18 Records out of 22207 Records

Influence of child abuse on academic performance in day secondary schools in Central division, Embu west district, Kenya

Author: Gathenya, Laurel Wanja

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Central Division ; Embu West District ; Child abuse and neglect ; Secondary school students ; Academic achievement ;

Abstract:

The study sought to evaluate the influence of child abuse on academic performance of learners in day secondary schools, carried out in Embu West District of Embu County. The objectives of this study were to find out whether physical child abuse, sexual child abuse, psychological child abuse and child neglect influence the academic performance of learners in day secondary schools. In Embu West District performance in Day secondary schools has been declining for the past four years in KCSE examination and even with the slight improvement in 20] ] the results were not satisfactory. The poor trend was worrying. According to the analysis from the division education office the KCSE mean scores were as shown in Appendix 3. The study employed descriptive research design. In Central Division of Embu West District there are 9 Day Secondary Schools which have classes from form one to form four and two day secondary schools which go up to form three (D.E.O, Embu West). The study targeted both teachers and students. The sample targeted 9 guidance and counseling teachers. The student population was ] 820 (D.E.O, Embu West).The student sample size was determined using Krejcie and Morgan table for sample size determination. A sample of 336 students was used, the KUPPET official, KNUT official and the D.E.O Embu West District. Data was collected from students, teachers, KUPPET and KNUT officials and D.E.O Embu West District. Two methods of selecting the sample were used. Simple random sampling was used for students and purposive sampling was used to select guidance and counseling teachers. The researcher used questionnaires to collect primary data. A pilot study was done with two teachers and forty two students from two schools that did not participate in the study to establish the validity and reliability of the research instrument. The data was analyzed in terms of frequency and percentages and presented in table form. The findings of the study indicated that child abuse is present in day secondary schools in Central Division, Embu West District and it influences academic performance. The study found that sexual child abuse had the greatest influence on academic performance and learners take a long time to recover from the abuse. It was also found that in Central Division, Embu West District, the most prevalent type of abuse was child neglect owing to the fact that most learners come from low income families. A lot needs to be done to curb the vice. The study recommends that all teachers be trained in guidance and counseling, enforcement of the 2001 children) Act by the government and the school system to work closely with children's organizations to help rehabilitate abused children.

Child abuse and neglect : a concern for the Catholic Diocese of Kitui

Author: Kinyua, Damaris Nzilani

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Child abuse and neglect/Psychological aspects/Catholic Church Diocese of Kitui/Families and family life/Kitui, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This study investigated the role of the church in addressing child abuse and neglect in Kitui. It was based on three objectives. The first one was to examine the Biblical teachings and African Traditional understanding of the importance of children and compare with the contemporary society. The second objective was to investigate the factors contributing to child abuse and neglect and their effects to the children in Kitui and the third analyzed the participation of the church in the protection of children from abuse and neglect. The study used stratified, purposive and systematic sampling methods. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used. Primary data was obtained from interviews, questionnaires and focus group discussions while secondary data was obtained from library sources, internet and Catholic Diocese of Kitui programme reports in the Department of Child Welfare. The study was guided by three theories; psychoanalysis theory developed by Sigmund Freud, which explained the irresponsible behaviour of perpetrators of child abuse and neglect; Social Learning theory by Albert Bandura, which explained the effects of exposing children to abuse and neglect; and Structural Functionalism theory developed by Emile Durkheim, which explained that the church has a role to play in protecting children from abuse and neglect. Three hypotheses were advanced for the study. First, in the African traditional Society and in Biblical world, children were protected from abuse and neglect. Second, irresponsible behavior of parents and Guardians accelerates the problem of child abuse and neglect. And third, the Church participates actively in addressing child abuse and neglect in the society. The first hypothesis was confirmed as it was discovered that the traditional African society valued children as they belonged to the community which participated in their upbringing until they were initiated into adulthood. Thus, the community protected children from abuse. The Bible also portrayed children as important as evidenced by the misery that the barren women underwent as they were despised by their fellow women for not having children. Children were treasured as they prolonged family lineage. In the New Testament, Jesus valued children and welcomed them to his company, blessed, protected, and healed them. The second hypothesis was also confirmed as individual factors and especially, drug and substance abuse, and poor parenting skills, were rated highest in contributing to abuse and. neglect. Other factors included; family, social and cultural factors. Finally, the third hypothesis was also confirmed as the church was found to be actively engaged in different programmes that protect children from abuse and neglect. These included; Child Labour, Child Safety and Protection, Rehabilitation, Sponsorship, and Orphans and Vulnerable Children programmes. The study made some recommendations based on the findings of the study which included; strengthening of the referral systems and networking, improved ways of creating awareness, training on parenting skills, and adoption of child protection measures by all churches in Kitui. Since all the programmes were having a concern for education, a research suggestion was given to investigate the role of the Catholic Diocese of Kitui in raising the literacy level in Kitui.

Child sexual abuse protection services in Lunga Lunga slums of Makadara District, Nairobi

Author: Opati, Emily A

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Children and youth ; Child abuse and neglect ; Sex crimes ; Protection ; Lunga Lunga, Makadara District ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Government and Civil Societies have mounted many campaigns since 2003 in the media to create awareness on children rights, laws and encouraging members of the society to take increased responsibility in reporting CSA. Despite several measures put in place, the incidence of CSA has not significantly dropped. This study sought to assess the relevance and adequacy of Child Sexual Abuse protection services in Itunga Lunga slums. Specifically, to assess the prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, to identify the CSA protection services available to children and the communities, to analyse the challenges effecting Child Sexual Abuse protection services and to assess the adequacy of Child Sexual Abuse protection services in Lunga Lunga slums. The site of the study was Lunga Lunga slums which are located within the newly created Viwandani Division in Makadara District on the Eastern side of Nairobi County. The study used questionnaires and interview guides to collect primary data from different categories of respondents. The study also employed Focus group discussions to elicit data from committees tasked with prevention ofCSA and members of the community. It was found that initial sexual encounters in slums are generally attributed to sexual abuse or exploitation due to overcrowding in the living spaces, sharing of external toilets and poor lighting which precipitate CSA incidents. The occurrence of similar incidents involving the survivors of CSA was frequent. The protection measures against Child Sexual Abuse most widely known by the respondents were the criminal justice systems followed by the civil child protection system and government liaisons with stakeholders for sensitization of children and the public. The most common factors motivating victims to seek CSA remedial services were friendly and quick services rendered followed by mental and medical treatment and child protection and education. The duration taken to receive CSA services by most survivors ranged from within one day to three days. Most respondents did not seek CSA protection measures due to poor criminal and child protection outcomes followed by corruption, legal challenges, threats and fear, verbal abuse and stigma and lack of information and awareness. The strategies recommended by most survrvors for improving protective measures was supporting survivors and community in the criminal justice process fellowed by enhancing staff capacity of children agencies, medical and police doctor services and awareness creation. Majority of the survivors were of the opinion that the protection measures in preventing CSA were largely ineffective. The study concluded that the Child Sexual Abuse protection measures in Lunga Lunga slums are ineffective. This is due to llOor criminal and child protection outcomes, legal challenges, verbal abuse, stigma and fear and threats, from perpetrators, their acquaintances and the public, and lack of information and awareness. Other reasons why the protection measures are considered ineffective are inadequate stakeholder capacity, corruption, poor CSA programmes and policies and societal apathy in reporting incidents. This study recommends that the government through the Children's Department formulates a policy on issues of child protection and especially on CSA, facilitates training on CSA for the provincial administration, the police, court officers and employ gender personnel to deal with sexual violation cases affecting children in every slum and police station. The government should increase the capacity of the police stations to deal with CSA. Further, it is recommended that the Children's department, apart from considering gender sensitivity in staff deployment, should also have officers assigned to deal with CSA cases only at least down to the divisional level and provide material and logistical support to facilitate Volunteer Children Officers. Government should ensure that every division has a designated health centre w

Child safety on the internet : a case study of Kawangware primary and secondary schools

Author: Mbugua, Purity Njeri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kawangware Secondary School, Nairobi, Kenya ; Kawangware Primary School, Nairobi, Kenya ; Children and youth ; Internet access ; Child abuse and neglect ;

Abstract:

With an upsurge in cybercrimes globally, children are becoming a target on the cyberspace as Kenya grapples with a feeble Children's Act that does not provide sufficient protection to the victims as well as stringent penalties to the offenders, little emphasis is given towards management of challenges facing child safety on the internet. The main purpose of the study was to establish security challenges facing children on the internet with specific reference to Kawangware Primary and secondary School. The study specifically narrowed the research undertakings into level of internet access amongst children, dangers children are exposed to by the internet, options available for managing child safety on the internet and internet use guidelines for managing child safety on the internet. The study adopted a descriptive case study research design and the target population comprised of a total of 1280 respondents from Kawangware Primary and Secondary Schools. These involved; 80 teachers, 300 parents, 500 pupils and 400 secondary school students. The study used a stratified random sampling technique to select a sample size of 140 respondents and questionnaires were used as the major data collection instruments. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the gathered data using a statistical package for social scientists SPSS and this assisted in calculation of response frequency, mean, STD deviation and variance results. The study found out that children were exposed to internet dangers such as cyber bullying, sexual harassment, internet addiction and accessibility of included; web filtering; spam email blocking, antivirus and video filtering but parents and teachers lacked effective knowledge and skills on how to administer these safety techniques. The study concluded that, most children's access social network sites, celebrity sites and other unrestricted sites that make them more vulnerable to internet dangers such as cyber bullying and sexual harassment. The study thus recommended that children connecting to the wide world web should be duly supervised by their parents or their guardians. The government through communication commission of Kenya should develop and enforce application of internet censorship regulations that makes it mandatory to all internet service providers to block all the blacklisted web sites claimed to expose children to various internet dangers.

The influence of child abuse on the academic performance of deaf children : a case of Mutomo school for the deaf in Kitui County

Author: Muema, Isaac Kiema

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mutomo School for the Deaf, Kenya ; Deafness ; Children and youth ; Child abuse and neglect ; Academic achievement ; Educators ; Parents and parenting ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of Child Abuse on the academic performance of children with hearing impairment in Mutomo primary school in Kitui District. It sought to investigate the influence of Child Abuse on the deaf children's academic perfomance. The main objectives sought to establish the extent to which physical abuse influenced the academic performance among deaf children; to determine the extent to which sexual abuse influences the academic performance among the deaf children; to establish the extent to which emotional abuse influenced the academic performance among deaf children; and to establish the extent to which neglect influenced academic performance among deaf children. The project adopted a survey study methodology which hypothesised that child abuse significantly influenced the academic performance of children in the Mutomo Primary School for the deaf and required collection of primary data and secondary data using instruments that included questionnaires, observations and oral interviews, published and unpublished information sources. In this study,questionnaires and key Informant Interview guides were used as the main tools of data collection. The target population was composed of deaf children,teachers of deaf chldren,parents of the deaf children,ministry of Education officials and local administrators. The sample size comprised 66 persons from Mutomo division. Data collected from the field was entered and analyzed by simple descriptive analysis using percentages in SPSS and crosstabulation. Findings of the study analysis were presented in tables. From the findings of this study, it was established that Child abuse negatively influenced academic perfromance of deaf children in Mutomo division. Physical and Sexual forms of abuse did not have any relationship with poor academic performance of deaf children,however Child neglect and Emotional abuses high;y contributed towards poor academic performance of deaf children in Mutomo school for the deaf. It is therefore recommended that parents of the deaf children and the community in Mutomo should be taught sign language and sensitationon the deaf child's rights must be done,this will ensure that the community appreciates the deaf child thus eleminate neglect and emotional abuses among the deaf children.

Child sexual abuse : challenges of prosecuting child sex offenders in Nairobi

Author: Bunusu, Benson Shamala

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nairobi, Kenya ; Child abuse and neglect ; Sex offenders ; Pedophilia ; Judicial process ;

Abstract:

Prosecution of child sex offenders is one way of putting in practice provisions that are contained in the Sexual Offences Act. The Sexual Offences Act has excellent provisions that could be utilized to protect children from sexual violence, however if the challenges of prosecutionSare not addressed, the provisions in this Act remain just good laws. The study recognized that despite having very good laws as contained in Sexual Offences Act, deterrence is yet to be reached as witnessed by an upsurge in child sexual abuse cases reported every day. The main objective of the study was to examine the major challenges encountered while prosecuting child sex offenders in Nairobi with the view of finding solutions to those challenges. It also aimed at identifying some of the difficulties experienced by sexually abused children while going through the legal system and analyzed the inter-linkages of various stakeholders when handling these cases. Since there are several players involved in handling child sexual abuse cases, the study used a heterogeneous sample of 45 respondents that was purposively selected to give key information to the topic under study. In-depth interviews and questionnaires were the two main data collection tools used. The study yielded qualitative data as the respondents shared their personal experiences. There are several challenges that need senous attention if justice for sexually abused children is to be realized. There is need for a concerted effort by all players in this field to ensure that sexually abused children receive comprehensive services in a sensitive manner. The difficulties children experience result from the way they are handled after the abuse more than the abuse itself. Several recommendations have been made on the basis of these findings. The government and other agencies involved in children matters need to see to it that there is a unified protocol of handling child sex abuse cases among all the concerned parties. Some of the recommendations need to be effected immediately as a matter of urgency.

Effects of family breakdown on educational development of primary school children : (a case study of Kiambu West district in Central Province)

Author: Wachira, Charles Ndung'u

Awarding University: St. Paul's University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: St. Paul's University Bishop Okullu Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Education/Children and youth/Families and family life/Child abuse and neglect/Primary schools/Kiambu West District/Parents and parenting/ ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze the effects of family breakdown on the educational development of primary school children. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain data from the head teachers, teachers, and students. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data which was quantified in percentages. The findings were that children from broken families suffer lack of social support, economic resources to meet their needs, perfom poorly in schools, are marginalized by the socio-cultural structures, are not understood by the teachers, and are likely to engage in criminal activities. These challenges are also realized among other students, but the condition is worse among children from broken families. The researcher recommends that faith based communities and churches should begin treating this issue as a critical issue in society and provide initiatives to deal with it. Schools in partnership with non governmental organizations can begin peer education programs that focus on educating the children on their rights and creating awareness about single parent families. The Ministry of Education can also set a curriculum to train teachers about the effects of family breakdown on the children and what can be done in order to combat the problem. Non-governmental organizations can also build their interventions for the children, youth and single parents along-this field. There is also need for parents to effectively play their parental roles even when the families are broken.

Gender based violence on children in Kenya

Author: Weke, Brian

Awarding University: United States International University-Africa, Kenya

Level : Executive Master in

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Gender/Violence/Child abuse and neglect/Children and youth ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The impact of gender based violence on girl child education in Kinango District, Kenya

Author: Njoroge, Anthony Brian Gachiru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kinango District ; Girls ; Violence ; Sex crimes ; Child abuse and neglect ; School dropouts ;

Abstract:

In Kinango, child marriage, sexual abuse, neglect and excessive child work on the girl child are dominant vices facing the girl child. The practice of child marriage is culturally and economically embedded. Most young brides - their average age is 12 - marry older men with more than one wife. Child marriage deprives them of education, thereby denying them an opportunity to extend their capabilities, develop skills, improve their livelihood, and increase their earning potential. Girls who have directly or indirectly experienced the effects of child marriage know that a lost education is one of the greatest sacrifices forced on young brides, resulting in extremely high drop-out rates: only 52.4% of Kinango girls complete primaryschool and the district literacy rate' of 57.5% falls below the national average of 61.5%. Child abuse is still prevalent and a countrywide study showed that societal pressure starts at an early age, with 29% of girls and 20% of boys aged 13 years and below reporting one or more episodes of sexual harassment(N. Kilonzo, et al, Sexual Violence in Kenya: Setting the Research Agenda. Nov 2009). Up to 12,660 girls were sexually abused by teachers and 633 teachers were charged with sexual abuse in the five years covered by the study (Teachers Service Commission (TSC) report, 2010). In some cases, teachers abused as many as 20 girls in a single school before being reported (Ibid). Girls face greater risk of neglect and sexual violence. The lack of estimation of the extent and nature of violence experienced by girls often hinders the process of designing strategies for ensuring they are protected and have access to their rights. The existence of gender based violence in Kinango District denies girls the opportunity to attend school, participate effectively, compete and enjoy quality education. Violence and abuse being prevalent at schools is a major hindrance to the education of girls and negatively influences school performance. This study was undertaken in order to generate an overall understanding of the forms, nature and extent of violence to girls in Kinango District and assess the impact of the gender based violence on the education of girls. The study adopted combination of both the quantitative and qualitative research methods will be utilised to address the study objectives. The quantitative aspect comprised of structured questionnaires which sought to elicit standard information across the district to be studied. The data collected provided information on the prevalence and scope of violence among girls. To gauge how the different forms of violence impacted on the girls, to understand the causal factors for violence and to document ongoing interventions, the study bent towards descriptive and participatory methodologies which included the use of Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant Interviews. The findings of the study show that girls, undergo a variety of violence which impacts adversely both on their retention and their school completion. The study further discusses what can be done to prevent violence and what can be done to protect children both as an immediate action and as a long term measure. Key in the causes of violence is the mental and psychological framework of the perpetrators who abuse ~ or force down authority to commit acts of violence. Often they use the cover of 'culture' to justify the atrocities. The strategies for changes therefore have to be multi targeted, reaching the perpetrators, the victims,institutions be they cultural, school or home. A deeper examination of the broader policies that provide the justice framework lor dealing with violations is needed. Because of the whole embracing nature of violence, a holistic approach is required.

Trends and patterns of child sexual violence in Kenya with reference to cases treated at Nairobi women and children's hospital

Author: Nakalema, Mary

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Sex crimes ; Child abuse and neglect ; Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

This study set out to investigate trends and patterns of sexual violence against children in Kenya with reference to cases treated. at Nairobi Women and Children's hospital (NWCH). . Its specific objectives were: to establish the magnitude of child sexual violence in Kenya from 2002 to 2006; identify causes and effects of the problem; assess factors associated with children's vulnerability to sexual violence; examine measures used to combat the problems with limitations; as well as establish coping mechanisms adopted by victims of child sexual violence. The study adopted an exploratory research design and mainly used qualitative approaches. NWCH and The CRADLE- The Children Foundation were the sites selected for the study using convenience and Purpos'ive sampling methods. Service providers of both organizations were used as key informants while parents or guardians (relatives) of abused childl'en attended by the organizations within the period of the field study were the respondents representing the abused children. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in the study. The study revealed that the problem of child sexual violence had rising trends from the year 2002 to 2006 in all provinces of Kenya. Defilement of female children led all forms of sexual violence against children. Causes of child sexual violence were: a belief in a myth that having sexual intercourse with a virgin cures HIV / AIDs; unemployment and poverty; congestion and overcrowding in most slum settlements; drug abuse and lack of sex education by the children from their parents and school. Effects included adverse physical and psychological trauma of the abused children; psychological and economic effects on families of abused children. The vice also impacts negatively 011 social integration. cohesion and economic development of the society as communities affected are gripped with fear. Vulnerability of children to sexual violence is heightened by their ages, sex and economic or poverty levels of their parents or guardians. Intervention strategies used to combat the vice included the introduction of a sexual violence desk by the police department; enactment of the Sexual Offences Act (SOA) in July ~006 which enhanced punishment for convicted sexual abusers and increased the age of minors from age 14 to 18 years. The. Act also broadened the scope of child sexual abuse to include sodomy against male children. Limitations were: laxity of some police officers to apprehend suspected sexual abusers; delays of court cases and further trauma of affected children in courts; lack of corroborative evidence caused by uncooperative police and court officials who were not conversant with the provisions of SOA while many abused cases of sexual violence went unreported due to fear of social stigma. The study recommended more awareness to be created by the government through the Ministries of Public Health, Education. Home Affairs (Police department and Chiefs), increased media coverage. more interventions by civil rights organizations and religious institutions mainly targeting children and patents. The government should alleviate poverty and 'upgrade unplanned settlements to reduce congestions and overcrowding. The Police and judicially should be re-trained on the provisions of SOA.