and the future.

Factors influencing implementation of forest conservation measures in Rachuonyo South District, Homa-Bay County

Author: Mukodo, George Odipo Owino

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Forests ; Wire Forest, Kenya ; Kodera Forest, Kenya ; Rachuonyo South District ; Conservation ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This study was to establish how factors influence implementation of forest conservation measures in Rachuonyo South district, Homa-bay County. Forest covers around 30% of the world's land area where it provides food, wood medicinal plants and multiple other goods and services for hundreds of millions of people. Despite these advantages,plunder of Kenya forest has continued over the years even with pleas to conserve them. Biodiversity is a term that was developed as a means of describing the variety of life at a time when t;oncem was increasing about the loss of such variety. This study was out to achieve the following specific objectives; the effect of level of income among the rural population living next to forests, government funds allocated for forest conservation to the district, government policies on forest conservation, level of education of the adjacent population to the forest as well as level of awareness of these population of the importance of forest, and social cultural factors and their influences on implementation of conservation measures in Kasipul division. The study findings are expected to be beneficial to the government in establishment of proper policies on implementation of forest conservation measures in Rachuonyo south district, it would also realize the problems facing rural Kenya population in terms of awareness of the importance of trees. The study was based on conservation theory. Conceptual framework was used to show the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. It targeted 40 villages located within a radius of 10 kilometers around Wire and Kodera forests. A sample of 10% of the target population was taken. Structured questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect information from respondents. Content validity was ascertained through expert judgement while reliability was established through test retest. Questionnaires were hand delivered and picked by the researcher who also conducted interviews to forest officers. Data analysis was done by both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Quantitative data was analysed by use of simple descriptive statistics that is, frequencies, percentages and averages. The qualitative data was analysed and reported in narrative form. Data analysis, presentation and interpretation was done through the use of tables and a summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study done. The findings showed that poverty level of education were the major cause of poor implementation of forest conservation measures. Others were inadequate financing, policies as well as socoi-cultural factors. In conclusion, it was found that level of income and education remain the major challenges to implementation of forest conservation measures. The study recommended. that poverty eradication strategies and youth empowerment programs should be enhanced.

Land use and tenure changes and their impact on the Kitenden wildlife corridor, Amboseli Ecosystem, Kenya

Author: Mbane, Joseph Ogoonoum Alfred Rodrigue

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Wildlife conservation ; Ecosystems ; Land use ; Land tenure ; Kitenden Wildlife Corridor, Amboseli ;

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Kitenden Wildlife Corridor (KWC), within Amboseli Ecosystem between October 2011 and January 2012. The research sought information to enhance conservation and management of KWC. The objective was to determine the ecological viability of KWC to wildlife movement between Amboseli National Park (ANP) in Kenya and Kilimanjaro National Park (KNP) in Tanzania. Data on land use and tenure were obtained through questionnaire administration and secondary sources. Vegetation and animal were sampled in the five following habitats Licium europeanum grassland, Acacia torti/is bushland, Acacia mellifera bushland, Commiphora shimperi bushland and farmland. Herbaceous vegetation was sampled using a 2m by 2m quadrat and a Disc Pasture Meter (DPM). PCQ and belt transect methods was use to sample woody plants. Animal count was done using sample foot count. This study found that people in KWC were mostly engaged in mixed farming (livestock and cultivation), and they were more people cultivating than those raising livestock. Initially being a community land, it was found that 30.12% of the study area was privately owned while 69.88% was still under community group ranch. Woody species mean densities ranged between 56.4?13.23 treeslha estimated in Commiphora shimperi bushland and 15.35?5.98 treeslha estimated in Licium europeanum grassland. Woody species density differed significantly (F4. 52 = 3.576, p<O.05) among habitats. The study area was dominated by poor quality grass for grazers, and increaser I with (19%) cover was highest and forbs the lowest with (7%). There was a significant difference in mean cover among the four herbaceous vegetation categories (decreaser, Increaser I, Increaser II, and Forb) (F3, 524 = 29.015, p<0.05). Mean wild herbivores population density ranged between 19.23?4.43 animals/krrr' estimated in Commiphora schimperi bushland and 4.59?0.45 animalslkm2 estimated in Farmland. No significant difference (F4,38 = 1.841, p>O.05)was found among the five habitats. Human activities in the KWC are causing degradation and constriction of wildlife habitat and pose heavy threats on the viability of the corridor for wildlife movement. The study recommended that conservation organizations shoulg lease the KWC from land owners to prevent further spreading of cultivation in the corridor, and pasture management strategies should be put in place for example by reducing the grazing stock and re-seeding the corridor with decreaser species, and an exclusive wildlife use zone delimitated .