115 Records out of 22207 Records

The role of the media in escalating conflict (a case of the Rwandan genocide)

Author: Were, Emily Nasirumbi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media/Media coverage/Conflicts/Journalists/Rwanda/Genocide/ ;

Abstract:

This study examines the role of media in escalating conflict, a case study of the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The genocide was among the most appalling catastrophes of the 20th century, and media played a significant part both internally and internationally. Globally, ftationally and locally, the mass media plays a crucial role in public policy, agenda setting, national, and international conflicts. Conflicts do not occur spontaneously but tend to have a history as all conflict have a history. The purpose of the study was to determine what role both the Rwandan and the international media played in the Rwandan Genocide. The study examined and analyzed the factors that forced the media to propelling violence in conflict situations in third world countries instead of promoting democracy and peace. The media can play different roles in terms of escalating, moderating, or balancing a conflict. The case of the Rwandan Genocide is a good example of how media can be directly involved in escalating of conflict. The mass media has been of great importance in the war leading to, the genocides in Rwanda as well as in many other internal conflicts. The objectives of the study were to determine the factors that made the media vulnerable to political manipulation, examine the role played by the media both local and international in escalating violence in the Rwandan genocide, and to examine the challenges faced by the media operations under the political umbrella in Rwanda. The study will be useful to the management of conflicts globally, to academicians, to the government and other researchers. The research was a desk review that analyzed data from both internal sources and external sources. Internal sources included information sourced from the media. External data sources included data originating from outside the media urgencies such as government sources, commercial sources, inter and intra industry sources like trade publications, journals and other sources like non-governmental organizations, institutes of economic survey and also academic institutions.

The role of print media in conflict escalation : case study of Kenya

Author: Wekesa, Stella Naliaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Journalists/Newspapers/Media coverage/Conflicts/Post election violence/ ;

Abstract:

This study focuses on the role of the press in conflict escalation in Kenya. The reality that will never change is the sense that media is a means of communication that plays an important role for information and community development. Today, all over the world, media is a connecting tool in the country or between countries. However, media is 'accused' of being a source of conflict by the ways of propaganda and bias As a result, media can cause problems because the society relies on it for news and information. The disputed 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulted into widespread skirmishes following the announcement of results on the 30th December 2007. Spontaneous violence erupted in various parts of Kenya leading to massive displacement, loss of lives and livelihoods. About 1,200 people lost their lives and 350,000 people were displaced. Many moved to their ethnic homelands for security reasons while others moved to the periurban areas of the major cities in various parts of Kenya. The actual figure of those who were internally displaced by violence is not known with certainty, because there were people who were not hosted in the official camps but sought refuge among communities where there were relative stability and peace. The local media has been largely accused of fanning this conflict. Media works have been correlated to the issues that result to violent behaviors such as the correlation between massive exposure to the media and the increase of violent behaviors among media audiences. Journalists have been accused paying more attention on certain issues than others. It's also evident that there are players who shape the role ofthe media.

The concept of environmentally induced conflict : a case study of Northern Kenya

Author: Waikenda, Jane Wangare

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Environmental impact/Population/Conflicts/Socioeconomic factors/Northern Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Population and environment are closely entwined in a complex and dynamic relationship. Over the past three to four decades, some economists, biologists, and environmentalists have been debating the role of population in environmental degradation. The objective of this study is to investigate the concept of environmentally induced conflict. A qualitative approach will be adopted to produce the descriptive data to assess the concept of environmentally induced conflict in Northern Kenya. The findings of the study where that environmentally induced conflict has hampering development initiatives in Northern Kenya area. This implies an urgent need for restoration and sustainability of a peaceful environment among the target communities as one of the priorities by the Kenyan government partners and other stakeholders. Political, social and economic factors are closely linked to the key factors that have influenced environmentally induced conflict in Northern Kenya.

The Somali conflict and Kenya's foreign policy : a critical assessment

Author: Tipis, John

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Somalia/Conflicts/Foreign policy/ ;

Abstract:

This study critically examines the impact of the Somali conflict on Kenya's foreign policy since the overthrow of President Siad Barre in 1991 to the year 20 I o. The main objective of the study is to critically assess how the Somali conflict that has been raging for over twenty years affects Kenya's foreign policy decision making process. The key question that the study seeks to answer is: twenty years since the Somali conflict broke out, how tas Kenya's foreign policy adapted to address the challenges of the seemingly intractable and ever evolving conflict? The study also seeks to examine Kenya's foreign policy in respect of conflict management. The study utilizes Graham Allison's models of foreign policy decision making as the theoretical framework. It utilizes the Rational Actor, Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Process models to critically examine the impact of the Somali conflict on Kenya's foreign policy. This study methodology utilized interviews, unpublished and published primary documents, to collect data for the Case study. It also identified government organs and individuals who have been involved either directly or indirectly in dealing with the Somali conflict or Kenya's foreign policy as key informants. Since independence in the 1960s, relations between Kenya and Somalia have often been defined by the legacy of the colonial of state, especially with regard to the geographical area referred to as the Northern Frontier District (NFD). Although initially the Somali conflict was by all descriptions intemal, several factors including cross-border incursions into Kenya by armed Somali factions, terrorism and piracy internationalized of conflict, and threatened Kenya's vital national interests. Consequently, Kenya has been sucked into the conflict, becoming an actor in the Somali conflict. The protracted conflict is identified in this research study as the main cause for the huge influx of Somali refugees into Kenya, and the proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs) fuelling insecurity and crime in parts of the country. In this study, the Somali conflict is also identified as being highly unpredictable, resulting in phenomena such as maritime piracy and terrorism which pose a threat to Kenya's national interests. The study finds that the unpredictability of the Somali conflict contributes to the perception of Kenya's foreign policy being reactive in many instances, and not proactive, despite recent attempts to formulate and implement a foreign policy strategic plan. In view of the foregoing, this research study asserts that the centrality of the Somali conflict to Kenya's foreign policy decision making is evidenced by the decision by Kenya's Defence Forces (KDF) to go into Somalia in pursuit of Al Shabaab militias as the threats to national security escalated. In terms of Graham Allison models of foreign policy decision making, it emerged that foreign policy decision making in Kenya is consistent with the Rational Actor Model (RAM), judging from the shift from attempts at peaceful resolution of the conflict through the IGAD Somali Peace Process when the stakes and threats were perceived as low, to military intervention when the stakes and threats were perceived as high.

Implementation of conflict early warning and early response : IGAD-CEWARN in Kenya

Author: Waweru, Rachael Wanjiru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts/Prevention/IGAD-CEWARN/ ;

Abstract:

The study examine implementation of conflict early warning and early response, The debate conflict prevention research is at present concerned with how to effectively bridge the gap between early warning and response to prevent the occurrence and escalation of violent conflict. Previous studies of CEW ARN have examined the overall causality of early warning and conflict prevention. Data was mainly be derived from secondary and primary sources. The data collection tools for the secondary data that was used was in-depth information gathering, and document analysis. For the primary data direct observation and open ended interviews were used. The study found that the analysis part of early warning involves the synthesis of background and current event information, the careful selection of indicator information, the examination of motivations and behaviours (to predict future directions), the assessment of capabilities (to carry out violence), the development of scenarios (to explore the possibilities for conflict escalation) and the determination of the most probable outcomes. One could turn to the 'fires of conflict' analogy to help identify structural, proximate and triggering factors. IGAD, in contrast, although also a region compromised by conflicts, has chosen a different approach. Due to the political and security situation IGAD was not in a position to develop a functioning and effective region-wide EWR concept. Early warning systems' for the prevention of violent conflict are 'latecomers' compared with their application in other fields.

Conflicts in the horn of Africa : a case study of children involvement in Somalia Conflict (2004-2011)

Author: Kiteme, Susan Ndanu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts/Children and youth/Somalia/Refugees/Child welfare ;

Abstract:

This study was designed purposely to investigate the effects that children involvement in conflict had on their social welfare, contributing factors and interventions. Towards meeting this, the study sought data from Somalia urban refugees in Nairobi who were formally registered by the UNCHR based in Nairobi. In addition, data originated from international aid agencies whose operational offices were in Nairobi. The study found that the children of Somalia were heavily subjected to perils of conflict, thus vastly denying them the freedom towards enjoyment of social rights to education, health care and security. The rapid movements that were occasioned by the regional conflicts, disorientations from the formal schooling systems, lack of schools and limited interventions hindered easy access and sustainability to education. The children were badly exposed to malnutrition and death from diseases that would otherwise have been controlled if appropriate mechanisms had been put in place. Moreover, there was an arrested move towards establishing medical centres and rebuilding of health systems in the region to cater for the children. Most often than not, medical needs were addressed by voluntarism, and NGOs whose core activities were outside the scope. In terms of security, it was observed that the children were equally exposed to conflict related deaths since they were easy targets and cheaper fighter options. The conflicts resulted to weakened parental roles which led to most children seeking means of fending for themselves in the absence of formal governance structures. Among the critical factors found to be contributing to child involvement in Somalia conflicts included political instability, internal warfare, lack of formal schooling system, ignorance of laws protecting children, limited international interventions, and adverse weather effects. While political instability gave leeway to ungoverned state leading to emergence of warring groups and ad hoc governance structures, internal warfare weakened the remaining Somalia social fabric that led to total disintegration. In addition, the warlords hardly cared about dangers of involving children soldiers in the conflicts as the internal community did little to curb the soaring tension. Other than these, lack of formal schooling and adverse weather conditions left most children idle, desperate and easy recruits to the militias. Finally, it was established that international aid agencies and NGOs worked hard to seek minimum effects of conflict on children through evacuations, immunizations, provision tof food and water, population tracking, scholarships, alternative engagements, and litigation patronage. However, more effort was required to deal with the challenging factors such as limited funding, uncoordinated efforts, directed attacks, and high mortalities leading to increasing orphaned children. Based on the findings, the study recommended that consecrated efforts are sustained to ensure free how of funds to rebuild the formal social systems including education, health and security. All children regardless of age should be allowed back to school without discrimination while accessing medical needs in closer reach. The security of children should also be prioritized by implementation of international child protection provisions and tailored Acts of Parliament. It is also recommended that further efforts are injected into the national reconciliation mechanisms that will see previously warring communities and factions reunited. Moreover, the international community should double its efforts towards building essential institutions which will form the pillars in future development. Some of the critical pillars include roads and communication networks, financial systems, tourism, and international policy. This will require a collective and centrally coordinated approach to avoid replication and skewed development patterns.

The role of Non-Governmental Organisations in peace-building : case study of Isiolo District, Kenya

Author: King'ori, Mary Wanjiru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts/Nongovernmental organizations/Peace-building/Isiolo District ;

Abstract:

Conflicts, especially those related to competition over resource use, have defined the better part of the history of Eastern Africa's dry lands communities. Violent conflicts involving pastoralists have become widespread and increasingly severe throughout much of the Northern Kenya. This research identifies and examines the factors contributing to such conflicts, and discusses issues and priorities for conflict prevention and peace-building. These are examined across Northern Kenya in general, and in Isiolo - a district in northern Kenya - in particular. On the basis of this examination, a number of conclusions and recommendations are developed on ways in which non-governmental organizations could contribute to efforts to prevent conflicts involving pastoralists in Isiolo and more generally in the North of Kenya. Isiolo is one of 17 Districts in the Rift Valley region of Kenya. It is a multi-ethnic tribal district which pastoralist communities share with farmers, wildlife conservatories, ranchers and horticulturalists. It includes extensive arid and semi-arid lands as well as arable and urban areas. Pastoralists rely on access to water and pasture land. Such resources are scarce and under increasing pressure owing to increased farming activities, rapid population growth, and periodic drought. Conflicts involving pastoralists associated with resource competition, cattle rustling, and wide availability of small arms are widespread and of increasing concern. It thus provides a useful case study to examine in depth the factors contributing to conflict and the issues and priorities for conflict prevention. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the extent to which non-governmental organisations have impacted on peace-building in Isiolo. The specific objectives of this study are: to establish the extent of NGO involvement in peace building in Isiolo district; to investigate why previous strategies implemented towards peace by key NGOs in Isiolo have been ineffective in peace building and to explore alternatives/options that the NGOs can apply in the peace building process to increase their success rate. The research design used is a descriptive research and the target NGOs and community members. Secondary data collection was also utilised. The study has contributed to knowledge on the extent to which NGO practices impact the process of peace building and how they can be made more effective. The study established that NGOs do impact peace building positively but are also in some cases perpetuators of conflict, willingly or unwillingly. The research found that peace building efforts carried out by NGOs in Isiolo would be more effective if they involved all affected actors, especially mid and grass-root level actors, in the coordination of efforts. This includes women and youth who are often side-lined despite their huge role in perpetuating conflict and also in peace building exercise. It is also established that the peace building process would be enhanced if NGOs were supported by good governance practices like proper political leadership and political will, leadership that doesn't use ploys like 'divide and rule' so as to accomplish selfish gains.

Participation of children in armed conflict : a case study of Marsabit District, 1991-2005

Author: Onyango, Rachael

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth ; Conflicts ; Marsabit District ;

Abstract:

Armed conflict has changed since the end of the Cold Wm- 'with present conflicts predominantly taking the lives of civilians, especially children. This study examines the role and impact of armed conflict in children in Marsabit district, 1991 - 2005. The study aimed to test the hypotheses that children have been involved in the Marsabit conflicts and that they had direct and indirect impacts on children. It utilized both primary and secondary data. It draws from the works of various authors whose content is on or relates to children and armed conflict in Marsabit District. Secondary data was collected through a thorough review of books, articles, journals as well and internet sources. Primary data was collected through interview, focus group discussion and observation and was used to fill in the gaps noted from the secondary sources. Data collected was analyzed and presented qualitatively through narrative and discussions. The study begins with a detailed the history of the conflict in the district in three phases, pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial. Conflict in Marsabit in the precolonial era was synonymous with those that occurred in the whole of northern Kenya where communal invasions and inter-group raiding was more of a cultural phenomenon. During the colonial periods, the conflict was linked to the violence that accompanied state formation in the colonial era. In post-colonial era, conflicts in Marsabit were characterized by commercialization of cattle raiding, increased access to arms and poverty. Other proximate causes were political instigation, insecurity, revenge and intense inter-clan rivalry. The study found out that children involvement and participation in armed conflicts was through forceful recruitment and voluntary enlisting (whether by choice or as a result of excruciating circumstance that left them no choice). The roles they played in these conflicts were both as direct combatants as well as supporting conflict process e.g. being the porters and spies. In general conflict has negatively affected the lives of children socially, physically and psychologically. Many of them died, or suffered injuries. They faced disruption in their daily lives with many being separated from their families and ended up displaced, interruption in their education hence reduced school enrollment, gender based violence as well as trauma.

Assessing the capacity of war correspondents in reporting : the case of Kenyan embedded journalists in the war against Al-Shabaab

Author: Onsare, Claudior Kerubo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts ; Journalists ; Psychological aspects ; Kenya Defence Forces ; Al-Shabaab ; Somalia ;

Abstract:

This study examines the level of preparedness in terms of training and capacity of the Kenya journalist that were embedded with the KDF during the war against al-Shabaab . This is done against the background that war correspondence requires a different set of skills, different from that of conventional journalism because of what is at stake and several competing interests that have the potential of impinging on professionalism and independence as well as ethical journalism practice. The study finds out that no specific competencies in terms of training and selection criteria were considered when picking the journalists to be embedded. The study also finds out that those journalists sent to the battle front were neither professionally nor psychologically prepared for the assignment. The study finds out that, from other countries, especially the developed ones, before journalists are sent to cover war or a violent conflict, they must undergo a compulsory training course on war correspondence which includes exposure to simulated war environments to better prepare them to face the risks of covering war. The study recommends, in the Kenyan context, there should be a concerted effort toward developing and enhancing capacity and specialized expertise in the. area of conflict sensitive reporting and war correspondence. This way, the challenges that were faced by the very first war journalists embedded with the KDF are not repeated by enhancing their preparedness.

Towards an understanding of conflicts and peacebuilding initiatives in Kibera Urban slum-Nairobi, 1991-2012

Author: Musembi, Dominic John

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts ; Peace-building ; Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya ; Low income groups ;

Abstract:

The' focus of the Research was an attempt towards an understanding of Conflicts and Peacebuilding Initiatives in Kibera informal settlement, Nairobi; 1991-2012. The study began with an examination of the history of the Kibera conflicts since the slum emerged in 1904 after the Nubians (Sudanese ex-soldiers serving the British crown) first settled in the area. The research further examined and analysed the relationships oqhe multi-ethnic communities living in Kibera during the period and how the re-introduction of Multipartyism in 1991 impacted on those relations. Using both secondary and primary sources of data, a number of defining factors in Kibera ranging from Socio-economic to Political were analysed in an effort to understand why conflicts escalated in Kibera after 1991 and majorly around or during election periods. One of the salient findings was that Kibera had been a precarious settlement since colonialism and its volatibility in post independence Kenya was a perpetuation of what the colonialists established. Furthermore, conflicts in Kibera defied the drama of monocausal explanation. The prebendary brand of Politics dominant in Kibera served to entrench poverty while enriching a select few. From the historical and archival information, land has been under contestation in both colonial and post colonial periods not only in Kibera but in Kenya as a whole. Lack of political will within successive governments to address the land question was a key factor emphasized in the report. There was also focus on the Structural Conflict and Sustainable development Theories as the prism for understanding the causes of Conflicts and interpretation of how such conflicts could be avaided in Kibera in the future and in a long lasting manners. The study established that although various Peacebuilding efforts by different actors existed in the slum, there was first the need for all the actors to understand the complex state of conflicts and how they impacted on the local residents. The knowledge would assist them in addressing the problem in a more realistic and practical manner. The politicization of the land question in Kibera was largely to blame for most of the conflicts in the slum. The running theme was therefore that; as long as the land and the high poverty level issues remained unresolved in Kibera slum, it would be hard to contain th~ persistent tensions in the informal settlement. While Peacebuilding Initiatives by various actors to some extent played significant role towards return to peace in Kibera, the Government held the key to Stability, Peace, and development through investment of massive resources and provision of essential government sponsored servives.