178 Records out of 22207 Records

Women in national liberation wars in the settler colonies of Kenya and Zimbabwe : pathways to political empowerment

Author: Kombo, Eudora Ebitimi

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : MA (Res)

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Women/Colonialism/Liberation/Womens studies/Womens rights movement/ ;

Abstract:

Throughout the 20th century African women have challenged their subordinate status both under European colonial rule and under their post-independence governments. Women have used protest action, membership in nationalist political parties, participation in national liberation wars, and the use of autonomous women?s organizations to advance their political status. During anti-colonial liberation wars in Algeria, Kenya, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa, women were combatants, civilian activists and supporters providing non-combat services with the expectation of advancing their interests and acquiring new political rights after independence (Becker, 1995). Yet after playing such vital roles in the liberation of their countries women are still politically underrepresented in most post- liberation countries. Using case studies of Kenya and Zimbabwe this research will evaluate whether or not women?s military and non-combat roles during national liberation wars empowered them politically in their post-independence nations. I will use the empowerment framework to argue that during the wars of liberation in Kenya and Zimbabwe the nationalist parties did not articulate a clear ideology of women?s liberation or empowerment, but that instead they incorporated ideologies which regenerated traditional culture and which negatively impacted women?s political empowerment. I will show that due to colonial oppression women?s political consciousness progressively deepened and motivated them to participate in the liberation wars. I will investigate what roles women?s organizations have played both during the wars and in the post-liberation era in women?s continued struggles for political advancement in their independent states. This research is a text-based analysis of the ideas advanced above, using available scholarly materials from books, journal articles, and data from the Inter Parliamentary Union and from United Nations Women documents. I also use online material from specific women?s organizations from Kenya and Zimbabwe

Reparation for colonialism and human rights violation in Kenya : legal challenges and opportunities

Author: Mutua, Eric Kyalo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : LLM

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Reparations ; Colonialism ; Human rights ; Violations ; Litigation ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The role of the alternative press in the developement of nationalism in Kenya, 1945-1960

Author: Liyai, Hudson A

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Colonialism ; Nationalism ; Newspapers ; Political dissent ;

Abstract:

This study traces the history of the African press in colonial Kenya and how it contributed to the development of nationalism. From its inception at the tum of the 19th century, colonialism set the stage for perpetual conflict between foreign interests and the African struggle to regain their independence. The struggle took many forms including armed resistance, passive resistance and political organizations . During these developments the African press emerged as one important tool for voicing African interests and raising awareness across the African population. In this way, the press nurtured the nascent nationalism that challenged the colonial government, which eventually led to the country's independence. The study points out that the African press should be accorded its proper role in Kenya's history. In this regard the study of the press must be done in the wider colonial context and not in isolation of other concurrent actors of the time. The study concludes that the African press played a catalytic role in the development of nationalism in Kenya and was an important tool used by the nationalists in the struggle for independence. Suggested areas for further research include examination of the actual contents of the various African newspapers, rather than relying on what has been reported on them.

Making the empire pay for itself : taxation and government expenditure in Kenya and Northern Rhodesia, 1900-1970

Author: Gardner, Leigh A

Awarding University: University of Oxford, UK

Level : DPhil

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Taxation ; Economic conditions ; Colonialism ;

Abstract:

How much did the British Empire cost, and how did Britain pay for it? This dissertation explores a source of funds much neglected in the existing literature on the financial structure of the Empire, namely revenue raised in the colonies themselves. Requiring colonies to be financially self sufficient was one of a range of strategies the British government used to lower the cost of imperial expansion to its own Treasury. Using the case studies of two colonies in British Africa, this dissertation examines how their efforts to balance their budgets influenced their relationships with local political stakeholders and the imperial government. It finds that meeting the revenue imperative was the most powerful influences shaping the political and economic institutions that were established by colonial administrations and inherited by the former colonies at Independence. At the turn of the century, when both colonies became part of the British Empire, neither Northern Rhodesia nor Kenya seemed likely to be able to pay for their own administrations. Both were geographically large and had few obvious economic assets until the discovery of copper deposits in Northern Rhodesia in the 1920s and the development of the agricultural industry in Kenya. Local economic and political conditions dictated the methods by which their colonial administrations raised revenue and how they spent it. With limited resources, colonial administrations raised revenue through a series of administrative compromises which ultimately provided the foundations of a range of factors which remain influential in Africa today, including government corruption and regional integration. The desire for a quick fiscal return from development projects shaped the priorities of public expenditure in the colonies.

Indifferent justice? A history of the judges of Kenya and Tanganyika, 1897-1963

Author: Swanepoel, Paul Arthur Albertus

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Judiciary/History/Justice/Mau Mau/Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa/Colonialism/ ;

Abstract:

This thesis examines the history of the judges of Kenya and Tanganyika between 1897, when the first British court was established in Mombasa, and 1963, when Kenya gained independence. The formation of judicial identities and the judiciary?s role within the colonial state are the main themes. The recruitment process into the Colonial Legal Service is discussed. Legal recruitment was both unique and problematic, mainly because there was a shortage of vacancies for newly-qualified barristers. Many were forced to seek employment elsewhere, but for those fortunate enough to secure positions within the barristers? profession the financial rewards were substantial. This led to fears that second-rate barristers who were unable to make a living in Britain applied to serve in the colonies as legal officers. As a consequence, the length of applicants? professional experience became an important factor for recruitment officials. Aspects of judges? backgrounds are systematically analysed in order to produce a profile of the type of judge who served in the two territories during the colonial period. Judges were among the most mobile of colonial officers and typically served in four or more territories during their colonial careers. These factors shaped their collective identity. At the same time, they partly determined their attitudes towards the various laws they were called on to administer. In setting out the structure of the courts and the laws that were in force, a number of cases are discussed in order to demonstrate judicial attitudes over time. Two chapters focus on Tanganyika during the interwar period, illustrating divides between the administration and the judiciary regarding the administration of justice. Based on memoirs and personal papers, the professional lives of two judges are traced in order to gauge their views on the political events that surrounded them. The final two chapters focus on Kenya in the 1950s. The testimony of advocates is used as a means of inquiring into the characters and attitudes of the judges they appeared before. It provides an impression of the legal profession in late colonial Kenya, as both advocates and judges alike defined their professionalism with reference to the legal profession in Britain. The focus then shifts to judicial decisions made during the Mau Mau rebellion between 1952 and 1959, with particular emphasis being placed on the attitudes and professionalism of the judges of the Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa. The thesis offers a new interpretation of the judiciary?s place within the colonial state; by arguing that as a result of remaining part of the barristers? profession in Britain, it suggests that colonial judges found it more difficult to adapt to the realities of functioning within the colonial state than members of other branches of the Colonial Service.

The Agikuyu, the Bible and colonial constructs : towards an ordinary African readers? hermeneutics

Author: Kinyua, Johnson Kiriaku

Awarding University: University of Birmingham, England

Level :

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Kikuyu (African people)/Bible/Colonialism ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Colonialism and ethnic conflict in post colonial Africa : a case study of Kenya 1963-2007

Author: Mwaura, Samuel Wilfred Ngugi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Colonialism ; Minority and ethnic violence ; Post-election violence ; Conflict resolution ;

Abstract:

Kenya was a British Colony from 1895- 1963. The British stamped their imperial power through the way they administered Kenya. They used divide and rule whereby they divided the administrative boundaries based on tribal population patterns. The land policy which saw people being moved from their native land so that the British might take the fertile land for agriculture cannot be denied. When Kenya got her independence in 1963 nothing much was done to address the issues the colonial legacy had bequeathed the newly independent Kenya. The successive regimes of Jomo Kenyatta, Daniel Moi and Eventually Mwai Kibaki did not address the issues so as to avoid potential conflict. The study has established that colonial legacy laid a foundation of the many ethnic conflicts that have plagued Kenya after her independence. Land, ethnicity and governance problems are issues that have brought ethnic conflict in Kenya. Kenya experienced the worst ethnic conflict in 2007 -2008, whereby 1,300 people died and about 350,000 people were internally displaced. From the grievances that caused the conflict, there emerged long-term issues which have not been dealt with. These are land issues, governance and economic issues. In order for ethnic conflicts in Kenya to be mitigated, long term solutions for long-term issues ought to be found. This is what the Kofi Annan led mediation attempted to do. The mediation proposed reform agendas which should they be followed ethnic conflicts in Kenya can be mitigated.

Nation, race and politics amongst the South Asian diaspora : from colonial Kenya to multicultural Britain

Author: Aiyar, Sana

Awarding University: Harvard University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: History ; Race relations ; Colonialism ; Politics ; Multiculturalism and pluralism ;

Abstract:

This dissertation traces the political history of Indians in colonial Kenya. It explores the diasporic subjectivity of these migrants who mediated between constructions of racial and national identity in the public political realm that they shared with Europeans and Africans in Kenya from c.1920 to 1968. The political orientation of the Indian diaspora created a triangular realm between Kenya, India and Britain which are brought into one analytical paradigm. I study various constructions of the ambivalent and changing political imaginary of the Indian diaspora that straddled and negotiated between these three milieus. This dissertation looks at the diasporic nationalism of Indians to interrogate the nature of the sub-imperialist impulse of the first generation of Indian political agitators in Kenya who protested against the privileges bestowed upon the European settlers. It explores the contours of the economic colonial structure that rendered a 'middle-man' status to the Indians, and uncovers the implications of this stereotype in the political realm--especially as colonial structural limitations circumscribed the possibilities of political collaboration between Indians and Africans. It analyses the relationship between Indian nationalism emanating from the Indian subcontinent and the diaspora in Kenya to show how the universalizing aspirations of anti-colonial nationalism crossed the Indian Ocean and opened up the space for the integration of diasporic Indian nationalism into the political sphere in Kenya. It unravels the articulations of Kenyan nationalism by the Indian diaspora whose relationship with the Africans was defined by cooperation against the European settlers, ambivalence with regard to anti-colonial territorial nationalism and racialized competition within the economic realm. Finally it traces the rise of African majoritarianism and the institutionalization of British multiculturalism resulting from the Indian exodus out of Kenya and into Britain in 1967-68. Throughout this dissertation I argue that between 1920-1968 the Indian diaspora in Kenya transcended the boundaries of race and nation without effacing them, challenging along its way the political limitations of territorially-bounded and racially-defined nationalism. In doing so, I underscore the importance of examining the implications of diasporic subjectivity, historicizing the interplay between diaspora and nationalism and exploring the relationship between diaspora and its homeland.

From colonial elitism to Moi's populism : the policies and politics of university education in Kenya, 1949--2002

Author: Kithinji, Michael Mwenda

Awarding University: Bowling Green State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: History/African history/Colonialism/Politics/Education/ ;

Abstract:

This study explores the evolution of policies on access to university education in Kenya between 1949 and 2002. The process of democratizing access during the period under study proceeded unevenly due to the changing economic and political dynamics that conversely affected the university policies. The first twenty years of university experience in East Africa, between 1949 and 1969, witnessed very modest gains in access to university. During this period, the colonial inter-territorial policy severely limited access to university. The inter-territorial university policy was initiated by the British as part of the colonial reform efforts aimed at creating a new kind of imperial partnership with the subject people in the post-Second World War world. The implementation of the inter-territorial policy in East Africa led to the establishment of the University of East Africa with three university colleges of Makerere in Uganda, Dar-es-Salaam in Tanganyika and Nairobi in Kenya. Britain insisted on the inter-territorial policy in the late 1950s and early 1960s even when it was apparent that it planned to grant independence to its East African colonies territorially. This study shows that the inter-territorial policy was a mechanism to ensure the continuation of British influence in East Africa in the post independence period. The realities of independence, however, conflicted with the inter-territorial policy. The increasing demand for more university opportunities by East Africans put pressure on their governments towards expansion of institutional facilities. Consequently, the East African governments responded by discontinuing the inter-territorial policy in 1969, allowing for the creation of national universities. The Kenyan government established the University of Nairobi and its constituent, Kenyatta University College in 1970. For the next two years, Kenya witnessed tremendous expansion of university enrollment. But beginning in 1973, the Kenyatta government suspended the expansion process on claims of scarcity of finances. Despite the prevailing high demand, the Kenyatta government retained the colonial elitist mentality that limited university access to only the cream of the Kenyan society. All this changed with the coming to power of President Moi in 1978. When Moi succeeded Kenyatta in 1978, the entire education system was reviewed and reformed. Policies that were intended to democratize access to university education were introduced. The reform strategy involved changing the education structure from the British model that promoted elitism and severely restricted access to the more egalitarian American model. By the time he left office in 2002, the number of universities and students enrolments had increased tremendously. This study is not merely a history of the foundation of universities in East Africa or in Kenya. Rather, it utilizes historical research methods to investigate the reaction of the successive governments in Kenya to the protracted demands for university access. In doing so, it explores the connections between university access and lingering controversies on East African regional integration, quality and relevance, university autonomy, academic freedom, brain drain, university financing and funding, student activism, university diversification and privatization

Colonial transformation of female circumcision and its impact on women's roles and gender relations among the Agikuyu of Kiambu from 1895 to 1963

Author: Muraya, Martha Wanjiru

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Female circumcision ; Colonialism ; Kikuyu (African people) ; Women ; Gender ; Rites and ceremonies ; Sex roles ; Kiambu, Kenya ;

Abstract:

The general purpose of this study is to generate qualitative information on the colonial transformation of female circumcision and its impact on women's roles and gender relations among the Agikuyu of Kiambu from 1895 to 1963. Female circumcision is a practice with deep cultural meaning and purpose. Among the Agikuyu, the practice implied analogy to male circumcision and therefore both male and female circumcision was referred to as irua or circumcision. The Agikuyu people of Kiambu from whom most of the data for this study was obtained, believed that in the traditional set up, female circumcision defined gender roles and women's power to negotiate space with men. Indeed, men and women are biologically different but these differences constituted a central perception of society's gender roles, values, and relations. The cultural meaning and procedures of female circumcision has experienced a lot of changes since the establishment of colonial rule in the area. The Europeans disregarded the female circumcision rite since they viewed it as a hindrance to their economic progress, and as a health hazard. This study therefore, endeavors to give an overview of the historical background on how the Agikuyu female circumcision traditionally defined women roles, values, and gender relations. The study demonstrates how during the traditional set-up, female circumcision channeled girls into socially acceptable roles, values and relations, which they internalized and seemed natural and inevitable. It also investigates how the Europeans ideologies such as capitalist economy, Christianity, Western education, and colonial administrative agents changed the Agikuyu female circumcision. These European ideologies embraced the nineteenth a patriarchal culture that perceived woman's roles as to attend household tasks, to take care of home and to bear and raise children. Thus, the interaction between the African traditional male dominance perception and the European patriarchal perception that was manifested in its policies lead to continuous subordination of the Agikuyu women. Hence, women's opportunities in public domain were limited compared to their male counterparts. The transformation that took place in the Agikuyu female circumcision rite is analyzed within the concept of gender. This gendered analysis gives the study a comprehensive relational platform through which gender roles and relations are interrogated. Through this effort, the study presents available explanations for the persistence of female circumcision in Kikuyu land despite the extensive eradication campaign. The study employs the historical methods to analyze the data. This method involves an intellectual evaluation, conceptualization, and colligation of data in a descriptive, logical, and chronological manner. This gives a fundamental departure from a great deal of religious, sociological, anthropological and feminists studies. The study gives a concludes that the persistence of the practice is due to deeply rooted cultural identification, and the need for the Agikuyu women to negotiate social space with the men as they fear to be victimized and to be rejected by the society.