276 Records out of 22207 Records

An agent-based wireless sensor network simulation for dairy cattle breed selection in Kenya

Author: Ochieng, Joseph Ouma

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Agents ; Wireless networks ; Sensors ; Simulation ; Dairy industry ; Cattle ; Breeding of animals ;

Abstract:

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Influence of socio-cultural factors on cattle rustling among pastoral communities in Kilgoris Constituency, Narok County

Author: Oloolumbwa, Anne Seenoi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Socioeconomic factors ; Social life and customs ; Cattle ; Rustling ; Pastoralists ; Kilgoris Constituency ;

Abstract:

The socio-cultural factors considered to influence cattle rustling in Kilgoris Constituency, Narok County, include; income level, formal education level, cultural practises and leadership. Low income level has an influence on cattle rustling as this is taken as an alternative means of meeting the daily needs, especially after drought andlor diseases outbreaks. Low level of formal education among pastoralists attributed to factors such as local customs, traditions hostile to change, the nomadic lifestyle itself and insufficient attention by govemmmts to alternative models of schooling has left them with limited opportunities of pursuing economic benefits thus cattle rustling. The pastoral set up characteristics of strong cultural practises compel members to resort to coercive means of wealth acquisition to address needs like dowry payment indeed influence cattle rustling. The type of leadership in a traditional set up plays a role in cattle rustling by either discouraging the practises or enhancing it. This entirely depends on the role played by the leaders or their opinions. The purpose of this study was to highlight on the sociocultural factors that have potential to influence cattle rustling in pastoral communities with reference to Kilgoris Constituency, Narok County in particular. This research report is organised in five chapters. Chapter one introduces the topic and generally highlights on the background to the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study as well as definition of significant terms as used in the study. Chapter two presents systematically how the sociocultural factors, namely; income level, formal education level, cultural practises and leadership influence cattle rustling. It sites literature from various references that account for the effects of socio-cultural factors globally, regionally, in Kenya and locally. It also has the theoretical, together with the conceptual framework. Chapter three covers the research methodology that is broken down to research design, target population, sampling size and sampling procedure, research instruments, how the instruments were piloted, their validity and reliability checked, data collection procedures, data analysis techniques, ethical considerations and operational definition of variables. Descriptive survey research design was used because it allows the researcher to gather useful information, summarize the data, interpret and present the results. Most of the data collected was qualitative in nature highlighting the descriptive influence of socio-cultural factors on cattle rustling. However, quantitative data was generated from responses about frequency of cases of cattle rustling in relation to the socio-cultural factors identified in the study, where validity and reliability of the instruments was ensured. Analysis of data collected using Statistical Packages of Social Scientists was done. Chapter four deals with data analysis, results and discussion of the findings on the influence of social cultural factors on cattle rustling among pastoral communities in Kilgoris Constituency. The data was analyzed with the help of a computer software namely Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This enabled the researcher to present the data in frequencies, percentages and summarized in tables. The chapter is divided into two main sections, namely results and discussion of the findings. Chapter five presents the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations based on the analysis on the influence of social cultural factors on cattle rustling among the communities in Kilgoris constituency. The findings of this study may be useful in developing policies targeting the pastoral communities. The District Security and Intelligence Committee (DIDC), peace committees and other development partners may find the study useful in understanding t

An economic analysis of adoption potential of a new tsetse fly repellent technology in trypanosomosis control : the case of Kajiado and Narok Districts of Kenya

Author: Irungu, Patrick

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kajiado District/Narok District/Trypanosomiasis in cattle/Disease control/Glossina/Livestock ;

Abstract:

Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis is one of the greatest impediments to livestock production in Africa. Even though several technologies have been developed over the last century to control both the disease and its vector, none of these technologies works well on its own while some, particularly trypanocidal drugs, are increasingly becoming tolerated by trypanosomes. In this regard, the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) recently developed a novel repellent technology whose preliminary field trials showed some great potential to control cattle trypanosomosis in pastoral herds in Kenya. This study reports the findings of an expanded field trial of the repellent technology conducted between 2005 and 2006 in Kajiado and Narok districts of Kenya. The objectives of the study were to (1) characterize the herders' knowledge and practices on tsetse and trypanosomosis control in the study areas, (2) assess the financial benefits of using the repellent technology prototype in the control of cattle trypanosomosis, and (3) assess the herders' attitude towards the repellent technology. One hundred and thirteen herders were interviewed during the study period using semi-structured questionnaires to gather information on tsetse and trypanosomosis control practices and herders' perception of the performance of the repellent technology. Epidemiologic data were also collected in a 12-month researcher-managed trial. These data were used to assess the financial performance of the repellent technology. A number of methods was used to assess the adoption potential of the new repellent technology including descriptive statistics, conjoint analysis, partial budget analysis, matching demand and supply of technology attributes, and analysis of willingness to pay. The study found that the herders in the two study sites perceived animal disease to be the main constraint to livestock production, followed by drought. Among the cattle diseases that were common in the two study areas, the herders considered trypanosomosis to be most important. The study also found that the herders had considerable knowledge of the vectors of trypanosomosis with over 70% of them correctly linking the disease to the tsetse fly. The available tsetse control technologies included tsetse fly traps/targets and insecticides such as Spoton' and Dominex?. However, these insecticides were predominantly used as acaricides rather than as tsetse control technologies. Trypanosomosis was treated with trypanocidal drugs. The assessment of the financial benefits of using the repellent technology in the control of cattle trypanosomosis yielded a loss of KShs 243.6 (or US$3.5) per animal per month. This was attributed to the malfunctioning of the repellent technology during the field trial where only 14.6% ofthe 9,363 repellent collars were recorded to be in a good working condition during the 12-month researcher-managed trial. As such, the repellent technology did not confer the treated cattle with sufficient productivity-enhancing attributes, which led to the observed poor financial performance. However, the results of the socio-economics trial showed that the herders had a positive attitude towards the repellent technology. In particular, 73% of them expressed their intention to purchase the repellent technology when it comes into the market, while 81 % found the technology to be easy to apply.Additionally, the herders were willing to pay at least KShs 106.3 to secure a repellent collar. On the basis of the results of the socio-economics trial, the repellent technology is likely to receive a substantial level of acceptance in the two study sites once it comes into the market. In order to enhance the effectiveness of the repellent technology against trypanosomosis under field conditions, there is need to re-design the repellent dispensers to remove the defects. This could be achieved through further research and development. The involvement of the livest

Prevalence and risk factors for Gastrointestinal nematode infection and efficacies of two anthelmintics in cattle in Mukurew-ini and Nakuru districts of Kenya

Author: Waweru, Kabaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Mukurwe-ini District/Nakuru District/Cattle/Helminthiasis/Nematoda/Drug therapy/Anthelmintics/Dairy industry/Moxidectin/Albendazole ;

Abstract:

This thesis describes a study that was carried out in Nakuru and Mukurweini districts to establish the prevalence of nematode infections in dairy cattle and to compare the efficacies of the anthelmintics, moxidectin and albendazole. In addition, the study identified the risk factors associated with nematode infection in dairy cattle and estimated the loss of milk production attributable to infections among smallholder dairy farms. The study was a cross sectional design (to determine the prevalence, establish the risk factors and to estimate the economic impact of helminth os is) and a field trial design (to establish and compare the efficacies of the anthelmintics). One hundred and twenty eight dairy farms were randomly recruited, 64 from each district. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 4] 9 heads of cattle that were above three months of age on the selected farms, refrigerated and delivered to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, for nematode faecal egg counts using the McMaster method. On the first visit, questionnaires were administered on every farm to collect individual animal data and the farm management data. The cattle were allocated to three treatments groups (albendazole treated, moxidectin treated and placebo treated groups). This was done using a blocked random allocation method, with the first treatment picked using a simple random technique. A second sampling was done two weeks post treatment, with similar laboratory analysis (nematode egg count, McMaster method). Statistical analyses, using linear logistic regression were conducted to determine differences in prevalence of GIT nematode infections between districts, farm characteristics, animal characteristics, and treatment groups, controlling for clustering of cattle within farms. The prevalence in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) nematode infections in Nakuru and Mukurweini were 19.8% and 8.29%, respectively. The difference between the prevalence rates was significant (p< 0.05). The relative risk of infection was 2.32, showing that the risk ofthe infection was more than twice in Nakuru as compared to Mukurwe-ini District. The factors best explaining GIT nematode infections in dairy cattle in the final logistic regression model were the age of the animal, the duration from last deworming, the frequency of deworming and the kind of dewormer that was used last, source of pastures and availability of housing. The efficacy ofmoxidectin was estimated to be 95.8% while that ofalbendazole was 75%. Average daily milk production in litres of the helminth infected milking cows was 5.4 compared to 7.77 of the non infected cows. Generalized linear regression analysis, that controlled for the effects of breed, animal weight, parity, lactation stage and the amount of concentrates feed to the animals, estimated a difference of 1.4 Kg per cow per day. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The observed reduction in milk production translated to a daily loss of Ksh 28 per cow per day at a cost of Ksh 20/= per Kg, which was the average farm gate price of milk at study time in the area under study. In conclusion it is recommended that farmers be encouraged to deworm their animals at regular intervals, especially the younger animals which were considered more vulnerable. Improved housing and pasture management is also recommended as it may be cheaper in the long run.

Factors influencing tick infestation in Cattle in the small scale dairy farms of Kieni East District, Kenya

Author: Kimondo, Peter King'uku

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kieni East District/Cattle/Dairy industry/Ticks/Farmers ;

Abstract:

The high prevalence of tick borne diseases in Kieni East District has continued to reduce the household incomes in terms of, treatment of these diseases, reduced milk yield and sometimes from death of their dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that influence tick infestation in cattle in small scale dairy farms of Kieni East District. The Objectives of the study were to establish the extent to which knowledge among farmers on tickborne diseases influences tick infestation in cattle in the small scale dairy farms of Kieni East District, to explore how methods used in external parasite control influence tick infestation in cattle in the small scale dairy farms of Kieni East District, to investigate the extent to which the existing laws governing external parasites control influence tick infestation in cattle in the small scale dairy farms of Kieni East District and to establish how the sources of acaricides influence tick infestation in cattle in the small scale dairy farms of Kieni East District. The study adopted descriptive survey method to collect data by administering questionnaires to respondents. In this study the target population was finite and was made up of all the 7415 small scale dairy farmers of Kieni East District who keep cattle through various management practices and are registered with the Ministry of Livestock Development. Stratified sampling was used to obtain the sample. The researcher distributed 284 questionnaires, which were used as the research instrument to the respondents through simple random sampling from each location which formed the strata. 219 out of the 284 respondents filled-in and returned the questionnaires making a response rate of 77.1%. Data collected was computerized and analyzed using SPSS. From the study, it was observed that cattle had been infested by ticks. Tick borne diseases experienced on the farms were East Coast Fever, Anaplasmosis, Heart water and Red water. The farmers prevented ticks from infesting their cattle through spraying. Majority of the farmers applied acaricides on their cattle weekly. The study concludes that farmers were not aware that there were laws governing tick control in cattle. No one had ever been arrested for failure to control ticks on their cattle. The study reveals that acaricides were readily available and that most farmers got them from agrovets. The study recommends that the government should train farmers on prevention of tick infestation. This will help to prevent tick borne diseases. Farmers should prevent ticks from infesting their cattle by spraying acaricides weekly. Further, the study recommends the Government to inform farmers on laws governing tick control in cattle and implement them. The Government should ensure that acaricides are readily available. Further study has been suggested to establish the effective methods of preventing tick infestation in cattle and other domestic animals during different seasons of the year. Moreover the same study should be carried out in other districts to both small scale and large scale farmers to find out if the same results will be obtained. According to the regression analysis done in this study, the independent variables that were studied accounted for 69.6% of the factors that influence tick infestation in cattle in Kieni East District.A further research should be conducted to investigate the other factors (30.4%) of the factors.

Computer-based techniques for efficient milk production by optimizing mate allocation strategies in dairy cattle populations in Kenya

Author: Njubi, David Macharia

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Dairy industry ; Decision support systems ; Breeding of animals ; Cattle ;

Abstract:

Agricultural practices currently operated as business enterprises are likely to survive competition. This is made possible by applying optimization based on decision support system (DSS) which provide tools for making optimal decisions. Decision Support Systems are a class of computerized information systems that support human decision making. In conjunction to DSS, an Intelligent Decision Support System (mSS) has been introduced. Intelligent Decision Support System is an integration of DSS and Artificial Intelligence (AI). This thesis proposes mss in mate selection in dairy cattle in order to simplify allocation of sires to dams and consequently avoid negative effect of inbreeding. Inbreeding reduces phenotypic performance and viability ultimately causing a decrease in dairy farm profitability. Dairy production in Kenya is constrained by a wide range of problems among them inefficient breeding programs. One of the main challenges in the industry is to improve the productivity of breeds through the design of efficient breeding programs. Such programs should identify (select) and mate (allocate) animals with high genetic values, under the prevailing environmental and management conditions. A study was developed with the main objective of developing appropriate problem solving techniques for the efficient design of dairy cattle breeding programs in Kenya. The study investigated back-propagation artificial neural networks approach to model and predicts the performance of daughter first lactation milk yield in recorded Holstein Friesian dairy cattle herds in Kenya. Such prediction is a prerequisite to selection which ultimately leads to optimal breeding strategies and increased annual genetic progress. The use of neural network method for prediction of daughter first lactation milk yield showed better performance compared to linear regression method. Use of test-day records were also explored to predicted first lactation 305-day milk yields in Holstein-Friesians. Test-day analyses accurately predicted monthly and first lactation 305-day milk yield using artificial neural network as compared to linear regression. This is welcome particularly in developing countries which have poor infrastructure for proper milk recording as only few data points would be recorded per lactation. Knowledge was acquired from the analysis of trained neural network by extracting mating rules. The study showed that neural network rule extraction and decision tables were powerful management tools that allowed the development of advanced and user-friendly decision-support systems for mating strategy designing and evaluating in dairy cattle. A sample of dams and bulls of wide range of production and breeding values was extracted from the database of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle available at Dairy Recording Services of Kenya (DRSK). The data was input to trained networks to obtain predictions of daughter milk production. The neural net outputs were used as inputs for the optimization model. The expected role of computerized mate selection programs in optimizing milk production while minimizing inbreeding was explored using Genetic algorithms (GAs). The study findings indicated GA reduced effect of inbreeding better (5.2 Kg) than linear programming (6.7 Kg) per percentage increased inbreeding. The results of the computational experience, demonstrated that GA is an appropriate method to explore the search space of these complex problems and offers good solutions in a short time. The study describes the development of a framework for IDSS integrating artificial neural networks for prediction and genetic algorithm for optimization in a mate allocation problem. The IDSS offers a wide range of realistic possibilities for assistance in animal management. The system can be applied to solve mate allocation problem faced by dairy industry desiring to achieve maximum milk yields in choosing the proper animal breeding strategies in view of inbreeding and semen

Assessment of prevalence of Mastitis and effectiveness of Mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira Constituency, Nyeri County, Kenya

Author: Nkoroi, Jackson Mbae

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Cattle ; Mastitis ; Mathira Constituency, Nyeri County ;

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to assess prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. A questionnaire was administered to 76 smallholder farmers to collect data regarding occurrence of mastitis, their current practices in mastitis control, and their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from lactating cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test. Milk samples that tested positive on screening were cultured for isolation of pathogens . A total of 202 lactating cows were sampled corresponding to 808-quarter milk samples. Data collected was analyzed using Epi Info, Version 6 to generate information regarding occurrence of mastitis and mastitis control. The prevalence of mastitis was 87.4% (n=808) with contagious bacteria pathogens being responsible for 52.2% (n=508) of all the isolates recovered on culture. Most of these contagious isolates were coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, (98.5%), the rest being Streptococcus agalactiae. Normal teat flora, opportunist and environmental pathogens were responsible for 32.7%, 7.3% and 4.5% of all the isolates respectively. Stimulation (93.4%),prompt and adequate treatment of clinical cases(77.6%) and sanitation(69.7%) were the only measures noted to have been embraced adequately. No one had embraced vaccination as a control measure. Sanitation, use of individual towel, and stimulation were ranked as the most effective having been scored by 39, 24 and 23 respondents respectively. Only 3.9% of the respondents reported to have ever attended an organized training on mastitis control. Concerted effort by all stakeholders is paramount if the war against mastitis in Mathira Constituency is to be won. Of importance the government should initiate active surveillance programme for mastitis to complement the existing farmer reporting passive surveillance. The findings of the present study are significant in promoting mastitis control programmes in the constituency for improved milk yield , dairy cattle productivity and health.

Economic analysis of beef cattle farmers? technical efficiency and willingness to comply with disease free zones in Kenya.

Author: Otieno, D J

Awarding University: University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Beef ; Cattle ; Foot and mouth disease ; Cattle industry ;

Abstract:

In Kenya, the cattle enterprise is an important source of livelihood for many farmers. However, lack of analytical evidence on efficiency levels of farmers in various production systems constrains policy making on optimal resource allocation. In addition, inability to control livestock diseases, such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), has led to low beef supply in Kenya and loss of export markets. Although the government of Kenya plans to establish Disease Free Zones (DFZs) to address the disease challenge, there is no empirical evidence on farmers? willingness to comply with DFZs. This study analyses farmers? technical efficiency (TE) and willingness to comply with DFZs, across three main cattle production systems in Kenya. Primary data were gathered through household surveys using a structured questionnaire and a choice experiment (CE) based on a D-optimal design. The stochastic metafrontier model was applied to estimate TE and technology gaps across farms. Subsequently, possible determinants of TE were assessed using a Tobit model. Results show there is significant inefficiency in both the nomadic and agro-pastoral system, but less in ranches. Further, in contrast with the other two systems, ranches are found to have higher meta-technology ratios (MTRs). The average pooled TE with respect to the metafrontier is estimated to be 0.69, which suggests there is considerable scope to improve beef production in Kenya. The main factors found to have a positive influence on TE include: use of controlled cattle breeding method, access to market contract, presence of farm manager, off-farm income and larger herd size. Findings also show farmers would be willing to pay a participate in a DFZ where: adequate training is provided on pasture development, record keeping and disease monitoring; market information is provided; cattle are properly labelled for ease of identification; and some monetary compensation is provided in the event that cattle die due to severe disease outbreaks.

Analysis of the factors influencing milk production in Kitui West District, Kenya

Author: Wanyoike, John Njinu

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Kitui West District/Cattle/Milk/Dairy industry/Socioeconomic factors ;

Abstract:

Although the livestock sector is the main source of livelihood and especially in the arid and semi arid districts (ASALs) and employ about 50% of the labour force, exploitation of the livestock subsector has been faced with many challenges and constraints. These include socio economic factors, technological factors, inadequate capacity for service delivery, weak delivery of extension services, and demographic factors among others. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influencing milk production in Kitui West District. The research was conducted by collecting primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from small scale livestock farmers in the district with the help of provincial administration staff and divisional livestock officers conversant with the area. Pre testing of the questionnaire was done in one of the locations not sampled in the district before actual administering in the field. The data was then collected using personal interview. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect the data during the interview The sampling procedure was multi stage sampling method. The analysis was mainly descriptive in form of frequencies and percentages. The major analysis method was multiple regression using SPSS. The study found that milk production in Kitui west district was being influenced though differently by technological factors, social economic factors and demographic factors. Gender, age and educational level of the household head significantly influenced milk production in the district. Land tenure and farm size significantly influenced milk production in the district while average monthly income of the house hold head, source of capital and source of farm labour had no influence on milk production in the district. Trainings on cattle husbandly practices, challenges; namely finances and drought did not influence milk production. However, types of breeds kept by the household heads and fodder conservation significantly influenced milk production in the district. The study then gave recommendations to the policy makers, private practitioners in the milk sector, programmes and projects and finally to researchers.

Impact of privatization of artificial insemination delivery services on the productivity of Dairy cattle in Kenya : a case of smallholder dairy farmers in Nyeri East District

Author: Waichinga, Paul Marigi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Nyeri East District/Dairy industry/Cattle/Artificial insemination/Cost sharing ;

Abstract:

Artificial Insemination service in Kenya has undergone tremendous changes from time it was introduced by the colonial government. At that time it was only available to the to the white farmers who were practicing dairy farming in the white highlands. After independence the government continued offering the service through donor support. Artificial Insemination has been used in large and small dairy and beef herds and its development has contributed to new knowledge on reproduction and fertility level in these animals. Artificial Insemination service has increased productivity in cattle thus providing livelihood to the growing human population. Increased demand of Artificial Insemination in the country made it difficult for the government to continue with its provision and by 1986 there was a policy change which recommended for cost sharing. This continued until 1991 when the service was privatized though the structural adjustment programme. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of privatization of Artificial Insemination delivery service on the productivity of the dairy cattle of smallholder dairy farmers in Nyeri East district, Central Province. As a result of privatization of Artificial Insemination delivery service which occurred, there were changes in cost, accessibility, challenges of breeding diseases, quality of diary breeds and provision of extension services. This study examined how these changes affected productivity of dairy cattle in the district. A representation sample dairy farmers in the six locations of the district was selected using stratified sampling technique. A sample of 120 households was obtained using proportionate random sampling from each of the stratum. The impact of privatization of Artificial Insemination delivery service was assessed using qualitative and quantitative research methods. The data which was obtained from the farmers using semi-structured questionnaires was coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Secondary data was obtained from the Ministry of Livestock Development monthly and annual reports, related literature review and relevant Journals. The results obtained in the study showed that the cost of Artificial Insemination delivery service increased after privatization and that farmers were willing to pay for the service despite the high cost. The productivity of dairy cattle increased as shown in the increased milk production, and improved calving intervals. Accessibility of the service improved after privatization while more farmers started taking dairy farming as a business enterprise. The findings obtained in the study are useful to the Ministry of Livestock Development and other stakeholders involved in the delivery of Artificial Insemination Service.