37 Records out of 22207 Records

A comparative study of machine learning methods for forecasting prevalence of weather-based pests

Author: Too, Edna Chebet

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Comparative studies/Artificial intelligence/Forecasting/Weather/Pest control ;

Abstract:

The aphid (Aphis gossypii), have been identified as one of the 'major pest problem in Kenya (Waiganjo, et al., 2006). They cause damage by sucking plant sap weakening the plants, and by excreting a sticky substance (honeydew which results ingrowth of sooty mould affecting photosynthesis. Aphids affect many commercial plants including cereals' (maize, wheat, and rice), potatoes, vegetables (cabbages, tomato, okra, and onion). This study concentrates on data for vegetables and specifically Tomato and Okra which are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions . Demand for quality pest-prediction software has undergone rapid growth during the last few years. This has led to increased research in machine learning techniques for exploring datasets which can be used in constructing models for predicting quality attributes. Among the commonly used techniques include Decision Tree (DT) (Pratheepal, Meena, Subramaniam, Venugopalan, & Bheemanna, 2010), Support Vector Machine (SVM) (Kaundal, Kapoor, & Raghaya, 2006), K-means clustering (Al-Hiary, Bani-Ahmad, Reyalat, Braik, & Rahamneh, 2011) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) (Womer, Lankin, Samarasinghe, & Teulon, 2002). This study examines and compares Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), SVM, K-means clustering and DT methods. Analysis was done on the two selected vegetables namely Tomato and Okra. Data collected from various sources was used in the study. The data set for studying tomato was obtained and it contained data for the period of 2005-2007 (Chakraborty, 2011) and Okra data set was for the period of 2004-2006 (ANITHA, 2007). The performance of the tools was compared by using DTREG, a prediction modeling software. K-means clustering showed the highest accuracy percentage of classifications of pests with 100% and is a better model than the model predicted using DT, SVM and MLP methods which showed a percentage accuracy of94 %, 60%, and 60% respectively. The finding shows that machine learning methods can be used to construct reliable applications in prediction of aphids based on weather data, with k-means clustering as the most accurate algorithm.

A comparative study of the coverage of agricultural information by the Daily Nation and the Standard newspapers in Kenya

Author: Koinange, Thuku Mukundi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Comparative studies/Media coverage/Agriculture/Information dissemination/Daily Nation (Nairobi, Kenya)/Standard (Nairobi, Kenya)/Newspapers ;

Abstract:

The Kenya's agricultural sector occupies a very significant place in the national economy as a key driver of the economy. The Kenyan fanning community lacks reliable agricultural-based mass media to educate and inform them on agricultural information leaving them with the mass media as the alternative. Among the leading local newspapers are the Daily Nation and The Standard in the print media whose coverage of agricultural information has not been assessed. A comparative content analysis study was therefore conducted on all week-day newspapers cluster sampled from a one year period divided into three month study clusters to characterize and compare the agricultural information covered and identify the framing accorded to it. The study found that newspapers carried most of the agricultural information under different themes and frames. However, most of the information was framed as farming as a business and food security. It was also found that the newspapers felt obliged to express their opinion on agricultural information where food security was threatened as seen by the high percentage of editorials they carried. It was also found that stories though largely themed as business or market information, they were in six frames. Partly this may be explained by the need for newspapers to carry most stories in their business stories after discontinuing the specialised science and technology sections. Though beneficial in reaching a large audience, questions on the information's depth and credibility remain unanswered.

Comparative study of antihyperglycaemic activity of urtica dioica (stinging nettle), azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe secundiflora (aloe) extracts on rabbits and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Author: Njoroge, Jane Wanjiku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Comparative studies ; Hyperglycemia ; High blood sugar USE Hyperglycemia ; Urtica dioica ; Stinging nettle USE Urtica dioica ; Azadirachta indica ; Aloe secundiflora ; Medicinal plants ; Rabbits ; Diabetes ; Rats ;

Abstract:

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in developing, as, well as other countries Searching for hypoglycaemic agents with origin from domestic herbals was considered a useful and promising way to find novel therapy of the disease. This study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycaemic potential of Aloe secundiflora, Urtica dioica and Azadirachta indica leaves and assess various dose-response effects in the rabbit and diabetic Wistar rats. Shadow dried and powdered A. indica and U dioice leaf were extracted using 60% ethyl alcohol (1:3 w/v). Dried A. secundiflora leaf sap juice was concentrated in an open vessel. Their formulation mode was improved by constituting syrup. Diabetes was induced by a single i.p streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg). Graded doses of the extracts and placebo were orally administered to nonnoglycaemic rabbits for 4 weeks. In oral glucose tolerance test male Wistar rats were administered glucose (3g/kg b.w) 210 min after oral administration of extracts (80 mg kg -1). 80 mg kg -1 b.w of the extracts was administered orally to diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Control animals were given glibenclamide and placebo. Blood samples were evaluated using a glucose oxidase kit, (Human, Wiesbaden Germany). At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were sacrificed by anaesthesia, whole pancrease and kidney extracted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution and stained by hematoxylin -eosin dye. There was noticeable reduction in blood glucose levels after chronic administration of A. indica and U dioica extract at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg -1 in nonnoglycaemic rabbits. A. secundiflora did not show any effect at these doses. 100 mg kg -1 A. indica and U dioica extracts had statistically significant effect, p< 0.05 against the control. Animals fed on A. secundiflora had decreased appetite and experienced loose stool. In OGTT model the blood glucose levels of groups fed on A. secundiflora, U dioica and A. indica were p<O.OOI, p<O.OOI and p<0.05 respectively compared to control group at 120 min. A. secundiflora, U dioica and A. indica leaf extracts also produced a significant decrease in glucose level (p< 0.05) of diabetic-treated compared with diabetic controls. In segment jejunum the percentage fall in glucose concentration of the medium with initial values was 27.7% for A. secundiflora, 31.6% A. indica and 36.0% for U dioica against 43.8% for the control during 2 hours. The results indicate that A. secundiflora, A. indica and U dioica are potential antihyperglycaemics and can be used in modulating blood glucose levels. Key words: Comparative antihyperglycaemic, Aloe secundiflora, Urtica dioica, Azadirachta indica, Dose-response, Stz- Wistar rats.

Performance of Islamic and conventional banks in Kenya : a comparative case study

Author: Molu, Halkano

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Financial performance ; Islamic banking ; Banking industry ; Business conditions ; Comparative studies ;

Abstract:

Islamic banking is the system of banking consistent with principles of Islamic law (shariah) and guided by Islamic economics. Islamic economics is referred to that body of knowledge which helps realize human well-being through an allocation and distribution of scarce resources that is in conformity with Islamic teaching without unduly curbing individual freedom or creating continued macroeconomics and ecological imbalances. Islamic banking is grounded in the Islamic principles and all undertakings of the banks follow Islamic morals. Two basic principles behind Islamic banking are the sharing of profit and loss and, significantly, the prohibition of usury, the collection and payment of interest, also commonly called Riba. Like conventional bank, an Islamic bank is an intermediary and trustee of money of other people but the difference is that it shares profit and loss with its depositors. This difference that introduces the element of mutuality in Islamic banking makes its depositor a customer with some ownership rights in it, Dar and Presley (2000). The aim of this study was to examine and compare performance of Islamic banks, the Gulf African Bank and First Community Bank, and five conventional banks in Kenya. Both the Islamic and conventional banks sampled are within fourth tier of bank ranking per Central Bank of Kenya and all have asset base of less than ten billion shillings. The analysis involved extraction of financial ratios from the banks' published accounts and comparing the means for each category against the industry averages. Four broad categories of financial performance measures were considered and for each category two financial ratios were calculated and compared. The four broad categories of performance measures considered are profitability, liquidity, efficiency and risk and solvency of banks. The result of the study indicates that on the whole the conventional banks performed better than the Islamic banks during the period under review. The study found Islamic banks to be more liquid than the conventional banks. This however may not necessarily be an indication of better performance because more liquidity leads to less return and therefore affects other aspects of performance. Conventional banks on the other hand performed better in profitability, and efficiency. On risk and solvency, the Islamic banks seemed to perform better but while the trend for conventional banks was showing to be stable, the Islamic banks were showing increasing risks. And therefore considering that the Islamic banks have only been in Kenya for a short period, the fast increase in risk is an indicator they may be more risky than the conventional banks.

'A comparative study of infant mortality : the case of Kenya and Tanzania'

Author: Omedi, M Gilbert

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Infant mortality ; Tanzania ; Comparative studies ;

Abstract:

Recent Demographic and Health Surveys have shown reductions in infant mortality rates in Kenya and Tanzania. This study employed survival analysis to demonstrate how various factors are related to infant mortality in the duo and check whether these factors are the same across borders. Cox's Proportional Hazards Model incorporating socioeconomic, geographic, biodemographic and household environmental factors was applied to 2008/09 KDHS and 2010 TDHS data in order to establish the determinants of infant mortality in Kenya and Tanzania. The results in the proportional hazards models indicated that level of education of the mother, region, birth order/preceding birth interval, source of water and type of toilet facility in a household were significantly associated with post-neonatal mortality in Kenya. The significant determinants of post-neonatal mortality in Tanzania were mother's occupation, region, source of water and type of toilet facility in a household. Unlike in Kenya where households which use well water were 70 percent less likely to report post-neonatal deaths, the study found out that those in Tanzania were 41 percent more likely to report the death of post-neonates. The study found mother's level of education, mother's occupation, region and birth order/preceding birth interval to be significantly related to the risk of death of an infant in both Kenya and Tanzania. Mothers with no education had 0.47 and 0.55 higher chances of reporting infant deaths when compared to those with some secondary education in Kenya and Tanzania respectively. Mothers who are not engaged in an occupation are assumed to dedicate a lot of their time on child care so as to ensure their safety and increased chances of survival. The study found out that mothers who were not working were 0.28 (in Kenya) and 0.36 (in Tanzania) times less likely to experience infant deaths than their counterparts in agricultural activities. Infants in the 4+/<24 months birth order/preceding birth interval category were found to be 0.71 and 0.63 times more likely to die than those in the 2-3/2:24 months birth order/preceding birth interval category in Kenya and Tanzania respectively. The findings of this study have a number of implications for policy and research. There is need strengthen maternal and child health clinics at health facilities and more staff posted so as to reduce the time taken to see a doctor. Further, since majority of births are to rural dwellers, capacity building for community health workers should be strengthened so as to ensure sustainable primary health care programmes. The finding that type of place of residence was not significantly related to infant mortality in Kenya despite the 2008/09 KDHS finding that infant mortality is high in urban than rural areas is a call for further research on rural-urban differentials in infant mortality in Kenya. For Tanzania, there is need to conduct a study with emphasis on the effect of maternal age on infant survival.

Effect of soil properties on bioavailability of aluminum and phosphorus in selected Kenyan and Brazilian acid soils.

Author: Obura, Pamela Achieng

Awarding University: Purdue University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture ; Soils ; Aluminium ; Phosphorus ; Acids ; Comparative studies ; Brazil ;

Abstract:

Declining agricultural productivity in many parts of Africa is negatively affecting the livelihood of many people. Information on the fertility status of many of these fragile soils is scarce. To determine the soil factors responsible for the decline in soil productivity in the Kenyan highlands, 11 representative sites were selected, described in the field, and sampled for laboratory analyses. They were compared with selected soils from the Cerrado region of central Brazil where crop production has increased significantly since the 1960s due to improved crop varieties and soil nutrient management strategies. Soils east of the Rift Valley (Mt. Kenya region) were significantly different from those west of the Rift Valley. The topsoils of the pedons east of the Rift Valley had andic properties, were 0.75 pHH2O units more acidic, had 37% higher aluminum (Al) saturation, and about two to three times greater phosphorus sorption capacity (PSC) than the topsoils west of the Rift Valley. The soils from western Kenya were generally comparable to the Brazilian Cerrado soils with the exception that the exchange properties of the Brazilian soils were lower. Overall, Al saturation of both the Kenyan and Brazilian soils varied from 0-69%, and PSC ranged from 426-3333 mg kg -1 . The PSCs of the Brazilian topsoils were, however, not significantly different from the western Kenya soils. Both the Kenyan and Brazilian soils were generally high in dithionate-citratebicarbonate and ammonium oxalate extractable iron (Fe) and Al. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analyses indicated that the clay fractions of both the Kenyan and Brazilian soils were dominated by kaolinite. In addition, spheroidal and rolled-up sheets of halloysite were also identified in the Kenyan soil clays. Among the Kenyan soils, gibbsite was relatively abundant in the volcanic ash derived soils east the Rift Valley, while soils west of the Rift Valley contained appreciable amounts of 2:1 phyllosilicates inherited from the parent rocks. Most of the Brazilian soils contained significant amounts of gibbsite, and in some cases, minor amounts of 2:1 phyllosilicates. In light of these findings, the western Kenya soils are likely to respond to nutrient management practices that are similar to those used in central Brazil, while the soils from the Mt. Kenya region will require crop varieties and management strategies tailored to higher Al toxicity and phosphorus sorptive capacity

Three seemingly unrelated essays in development economics [Kenya].

Author: Baird, Sarah Jane

Awarding University: University of California, Berkeley, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Development economics ; Essays ; Comparative studies ;

Abstract:

Mitigating risk, new technology adoption and improving health and education are key mechanisms for lifting households out of poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In this dissertation we use micro-level analysis to investigate these issues in the contexts of Vietnam, India and Kenya. Although all three chapters look at diverse topics in different settings, at the heart of each analysis is an attempt to address issues essential to improving the well-being of households in developing countries. In Chapter 2 we draw on the full-insurance literature to examine the ability of households in Vietnam to smooth consumption when faced with idiosyncratic income shocks. Given the potential vulnerability of households in developing countries to weather shocks, illness and other sources of income variability, it is important to understand the extent to which households can cope with an uncertain income flow. We modify the standard approach taken in the full-insurance literature by focusing on smoothing of quantities, as opposed to expenditures. This is an important distinction because quantities, not expenditures, are what really matter for household welfare. In addition we allow for a more general characterization of preferences. We develop a simple model that leads to an estimation equation which we then test using panel data from Vietnam. We still reject full insurance across all goods, although the degree of insurance varies across goods. In particular we find that households are better able to smooth normal goods, such as rice, as opposed to more luxury goods such as meats. Chapter 3 looks at the factors that drove technology adoption of high yielding variety seeds in India during the Green Revolution. We test alternative models of technology adoption using household level panel data from a nationally representative sample of rural Indian households from 1968-1971, years that correspond with the onset of the Green Revolution. The 'price model' emphasizes input availability and price as the key determinants of the scale of adoption, while the 'learning model' focuses on learning and experience. Using decision rules derived from these two alternative models we find that although both models capture certain aspects of the adoption decision, they each disregard important components of the alternative model. We then propose a third model that combines aspects of these two approaches and use it to characterize the decision both on the scale of adoption as well as whether or not to adopt. Chapter 4 examines the long run health and education impacts of a deworming intervention in primary schools in Western Kenya. We collect a panel dataset of Kenyan youth from 1998 to 2005 to examine the medium to long term impacts of the intervention on health and education outcomes. Our results suggest that deworming treatment does have some medium-run effects, particularly on health. We find positive impacts of deworming on height, weight and a subjective measure of general health. These results seem to be largely driven by benefits to females, students in lower grades in 1998, and students living in higher infection areas, particularly high schistosomiasis areas. We find some impacts of deworming on education outcomes, most notably on dropout rates. Overall, our results suggest that a larger scale deworming project targeted at specific vulnerable sub-groups of the population may have fairly substantial health and education benefits.

A comparative of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools : a case of Manga Division, Nyamira District

Author: Onchiri, Sureiman

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Comparative studies ; Primary education ; Private schools ; Public schools ; Manga Division, Nyamira District ;

Abstract:

The education sector has been undergoing regular review since independence by special commission and working parties. The rationale for these reviews has been to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study is designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District. The main objectives of the study were to determine the relationship of reciprocal of the unit recurrent expenditure to the output indicators for both private and public primary schools. The indicators were used to establish the most internally efficient education system between public and private primary schools. The views of the stakeholders (parents, head teachers and class teachers) on internal efficiency of primary education were also established. Like all good theories, objectives led to the following testable hypotheses to guide this study:(i)There is no significant difference in (a) ARURE (b) completion rate (b) transition rate (d) repetition rate (e) attendance rate (f) examination performance improvement (g) final examination mean (h) ACOC between private and public primary schools. (ii)There is no significant difference between private and public primary schools' examination performance as by the (a) parents (b) teachers. (iii)There is no significant difference in costs between private and public primary schools as by the ( a) parents (b) teachers The findings were not only expected to enlighten members of the public on the importance and effectiveness of having an internally efficient education system, but were also to enable the educationists and economists to know the more efficient primary education system between the two. In addition, the findings were to act as a valuable reference in formulating policies for implementation of the primary education and the channeling of the education resources. The study was guided by the Production Function Theory. The literature review in chapter two on input indicators of internal efficiency, quantitative indicators of education output, input-output relationship in education and comparative studies on education highlights the existing educational gaps which formed the basis of this study. Given the nature of variables, purpose and objectives of the study, descriptive correlation design was adopted in conducting the study. The target population was seventy seven (77) head teachers, seventy seven (77) class teachers, and two thousand and eighty-five (2085) parents in the division. Stratified and proportionate random sampling techniques were employed to select the sample of three hundred and nine (309) parents, twenty three (23) head teachers and twenty three (23) class teachers. The detailed questionnaires were used to gather data from the head teachers and class teachers of sampled schools. Interview schedule was used for the case of parents. The data was also gathered by documentary analysis. The supervisors were relied upon to determine the validity of the instruments. A pretesting of the research instruments was done to attest their validity. The researcher himself collected data. The gathered data was validated, edited and coded before analysis. The quantitative data was analyzed by correlation techniques in which it was converted into proportions, t-tests and chi-square tests by the use of a calculator. The confidence level was set at 0.05. Qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis. The principal findings of the study were as follows: (i) The relationship of the reciprocal of unit recurrent expenditure to output indicators (completion rate, repetition rate and attendance rate and cumulative output coefficient) is non-linear for both private and public primary schools. (ii) There is no relationship of reciprocal of unit recurrent expenditure to the output indicators (transition rate and examination performance improvement) for both private and public primary schools. (iii) The input

Assessment of the reliability of internal control structures in safeguarding financial resources in third sector organizations. a comparative study of Pan Africa and hope restoration group

Author: Ng'ang'a, Samuel James

Awarding University: Daystar University, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2006

Holding Libraries: Daystar University Library ;

Subject Terms: Financial management ; Comparative studies ; Pan Africa ; Hope Restoration Group ;

Abstract:

A reliable internal control structure is fundamental success factor in financial management and eventual achievement of organizational goals because it ensures effectiveness and efficiency of financial operations. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of internal control structures in safeguarding financial resources in third sector organizations, a comparative study of Pan Africa and Hope Restoration Group (HRG). This study was necessary because internal control structures require regular review for continued reliability to safeguard financial in the light of the dynamic business environment. The researcher used descriptive research and targeted a population size of 54 and 104 people for the case of Pan Africa and HRG, respectively who included staff members and directors. Data was collected using a questionnaire, interviews and observations from a sample size of 94% and 65% of the population of Pan Africa and HRG, respectively. Stratified sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used due to heterogeneity nature of target population. Data was analyzed using SPSS, content analysis and presented using tables and cross tabulations. Results revealed that although Pan Africa had relatively stronger internal control structure compared to HRG, internal controls in both organizations were reliable to an extent of 77% and 72% for Pan Africa and HRG, respectively. This was an indication that internal control structures in Pan Africa and HRG had limitations in safeguarding financial resources. Review of internal control structures is therefore in both entities to enhance reliability.

The political economy of contract farming in Kenya : a historical-comparative study of the tea and sugar contract farming schemes, 1960-2002.

Author: Ochieng, C M O

Awarding University: University of Oxford, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2005

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Political economy ; Comparative studies ; Tea plantation workers ; Sugar industry ; Contracts ; Farming ;

Abstract:

Contrary to conventional opinion, this thesis posits that the Kenyan state has not been biased in favour of smallholder farmer. By examining the legal and institutional framework, the distribution of costs and benefits, and the degree of smallholder ?voice? or ability to contest policy in contract farming in tea and sugar, this study found that agricultural policy making and delivery under both the Moi and Kenyatta states was disproportionately influenced by, and tilted in favour of agribusiness. Contract farming in tea and sugar in Kenya was neither efficient nor equitable. This study re-visited the ?Kenyan development model? or the ?Kenyan state debate?, by examining the tri-partite relationship between the Kenyan state, agribusiness and smallholders {1962-2002} through the vantage point of contract farming. The inconclusive resolution of the ?Kenyan debate? and the lacuna in the existing literature provided both the justification and point of departure fro this study. The study transcended the limited terms and the inadequate theoretical and analytical frameworks under which both the Kenyan development and contract farming debates have been conducted, by providing broader conceptualisations of key concepts of the ?state?, ?contract farming?, ?efficiency? and ?equity?. Contract farming is conceived of a being embedded in socio-economic and political structures and relationships, local and international that change over time. Instrumentalist and relative autonomy theories of the state are challenged and the role of state in society shown to be dependent upon specific historical circumstances. The notion of ?efficiency? as a ?technical, neutral term? is similarly challenged and ?efficiency? shown to be an ideological term, whose definition in contract farming, is stakeholder dependent. Equity is conceptualised broadly to include inequalities of opportunities, capabilities and ?voice? {based on ethnicity, regional or political differences}. The key strength of this approach is that it allows for multiple levels of inquiry and evidence {for instance, macro and micro, economic and socio-political, et cetera} which have not been employed in previous studies of either the Kenyan state or contract farming