260 Records out of 22207 Records

Headteachers' conflict management styles in building teachers' team work in Kaplamai division, Trans-Nzoia East district, Kenya

Author: Bogonko, Thomas

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kaplamai Division, Trans-Nzoia East District ; Educators ; Conflict management ; Secondary schools ; School administration ; Teamwork ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate headteachers' conflict management styles used in building teachers' teamwork in. Kaplamai Division, Trans-Nzoia East District, Kenya, specifically to; determineheadteachers' management styles used to enhance teamwork, determine how headteachers' personal characteristics such as gender and age influenced conflict management styles; Establish the effect of headteachers' conflict management styles on the development of teamwork among public secondary school teachers and; determine the challenges faced by headteachers on applying conflict management styles in secondary schools in the Division. The study was guided by a theory proposed by Schermerhorn in 2001. A sample of 24 headteachers and 120 teachers was selected from the 24 secondary schools in the division using simple random sampling. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics assisted by SPSS computer program version 17.0 The study found out that alongside the teaching job, teachers engaged in running shops, kiosks, matatus and furthering education which had a negative effect in the because it led to absenteeism, lateness, and excessive lying among teachers consequently affecting the teaching profession in the division negatively. Nevertheless, headteachers employed collaboration, accommodation and compromise management styles to enhance teamwork. Headteachers' personal characteristics such as gender and age had an influence on conflict management styles. Headteachers' age also did not influence the conflict management styles. Teamwork was not compromised a fact that was confirmed by all of the headteachers. On the challenges faced, the study found out that some teachers were unable to open up while others taking personal offence making it difficult for the headteachers to analyze the bottom of the matters in question. The findings indicated that many headteachers had not attended any conflict management course and the lengths of conflict management courses were inadequate. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education and TSC develop a policy to guide teachers on their involvement in business activities and in furthering of education. The study also recommended that the Ministry of Education should organize workshops and seminars for teachers on how to effectively balance their extra activities and those of the school without compromising teamwork. It further recommended that headteachers be trained on administration matters and especially on conflict management in schools, and that counseling and guidance facilities for teachers be developed. The study recommended a country wide study to establish the level of teachers' involvement in business activities. It further recommends a comprehensive research on the causes of declining performance in KCSE in public schools within Kaplamai division in Trans.,.Nzoia District.

The role of the media in escalating conflict (a case of the Rwandan genocide)

Author: Were, Emily Nasirumbi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mass media/Media coverage/Conflicts/Journalists/Rwanda/Genocide/ ;

Abstract:

This study examines the role of media in escalating conflict, a case study of the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The genocide was among the most appalling catastrophes of the 20th century, and media played a significant part both internally and internationally. Globally, ftationally and locally, the mass media plays a crucial role in public policy, agenda setting, national, and international conflicts. Conflicts do not occur spontaneously but tend to have a history as all conflict have a history. The purpose of the study was to determine what role both the Rwandan and the international media played in the Rwandan Genocide. The study examined and analyzed the factors that forced the media to propelling violence in conflict situations in third world countries instead of promoting democracy and peace. The media can play different roles in terms of escalating, moderating, or balancing a conflict. The case of the Rwandan Genocide is a good example of how media can be directly involved in escalating of conflict. The mass media has been of great importance in the war leading to, the genocides in Rwanda as well as in many other internal conflicts. The objectives of the study were to determine the factors that made the media vulnerable to political manipulation, examine the role played by the media both local and international in escalating violence in the Rwandan genocide, and to examine the challenges faced by the media operations under the political umbrella in Rwanda. The study will be useful to the management of conflicts globally, to academicians, to the government and other researchers. The research was a desk review that analyzed data from both internal sources and external sources. Internal sources included information sourced from the media. External data sources included data originating from outside the media urgencies such as government sources, commercial sources, inter and intra industry sources like trade publications, journals and other sources like non-governmental organizations, institutes of economic survey and also academic institutions.

The role of print media in conflict escalation : case study of Kenya

Author: Wekesa, Stella Naliaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Journalists/Newspapers/Media coverage/Conflicts/Post election violence/ ;

Abstract:

This study focuses on the role of the press in conflict escalation in Kenya. The reality that will never change is the sense that media is a means of communication that plays an important role for information and community development. Today, all over the world, media is a connecting tool in the country or between countries. However, media is 'accused' of being a source of conflict by the ways of propaganda and bias As a result, media can cause problems because the society relies on it for news and information. The disputed 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulted into widespread skirmishes following the announcement of results on the 30th December 2007. Spontaneous violence erupted in various parts of Kenya leading to massive displacement, loss of lives and livelihoods. About 1,200 people lost their lives and 350,000 people were displaced. Many moved to their ethnic homelands for security reasons while others moved to the periurban areas of the major cities in various parts of Kenya. The actual figure of those who were internally displaced by violence is not known with certainty, because there were people who were not hosted in the official camps but sought refuge among communities where there were relative stability and peace. The local media has been largely accused of fanning this conflict. Media works have been correlated to the issues that result to violent behaviors such as the correlation between massive exposure to the media and the increase of violent behaviors among media audiences. Journalists have been accused paying more attention on certain issues than others. It's also evident that there are players who shape the role ofthe media.

The role of NGOs in conflict transformation : a case study of the Catholic Justice and Peace Commission in Lelan Division, West Pokot County, Kenya

Author: Sang, Philista J

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nongovernmental organizations/Conflict resolution/Peace-building/Catholic churches/Catholic Justice and Peace Commission/Lelan Division, West Pokot District/Pokot (African people)/Marakwet (African people)/ ;

Abstract:

The concept of contlict transformation can be traced back to the writings of Lederach in the 1980s and those of Galtung in the late 1970s.The concept, however, gained much support with the evolution of conceptualization of human security by the international community. The protracted nature of conflicts arising in Kenya has led to the 'ldoption of the conflict transformation approach by NGOs involved in peace building. Studies, however, indicate that NGOs, despite setting out with conflict transformation plans, end up resolving and managing conflicts; they do not transform conflicts. This has been as a result of the unclear specification of activities that the NGOs are expected to be involved in so as to transform conflicts. This study, therefore, sought to find out the role ofNGOs in conflict transformation. This is a case study of activities by the Catholic Justice and Peace Commission (CJPC) in Lelan division, west Pokot County. Data for this study was collected in 2012. The: study employed several methods of data collection including focus group discussions with different categories of respondents in Lelan and key informant interviews with officials from CJPC and Lelan. The findings show that CJPC had been involved in initiation of various peace connector projects in the region and in the formation of youth and women groups. These activities had been instrumental in addressing access to economic resources and raising standards of living in the region. They also served to erode stereotypes and suspicion among Pokot and Marakwet in the region. The study also found out that CJPC was actively involved in facilitating workshops aimed at disseminating knowledge concerning peace building. The 0 organization also incorporated cultural practices and beliefs in its activities. In order to ensure complete change of attitudes and perceptions towards rival groups, the study recommends that CJPC initiate activities that bring more children on board. This would ensure that their attitudes are shaped towards peaceful coexistence at an early age hence ensuring durable peace. The study also recommends that the current draft national policy on peace building and conflict management (NPPBCM) provide for roles by NGOs and other actors in peace building. This would ensure that the policy is effective in ending conflicts in Kenya.

A critical analysis of UN peacekeeping : the case of Sierra Leone, 1995-2005

Author: Wambulwa, David Simiyu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: United Nations/Peacekeeping forces/Peace-building/Conflict resolution/Sierra Leone/ ;

Abstract:

This study investigates the role of UN Peacekeeping in conflict management and peace building and examines the achievement of UNAMSIL in maintaining international peace and security in Sierra Leone. It proceeds from the view that in light of added responsibilities to peacekeeping especially after the end of the Cold War, and the increasing use of peacekeeping to solve internal conflicts, there is a need for a re-evaluation of the UN's peacekeeping function since it is no longer a short term observer mission but more of a long term peace builder. The study argues that the criteria for analyzing peacekeeping success should incorporate this expanded nature of UN peacekeeping. It uses the Sierra Leone case study as this African example sought to address the near collapse of the Sierra Leone state which led to widespread human suffering. This Sierra Leone intervention is notable as it preceded UN failures in Somalia and Rwanda which bore similarities in terms of state collapse. The lack of sufficient literature on this intervention is also a motivation in carrying out this study. The study makes several observations the first of which is that the reconceptualisation of state sovereignty and international peace and security to incorporate norms of human security and sustain peace had a bearing on the expanded nature and longevity of peacekeeping missions. Secondly and upon an examination of the Sierra Leone conflict the study observes that the conflict was deep seated and fuelled by regimes' self-perpetuation and aggrandizement schemes that ignored citizens' entitlement to proper government and better life. Realistic interests lay at the internationalization of the conflict as individuals, companies and states sought economic gain from diamonds. The eventual UN intervention provided relief to a state that had failed to secure its perpetuation in the system of states. The study, in examining this third party involvement, seeks to (dis)prove the hypothesis that peacekeeping does playa major role in achieving sustainable peace and in achieving lasting peace. The study concludes that though the UN succeeded in conflict management and peace building in Sierra Leone, it recognizes that this intervention was at times chaotic and had to reinvent itself in the face of poor resource base and unfavorable hostile environment and that peacekeeping alone is not the answer to all situations of conflict.

The role of mediators in peace negotiation in Kenya

Author: Some, Gladys Jerop W

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Peace negotiations/Post election violence/Mediation/Conflict resolution/ ;

Abstract:

This study examines the dynamics of conflict resolution through third party mediation focusing on negotiations carried out as a result of the post-election violence in Kenya in 2007/8. The study objectives are; to examine effectiveness of mediation in managing conflict in Kenya, to determine the various types of mediation process used in management of the post electoral dispute in in Kenya and to determine cultural and ethnic differences and degree of homogeneity that affects the success or failure of mediation in the effort of managing conflict in Kenya. Mediation is gaining popularity all over the world and Kenya is not an exception. Third parties might act as consultants, helping one side or both sides analyze the conflict and plan an effective response. Alternatively, they act as facilitators, arranging meetings, setting agendas, and guiding productive discussions. Kenyans have always held this myth of seeing Kenya 'as an island of peace in a sea of chaos' and could hardly think of a possibility of a full scale conflict. The underlying factors of ethnicity, poverty, discrimination land problems and political intolerance played out during the 2007 elections. Dispute management research has not often compared the effectiveness of mediation as a tool. Consequently, applying conflict management techniques to international disputes has sometimes not been effective This study used both primary and secondary data from available data in the Nairobi and other university libraries and internet sources which analyze by trying to explore and to get explanations that led to the outbreak and trends of the conflict in Kenya while secondary data used text books, journals, and academic papers that are to be found in the University of Nairobi and other libraries. This instrument of data collection enables the researcher to eontrol the setting; it is flexible as one can probe and in the process get in-depth information. Research design used in this study was descriptive and exploratory in nature method. This study presented a detailed background of mediation as a mode of conflict resolution. The finding indicated that mediation process is inherently unpredictable, and the mediator must try to constantly reassess, remain open to ambiguity, and to offer new options when necessary. This study notes that mediators are useful in the process of conflict abatement, and they can make positive and direct contributions by focusing the parties on a termination agreement. Further it notes that success of third party mediations is dependent on credibility ofthe mediators and the level of commitment by the parties. The literature of mediations spans several academic fields including, but not limited to, traditional political science and international relations, labor and industrial relations and management studies. The mediator should always do his best make himself acceptable to the parties to conflict at all times. When the post-election conflict began in Kenya, it was immediately so violent a conflict that the solution was also as urgent

The concept of environmentally induced conflict : a case study of Northern Kenya

Author: Waikenda, Jane Wangare

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Environmental impact/Population/Conflicts/Socioeconomic factors/Northern Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Population and environment are closely entwined in a complex and dynamic relationship. Over the past three to four decades, some economists, biologists, and environmentalists have been debating the role of population in environmental degradation. The objective of this study is to investigate the concept of environmentally induced conflict. A qualitative approach will be adopted to produce the descriptive data to assess the concept of environmentally induced conflict in Northern Kenya. The findings of the study where that environmentally induced conflict has hampering development initiatives in Northern Kenya area. This implies an urgent need for restoration and sustainability of a peaceful environment among the target communities as one of the priorities by the Kenyan government partners and other stakeholders. Political, social and economic factors are closely linked to the key factors that have influenced environmentally induced conflict in Northern Kenya.

The Somali conflict and Kenya's foreign policy : a critical assessment

Author: Tipis, John

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Somalia/Conflicts/Foreign policy/ ;

Abstract:

This study critically examines the impact of the Somali conflict on Kenya's foreign policy since the overthrow of President Siad Barre in 1991 to the year 20 I o. The main objective of the study is to critically assess how the Somali conflict that has been raging for over twenty years affects Kenya's foreign policy decision making process. The key question that the study seeks to answer is: twenty years since the Somali conflict broke out, how tas Kenya's foreign policy adapted to address the challenges of the seemingly intractable and ever evolving conflict? The study also seeks to examine Kenya's foreign policy in respect of conflict management. The study utilizes Graham Allison's models of foreign policy decision making as the theoretical framework. It utilizes the Rational Actor, Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Process models to critically examine the impact of the Somali conflict on Kenya's foreign policy. This study methodology utilized interviews, unpublished and published primary documents, to collect data for the Case study. It also identified government organs and individuals who have been involved either directly or indirectly in dealing with the Somali conflict or Kenya's foreign policy as key informants. Since independence in the 1960s, relations between Kenya and Somalia have often been defined by the legacy of the colonial of state, especially with regard to the geographical area referred to as the Northern Frontier District (NFD). Although initially the Somali conflict was by all descriptions intemal, several factors including cross-border incursions into Kenya by armed Somali factions, terrorism and piracy internationalized of conflict, and threatened Kenya's vital national interests. Consequently, Kenya has been sucked into the conflict, becoming an actor in the Somali conflict. The protracted conflict is identified in this research study as the main cause for the huge influx of Somali refugees into Kenya, and the proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs) fuelling insecurity and crime in parts of the country. In this study, the Somali conflict is also identified as being highly unpredictable, resulting in phenomena such as maritime piracy and terrorism which pose a threat to Kenya's national interests. The study finds that the unpredictability of the Somali conflict contributes to the perception of Kenya's foreign policy being reactive in many instances, and not proactive, despite recent attempts to formulate and implement a foreign policy strategic plan. In view of the foregoing, this research study asserts that the centrality of the Somali conflict to Kenya's foreign policy decision making is evidenced by the decision by Kenya's Defence Forces (KDF) to go into Somalia in pursuit of Al Shabaab militias as the threats to national security escalated. In terms of Graham Allison models of foreign policy decision making, it emerged that foreign policy decision making in Kenya is consistent with the Rational Actor Model (RAM), judging from the shift from attempts at peaceful resolution of the conflict through the IGAD Somali Peace Process when the stakes and threats were perceived as low, to military intervention when the stakes and threats were perceived as high.

Implementation of conflict early warning and early response : IGAD-CEWARN in Kenya

Author: Waweru, Rachael Wanjiru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Conflicts/Prevention/IGAD-CEWARN/ ;

Abstract:

The study examine implementation of conflict early warning and early response, The debate conflict prevention research is at present concerned with how to effectively bridge the gap between early warning and response to prevent the occurrence and escalation of violent conflict. Previous studies of CEW ARN have examined the overall causality of early warning and conflict prevention. Data was mainly be derived from secondary and primary sources. The data collection tools for the secondary data that was used was in-depth information gathering, and document analysis. For the primary data direct observation and open ended interviews were used. The study found that the analysis part of early warning involves the synthesis of background and current event information, the careful selection of indicator information, the examination of motivations and behaviours (to predict future directions), the assessment of capabilities (to carry out violence), the development of scenarios (to explore the possibilities for conflict escalation) and the determination of the most probable outcomes. One could turn to the 'fires of conflict' analogy to help identify structural, proximate and triggering factors. IGAD, in contrast, although also a region compromised by conflicts, has chosen a different approach. Due to the political and security situation IGAD was not in a position to develop a functioning and effective region-wide EWR concept. Early warning systems' for the prevention of violent conflict are 'latecomers' compared with their application in other fields.

Head teachers' conflict management styles and their effect on discipline in secondary schools in Central division, Machakos district, Kenya

Author: Kisinga, Betty Sibambi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MED

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Central Division, Machakos District/Educators/Secondary schools/School discipline/Conflict resolution/School administration ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to investigate head teachers conflict management styles and their effect on discipline in secondary schools in Central Division Machakos District. The study was guided by the main objectives which were to determine if avoidance as a conflict management style affects discipline, to determine if competition as a conflict management style affects discipline, to establish if compromise as a conflict management style affects discipline, to determine if collaboration as a conflict management style affects discipline and to establish if accommodation as a conflict management style affects discipline in secondary schools. Students' discipline is critical to the attainment of positive school outcomes. Level of students' discipline depends on whether the head teacher as the chief executive of the school is able to manage conflict positively. The study investigated the causes of conflict and found out that scarce resources, personality clashes, communication breakdown and unequitable treatment all were potential sources of conflict. Moreover, on types of conflict, it was revealed that types of conflicts include goal divergence conflict, cognitive conflict, affective conflict and role conflict. The study also found out that all four levels of conflict namely intrapersonal, interpersonal, intra group and inter group conflicts were prevalent in secondary schools in Central Division, Machakos District. These conflict were common among students and fellow students, students and teachers, teachers and teachers, students and administration and teachers and administration. The findings of the study indicated that there were different conflict management styles which were used in Central Division. It was with this understanding that this study was undertaken to investigate the background of increasing occurrence of conflicts in secondary schools in Central Division Machakos District. The study was to specifically establish whether conflict management styles employed by the head teacher have any effect on students' discipline. To address the management of conflict in selected secondary schools in Central Division of Machakos District, twelve secondary schools were selected through random sampling from total number of 30public schools from Central Division Machakos District which has three zones with a total of 30 head teachers, 1018 teachers, and 4161 students. Twelve head teachers, 54 teachers and 63 students filled the questionnaires. In the investigation both quantitative and qualitative methods were used using questionnaire as data gathering techniques with the alpha= 0.05 validity and reliability of data instruments were tested and ascertained. The study was achieved through literature review and an empirical investigation. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The study showed that conflict management styles by head teachers in Central Division secondary schools affect students discipline in the division. The study found out that head teachers conflict management styles have an effect on the discipline of students. This fmdings have important implications on school management with respect to training of head teachers on conflict management styles in order to enhance students discipline. The study recommends that school administration need to enhance communication among stake-holders in the schools, involve the students and teachers in the decision making so that they can feel that they are part and parcel of the school. Further studies can be done on the causes of conflicts and how to solve those conflicts.