52 Records out of 22207 Records

Challenges faced by Nation Media Group in entering East African Common Market

Author: Cherotich, Josephine

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nation Media Group ; East African Common Market ; Common markets ; Management ;

Abstract:

This study investigated the challenges faced by Nation Media Group in entering East Africa Common Market. The objective of the study was to determine how the NMG enters into the common East Africa market and also establish the difficulties faced by new entrants on the market. To achieve the objective, a content analysis of major documents at the NMG concerning FDI and expansion was conducted. Interviews from key staff at NMG that are centrally placed in expansion strategy processes were carried out to get an in-depth view of the challenges that NMG and new entrants face. The study will have useful insight to the corporate world in Kenya and may have generated new information that can be used for expansion strategy. The research also advanced the work of previous scholars and academicians. Based on the research findings the study concluded that indeed challenges exist facing expansion strategists. The study anticipated and encountered limitations in terms of literature material, funds and lack of cooperation from respondents but this was dealt with through extra reading, team discussions and input from colleagues at NMG to make a final report a success. From the policy perspective the study implied that the NMG should approach the government whenever the expansion strategic plan is put in place for implementation so that the country diplomatic ties are used as a pathway to ease expansion. The study also recommended that, the government should in practice try to involve the private sector in formulating strategic plans in which both parties could present shortcomings and challenges faced in implementing the strategic plans in particular the expansion into regional markets.

Strategic repsonses by companies in the sugar industry in Kenya to the implementation of the Comesa free trade agreement

Author: Wachiye, Romano Misiko

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Strategic management/Sugar industry/Common markets/Comesa Free Trade Agreement/Trade agreements ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to establish the strategic responses by the sugar companies in Kenya to deal with the environmental challenge posed by the imminent full implementation of the COMESA FTA protocol and which will mean that there will be unlimited importation of cheaper sugar from COMESA member countries. The research problem was solved through the use of a cross-sectional descriptive survey. A descriptive survey normally attempts to describe or define a subject by creating a profile of a group of problems, people or events, through the collection of data and tabulation of the frequencies or their interaction. The target population of this study was all the 11 sugar companies licensed by the Kenya Sugar Board as at March 2012. The findings indicate that the major challenges were the high cost of farm inputs, the uneconomical size of farmers' plots, the weak management of farmers' institutions and lack of diversification. The findings also indicate that only 43% of the respondents had strategic responses to the environmental threat. The majority (57%) implied that they had not developed any strategic responses. The findings further indicate that the majority (67%) of those who have put in place strategic responses believe that these responses were adequate. The study established that increasing marketing activities was ranked highest as a strategic response same as leadership strategy. The next highly ranked strategic response was increased use of rCT and lastly, culture change. The following recommendations can be made from the study. First of all, sugar companies should come up with appropriate strategic responses to the external threat posed by the upcoming full implementation of the COMESA FTA. Secondly, from the study, it appears that the strategic responses ranked highest are not those that immediately address the reasons why locally produced sugar is uncompetitive locally and regionally. Therefore it is highly recommended that the respective companies come up with appropriate strategic responses to address the issue of high costs of production that leads to the uncompetitiveness of the locally produced sugar.

Trade creation and diversion in East Africa : the effect of EAC on multilateral trade flows

Author: Umutesi, Angelique

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Common markets/Tariff agreements/East Africa/East African Community/Balance of trade/ ;

Abstract:

East African Community (EAC) is a regional integration that joins Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda. Throughout the period of 2000-2010, the gains of increased intra-EAC trade are unevenly distributed with only Kenya being a net intra-EAC exporter. Although the adoption of EAC Common External Tariff in 2005 led to a decline of tariff rates for Kenya and Tanzania, it resulted into a rise in average tariff rate for Uganda. The study investigated effects of EAC; that is trade creation or trade diversion on multilateral trade flows of member states using the gravity model. The results suggested that multilateral trade flows in EAC were explained by the standard variables of the gravity model before and after the year 2007. GDP positively and significantly impacted on EAC imports, while distance considerably was a barrier to multilateral trade. Evidence showed no existence of trade creation or trade diversion for both periods 2002-2006 and 2007-2010. Policy implications include improvement of transport infrastructures both within EAC and with other trading partners in order to reduce the cost of imports. EAC member countries' governments should continue to enhance policies that are geared towards economic growth, so that increased GDP wi1llead to increased multilateral trade flows.

Entry strategies adopted by Kenya Commercial Bank Limited in East African Community Market

Author: Kungu, Michael Wanjiku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: International trade/Market entry/Market penetration/Kenya Commercial Bank/East African Community/East African Common Market/Common markets ;

Abstract:

Kenya commercial banks have shown their desire to have international presence and Kenya Commercial Bank is a classic example. Despite the concerted efforts by Kenyan firms to explore foreign markets, there seem to be little or no attention at all in literature concerning Kenyan firms seeking to expand in foreign markets. This study sought to identify the entry strategies adopted by Kenya Commercial Bank in the East African market. It used a case study research design to achieve this objective. Qualitative data was collected through interviews with 7 senior management staffs at KCB Group. The study revealed that KCB adopted Green field entry strategy where it starts operations in 100% KCB owned subsidiaries except where local laws do not allow such as in South Sudan. KCB choices were informed by available opportunities identified through market analysis. Entry strategies adopted by KCB have been successful safe for Tanzania which has been a struggle, while Sudan has been immensely successful. Timing of entry matters to KCB. The early mover advantage in South Sudan, for instance, has been beneficial to KCB. This study concluded that, although Green field strategy is expensive, KCB adopted it because it has a good financial base. In foreign expansion, firms should not be quick to duplicate their domestic marketing strategies but should be-keen on customizing their strategies to resonate with the foreign markets' unique characteristics. This study recommends that firms seeking to expand in the East African region should assess various modes of entry and settle on the most appropriate based on internal organizational factors such as their capabilities as well as external factors such as business environment, economy, social and political aspects.

The effects of East African common market on cross border business for Kenya Association of Manufacturers' members

Author: Ndege, Joel Gichangi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Effects ; East African Common Market ; Common markets ; Kenya Association of Manufacturers ; Manufacturers ; Business conditions ;

Abstract:

In today's business environment, it is more evident that if companies want to grow they need to think outside the current borders because the competitive advantages in producing products and services are constantly shifting between capital intensive countries and labor intensive countries. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of East African Common Market on cross border business for Kenya Association of Manufacturers' members. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population comprised of sampled 41 members of KAM involve in cross border trade. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire while secondary data was obtained from annual reports of the EAC and other publications. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the data obtained using Statistic Packaging for Social Science (SPSS).The data was classified, tabulated and summarized using descriptive measures, percentages and frequency distribution tables. The study found that majority of the firms contacted conducted formal cross border trade. The cross border trade promoted economic development of Kenya by increasing the employment level in the country as the production levels increased. The study recommends that the Government and policy makers should use this study to develop policies and guidelines that promote Kenya's position on the EAC market. KAM members should use the findings in bringing out the major contributions of the EAC to their current performance and in their decisions to expand their market beyond Kenya and EAC.

Non-state actors in regional integration : the case of the Kenya Private Sector

Author: Otuya, Brown Ingabo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: East African Community ; International trade ; Private sector ; Common markets ;

Abstract:

This work investigates the role of the Kenya private sector as a non-state actor in the East African regional integration process. The assumption is that having recognized the private sector as crucial in the process, and clearly declaring so in the Treaty for the establishment of the East African Community, each of the Community's partner states namely, Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania would clearly provide for, and facilitate private sector participation in the process. Secondly, recognition of the sector by the member states as crucial implied assumption that it indeed has a role to play. The study therefore, examines and analyzes the nexus between success in regional integration and private sector participation, starting by determining the extent to which the East African Community member states, and Kenya in particular has facilitated the sector's participation, and the extent to which the sector has influenced Kenya's foreign policy decisions on the process. Findings are that the Kenya government has involved only a part of the private sector through the sector's representative and apex bodies without a clear policy or legal framework defining the sector and the nature of involvement. Although the integration process has recorded success in achieving some of the agreed milestones like the Customs Union and Common Market with minimal involvement of the sector, the sector has potential in strengthening the efforts towards success. It is concluded that success will be determined by the state taking the lead, but involving the private sector and other relevant non- state actors more than it has hitherto done. It is recommended that Kenya and the other EAC member states should come up with a policy and legal framework for private sector participation. Further research is also recommended to determine whether East African states' sovereignties hinder or enhance the region's integration interests.

An assessment of the relationship between economic intergration and regional security in East Africa

Author: Nafula, Damary

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: International relations ; Common markets ; National security ; East African Community ;

Abstract:

This project is an assessment of the relationship between economic integration and regional security in East Africa. This was done by examining the factors leading to security threats in the East African region and efforts put in place to deal with them. The East African states continue to face many security challenges which i~clude: trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling, firearms trafficking, drug trafficking, environmental crimes, counterfeit, money laundering and piracy. Twenty officers from the ministry of East African Community and that of Regional Affairs were interviewed with the aim of trying to get their opinion on the role of economic integration in regional security. The study findings indicate that there exists cooperation in priority areas of trade and industry, security, immigration and promotion of investment in the region. Three issues that pose major threats to regional security are: ethnicity, economic crisis and political violence. Mutual accountability and strengthening African security capacity are the most important factors in ensuring regional security in East Africa. The study further observed that regional cooperation is the key element in the process of integration. Commitment levels of member-states and the distribution of costs and benefits of integration leads to adoption of security measures which is most vital element in economic integration and regional security in the East African region. The findings indicate that Protocols have been adopted by member states in order to deal with arms trafficking. However, there are no clear standardized laws in place to deal with other organized crimes in the region. Regional development can only be achieved if the security challenges are addressed. Security threats are likely to occur when individual human needs have not been met. It is a wide consensus that peace is inexorably tied to both security and development. This project therefore recommends that policy makers in the region and the individual member states endeavor to meet basic human needs of their population in order to look forward to a secure region.

Factors influencing regional trade within the East African Community common market

Author: Munyao, Joseph Mbithi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: International markets ; Common markets ; East African Community ; East African Common Market ;

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to find out the factors that influence regional trade within the East African Community common market. The population of interest consisted of the respective ministries responsible for the EAC affairs in all the member states of the east African common market. At the time of research there were only five member states which had ratified the EAC protocol, although Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia had applied to the secretariat for consideration as members of EAC. Results of the study show that the major benefits accruing to the member states from the EACCM include wider choice of goods and services afforded to the consumers, larger production base, expanded market size for producers and greater competitiveness and quality of products. The major factors influencing regional trade were identified as: industrial concentration within the member states, supply-side constraints and competition, multiple memberships, different tax regimes and non-tariff barriers. The industry concentration was found to be a little skewed with most members indicating that Kenya had higher concentration of industries with limited specialization by member states to produce what they have comparative advantage on. The main supply-side constraint identified was poor infrastructure which posed challenges by way of transportation, telecommunication and delays. However, it was also noted that the infrastructure problem only posed a challenge to a moderate extent to the regional trade. It was clearly established that regional trade within EAC does not receive a boost from multiple memberships and that EAC member states have delayed in harmonizing their tax regimes and this affect regional trade in EAC moderately. Regarding non-tariff barriers, it was found that NTBS still exist in the EAC common market to some extent. It was also found that there are mechanisms to deal with errant member states that enforce NTBS but that these mechanisms were only moderately effective. In conclusion the benefits of regional integration within the EACCM are more than the constraints experienced and it was suggested that the leveled of integration should be fast tracked to a federation.

Response strategies by the Kenya Revenue Authority challenges of tax administration in the East African Community common market place

Author: Muthami, Patricia Kamene

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Strategic management ; Kenya Revenue Authority ; Tax regulations ; East African Community ; Common markets ; Government agencies ;

Abstract:

The implementation of the East African Community Common Market came with a number of requirements that required member states of the Common Market to enact legislations that would see that the provisions of the protocol were assimilated in to their domestic laws. The result of this was a review of domestic laws with a view to cause necessary amendments to ensure that they were consistent with the East African Community. One of the amendments was to harmonize tax policies in order to facilitate the movement of goods, services and capital and to promote investment within the Community. Definitely, the amendments affected the member states' revenue authorities; Kenya being one of them; hence the Kenya Revenue Authority had to make adjustments to its tax adminis.tration for the harmonization to be achieved. This study sought to determine the response strategies by the Kenya Revenue Authority to challenges of tax administration in the East African Community Common Market. The objectives were to determine the challenges facing Kenya Revenue Authority in Tax administration in the East African Community Common Market and the response strategies adopted by the Kenya Revenue Authority to deal with challenges of tax administration in the East African Community Common Market. The study adopted a case study research design by targeting the staff of Kenya Revenue Authority as the respondents. The study interviewed five heads of department from each of the Departments of the Kenya Revenue Authority. The findings were analyzed qualitatively through content analysis to come up with conclusions and recommendations. It was found out that the Kenya Revenue Authority faced a number of challenges in tax administration in the East African Community Common Market especially with the harmonization of the tax administration systems. The response strategies adopted to deal with the challenges included examining the environment and gathering information that could be used to predict or respond to changes related to East African Community Common Market, monitoring, implementation and customizing its strategy in line with the implementation and creation of new systems and policies to help in the implementations process. The study recommends development of a strategic plan that includes East African Community Common Market implementation steps in it and a further study on harmonization of revenue systems in East African Community by looking at the success factors and barriers to the harmonization process.

The East African Community : how ready is it for a monetary union by 2012?

Author: Mose, Victor

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: East African Community ; Monetary unions ; Monetary policy ; Common markets ;

Abstract:

The study investigates the readiness of the East Africa Community (EAC) to form a monetary union by the end of 2012 using 1980-2010 data. The problem investigated is the fact that a monetary union is not an easy integration to manage especially if the economies do not meet preconditions for monetary integration. The warning signals on the negative externalities of a MU can be seen from the current problems of the European Union (EU). This raises justified fears on the effects of a MU. The study uses inflation rate and interest rates convergence and stationarity to assess the readiness. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test is used to test for convergence while Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test is used to test for stationarity of the inflation rates differentials and interest rate differentials. The study also uses the granger causality test to analyze the relationship between the inflation rates and lending rates for each country and further uses the correlation coefficients to detect the degree of association among the inflation rates and interest rates in the region. The study establishes that the inflation rates of the region have converged to the EAC average but the interest rates differentials have not converged. There are also low correlations among the lending rates and inflation rates in the region. Inflation rates granger cause lending rates and lending rates do not granger cause inflation rates indicating that the monetary policy is not as effective as it should be in stabilizing inflation rates in the EAC. The overall assessment shows that the community needs more time before it meets the preconditions for making a MU.