74 Records out of 22207 Records

Red palm oil consumption and its contribution to vitamin A status of women of reproductive age in Matayos Division, Busia District, Kenya

Author: Cheboswony, Rosemary Jepkosgei

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ;

Subject Terms: Oils and fats ; Palm oil ; Women ; Vitamin A ; Matoyos Division, Busia District ; Nutrition ;

Abstract:

Vitamin A deficiency (V AD) is a public health concern globally and women of reproductive age are vulnerable. In Western Kenya, prevalence of acute and moderate V AD is 6.9% and 58.7% respectively among women. Dietary diversification is a long term approach that can control many nutrient deficiencies. Red palm oil is the highest plant source of provitamin A carotenoids providing 6700 ug REI100 g and can be used as an affordable food source to combat VAD. Farmers in Matayos division process oil palm fruits into cooking oil. However, its uses, consumption and effect on vitamin A status among women of reproductive age in the area is unknown, hence the purpose of this study. The study adopted an Ex-post facto research design. A total sample of 241 women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) from palm oil users (Matayos Division) and non-users (Budalangi division) was randomly selected to represent the population. A sample size of 123 subjects (51.3%) was selected to provide blood samples for serum retinol analysis. A researcher administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Food Frequency Questionnaire and a 24-Hour Dietary Recall were also used to collect data. Vitamin A intake was calculated using Nutrisurvey for windows computer software. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between variables. Student's t-test was used to compare means between variables. Results show that all households in palm oil producing area used the oil for cooking while only 0.8% used the oil for soap production. Women consumed 11.8 g of the palm oil per day. There was no statistical difference of total intake of vitamin A between the women from palm oil growing area and nongrowing area (1339.45 ug ? 808.5 verses 1070.05 ug ? 1032.9). However, when vitamin A contribution of mango in the diet was excluded, there was a significantly higher intake attributed to palm oil users group verses non-users group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in means of serum retinol concentrations of palm oil users and non-users with means being 0.60 ? 0.21 and 0.62 ? 0.19 umol/l respectively. The results of this study indicate that consumption of palm oil by women of reproductive age improved their amounts of vitamin A intake. However, women are still vitamin A deficient (below 0.70 umol/l of WHO guidelines for marginal VAD). The study shows potential of red palm oil in improving vitamin A status and therefore promotion of oil palm production and palm oil consumption need to be encouraged.

Bioavailability of antioxidant vitamins in selected indigenous vegetables and their potential use in management of HIV/AIDS in Butula, Busia Kenya

Author: Nambafu, Rachel Wanjiru

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: Butula Division, Busia District ; AIDS (Disease) ; HIV infection ; Vitamins ; Vegetables ;

Abstract:

HIV infection is characterized by a high preference of micronutrients deficiencies and wasting r that may vary considerably among different mv infected persons. High intake of micronutrients have been associated with reduced progression of HIV to AIDS and improved survival. Butula division in Busia district in Kenya is a region where indigenous vegetables do well during the rainy season but become scarce in the dry season. Vitamin A, C and E deficiency is a problem affecting people living with mv and AIDS (PL WHA). Deficiency of these antioxidant vitamins contribute to oxidative stress condition that accelerate death of immune cell and increase the rate of mv replication. The aim of this study was to identify vegetables rich in vitamin A, C and E with a view of assessing the bioavailability of these vitamins to PL WHA. The study investigated the feeding pattern of PL WHA in Butula Division, determined vitamin A, C and E content in selected indigenous vegetables and the bioavailability of these vitamins for use in the management of HIV and AIDS.The determination of Karotene and a-tocopherol content in selected fresh and dry vegetables (amaranthus, cowpea leaves, nightshade, slender leaf, pumpkin leaves and frying spider), and in sera were done using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. Starch, protein, animal and plants food sources accounted for 45.17 %, 21.9 %, 17.48 % and 73 % respectively of total foods consumed by PL WHA in Butula Division. Fresh blanched vegetables, contained high levels of f}-carotene; 4000-9700 J1g/100g and atocopherol levels; 3000-7350 J1g1I~ The solar dried vegetables contained J3-carotene levels ranging from 572 to 854 J1g1g dry weight (DW) and a-tocopherol levels ranging from 281 to 673 Ilg/g DW. Solar dried vegetables contained significantly lower (p<0.05) amounts of carotene and a-tocopherol as compared with fresh vegetables. L-ascoIbic acid content in selected fresh vegetables and fruit juices was determined by redox titration and contained levels ranging between 6 and 65 mg/lOOg. Pineapple juice was found to contain high level of vitamin C; with one glass of blended pineapple juice meeting the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values. The mean serum retinol, a-tocopherol and f:k:arotene levels were 0.937, 0.144 and 17.7871lmolll respectively. The CD4+ cell counts of the PLWHA at baseline, determined using flow cytometer were within the normal range of 500-1500 cells/ul in blood while the CD8+ cell count was in the range of 300-3300 ceWJ11 of blood. Haemoglobin was less than 12 gldL and red blood cell width was less than 15.2 % indicating anaemia. 88.35% of the subjects had a CD4+/CD8+ ratio ofless than 1, 9.71% had a CD4+/CD8+ ratio range of2-3 and 1.94% had a ratio greater than 4. Normal CD4+/CD8+ ratio is in the range of 1-4. In the course ofJDV disease CD4 is often decreased and CDS increased so that the ratio is inverted77.95% of the subjects had a normal weight, 11.81% were underweight, 8.66% were overweight and 1.5']0/0 were obese. The bioavailability in the foods estimated using algorithm indicated a +2.17 change in serum carotene while there was +7.776 change in serum a-tocopherol levels indicating that the consumption of the food supplement would resuh to improving the bioavailability of these nutrients in PL WHA in Butula. Indigenous foods in Butula contain high levels of carotene and a-tocopherol which are moderately bioavailable if mixed in good proportion can meet RDA of the vitamins A, C and E which are 750J1g retinol equivalent/day, 6Omglday, 8mglday respectively (Combs, 1998) and boost the immunity of PL WHA. The results will provide nutritional information on the indigenous vegetables grown in Butula division and their potential use in the management of mv/AIDS.

Challenges facing teachers of English in developing English language proficiency among Form Two students in Butula Division Provincial schools, Busia District, Kenya

Author: Oyatsi, Everlyn Mukanga

Awarding University: Kenyatta University, Kenya

Level : MEd

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenyatta University Moi Library ;

Subject Terms: English language ; Educators ; Students ; Butula Division, Busia District ;

Abstract:

Butula division secondary schools have continuously posted poor results in English at the KCSE level. From the year 2000-2007, the average grade for English in eight schools was C minus, D plus or D except one school which had B minus grade for four years. This indicated that students in Butula division had poor proficiency in English and teachers of English had to help them develop competence in English. The purpose of this study was to investigate challenges facing teachers of English in developing English language proficiency among Form two students in (,Butula division, Busia district. Objectives of the study were to: identify problems facing teachers of English in developing English proficiency among students, identify problems facing students in promoting their English proficiency, examine teaching methodologies in English and how they '' influence students' English proficiency, find out students' perceptions on teaching methodologies .' used in English and initiatives put in place by teachers of English in promoting students' ; participation, performance and proficiency in English. Descriptive survey design was used in the . study. The target population was 960 Form two students and 22 teachers of English in the division. Purposive sampling was used to select two provincial secondary schools used in the study. Stratified random sampling was used to select 48 boys and 48 girls in the study while simple random sampling by lottery was used to select students from different streams in both schools. Data collection instruments used were teacher and student questionnaires, observation and semi-structured interview schedules. A pilot study was carried out in a school not involved in the actual study. A test-retest technique was used to test reliability of teachers' and students' questionnaires using Pearson's product moment correlation giving a co-efficient of 0.8 while the validity was determined by pre-testing questionnaires on a small sample of teachers and students not involved in the actual study, responses assessed then ambiguous items were reviewed.Observation and interview schedules' were pretested on a small sample and this was repeated after two weeks; poorly prepared items were reviewed thus enhancing their validity and reliability. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed through the interpretive approach and written in prose.form corresponding to research questions. Data was also presented in form of tabulation, frequencies and percentages, graphs and pie-charts. Problems facing teachers of English and students in promoting English proficiency included: heavy work load and limited resources. Teachers of English preferred learner-centred methods but mostly used teacher-centred ones. Students preferred learner-centred methods such as group work. Initiatives used by teachers of English included: urging students to join debating and drama groups. Recommendations included: the ministry of education should sensitize all stakeholders in education .on the importance of English while policy makers and curriculum Developers should re-design the English syllabus that is not examination-oriented and include all the basic language skills then use formative evaluation to assess the learners to enable teachers of English to have ample time with students and help them exploit their potential and creativity in English language skills. More teachers of English should be deployed in each secondary school. In conclusion, teachers of English faced many challenges in developing English language proficiency among students such as limited , resources and poor motivation.

A study of opportunities for improved rural pig farming in Western Kenya : feeding, productivity, marketing and public health

Author: Mutua, Florence Kanini

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Hogs ; Busia District ; Kakamega District ; Farming ; Western Kenya ; Feeding practices ; Marketing ; Public health ;

Abstract:

An integrated study to investigate rural pig farming practices was conducted in selected sublocations ofBusia and Kakamega Districts, Western Kenya from June 2006 to October 2008. Six Focused Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted in Kakamega District before beginning farm visits. A total of 288 pig farms were visited three times in the course of the study period. Data on pig management and feeding were gathered using questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews. Pigs were weighed and length and girth body measurements were taken using tape measures (em). Pigs were tested for Cysticercus cellulosae cysts using the lingual palpation. Two sets oftraining workshops were conducted after the initial farm visit. Discussions during the FGD were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Data were analyzed qualitatively using MaxQDA software; analyses involved identifying common themes. Women were responsible for the care of pigs while men played a key role in the selling. Pigs were the easiest animals to sell because they do not need to be transported to the market since buyers come to the farms. Poor market channels, poor breeds, inadequate government support, inadequate animal health support, diseases, and cultural and religious differences were some of the challenges identified during the discussions. From the study it was found that more women (69 %; 512 / 735) than men were interviewed during the farm visits. The interviewees' age distributions were: <30 yrs 34 % (250 / 735); 30 - 50 yrs 44 % (327 / 735) and >50 yrs (23 %; 158 / 735). Only 2 % (12 / 735) of the respondents had completed college education and approximately half (54 %; 400 / 735) were Catholics. Farmers owned on average 2.33 (?2.01) acres of land; this ranged from 0.125- 10 acres. The mean Number of nursing, growing and breeding pigs owned per farm were 5.0 (?3.4), 1.8 (?1.2) and 1.5 (?O.9), respectively. Pork was consumed by 74 % (212 / 288) of the farmers. It was the most preferred of all the meats by 39 % (49 / 124) and 27% (42 / 154) (p=0.003) of the farmers in Kakamega and Busia Districts, respectively. Most (73 %; 209 / 288) farms had no pig house because: they believed this was not necessary (8 %; 16/209); there was no time to build a pig house (13 %; 28 / 209); the farmer lacked the skill (11%; 23 /209); the farmer lacked money to buy construction materials (45 %; 93 / 209). More pig houses were observed in Kakamega than in Busia District (OR=5.4; CI 3.1-9.7). Pig-level and household-level prevalence of porcine cysticercosis were 4 % (52 / 1290) and 15 % (43 / 288) respectively. A total of 840 pigs were weighed during the study, including 363 young ts 5 months), 305 market age (5.1-9 .9 months) and 172 breeding age (2: 1 0 months) pigs. Separate weight estimation models were developed for each category of pig using a random sample of 75% of the data and then validated with the remaining 25 % of the data. These analyses were completed using Stata? statistical software. The young, market and breeding pigs weighed on average 12 (?6), 30 (?11), and 42 (?17) kg, respectively. The ADG for young, market and breeding pigs were 93 (?52) g, 125 (?58) g and 101 (?80) g, respectively. The weight estimation models were as follows: young pig weight = [0.18 (length) + 0.36 (girth) - 16]; market-age pig weight = [0.39 (length) + 0.64 (girth) -48]; breeding pig weight = [0.36 (length) + 1.02 (girth)-74]. The length and girth explained 88% - 91 % of the total variation in pig weight. The mean age at which sows farrowed for the first time was 12 months (?5.4) while the mean number of litters born to a sow before she was sold was 1.04 (?0.21). Average number of pigs born alive and weaned per litter were 7.85 (?2.55) and 6.61 (?3.25) respectively. Pigs were at:S 4 weeks (56 %; 182/324),5 - 8 weeks (36%; 117/324), or >8 weeks (8 %; 25 / 324) of age. The average price for weaned piglets was Ksh 619 (?174); however, this price was lower in Bu

Efficiency and effectiveness of dissemination pathways : a case study of push-pull technology for stemborers and striga weeds control in western Kenya

Author: Murage, Alice Wakukira

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Headquarters Library ;

Subject Terms: Stem borers ; Stem borers ; Chilo partellus ; Busseola fusca ; Striga hermonthica ; Striga asiatica ; Farmers ; Homa Bay District ; Kisii District ; Busia District ; Bungoma District ; Agricultural Extension work ;

Abstract:

Food security in Kenya is potentially challenged by increased infestation of maize fields by cereal stemborers (mainly Chilo partellus Swinhoe and Busseola fusca Fuller) and parasitic Striga weeds (mainly Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze). The conventional control measures for these pests have had limited acceptance by smallholder farmers in the region due to various socio-economic and environmental effects. The 'push-pull' technology (PPT), developed by the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) together with other collaborators, has been well evaluated by smallholder farmers as an effective method for controlling the two pests. However, this technology is relatively knowledge intensive, thus realization of maximum adoption will depend on how well-trained farmers are, via effective and efficient dissemination pathways. The information on efficiency and effectiveness of dissemination pathways is scanty in literature. This study therefore sought to fill this gap in order to proffer better targeting of resources in an efficient dissemination strategy. Both primary and secondary data were used in this evaluation. A total of 491 randomly selected respondents from Homabay, Kisii, Busia and Bungoma districts were interviewed, and secondary data were obtained from project records in ICIPE-Mbita. Data were analysed using: a weighted score index; an ordered probit model for pathway preference ranking; a two limit tobit for pathways' effects on adoption; a duration model for pathways' effects on the speed of adoption; and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for efficiency analysis. The results from the weighted score index show that field days (FD) were the most preferred dissemination pathway, followed by farmer field schools (FFS) and farmer teachers (FT). The tobit and duration model results show that FD had the highest impact on the level and intensity, and the speed of adoption, respectively, whereas the DEA results show that FD was relatively more efficient compared to FFS and FT in the short run; but in the long run, FTs were more efficient. Considering that the pathways are not mutually exclusive, it is imperative to account for the complimentary roles of the various pathways in strengthening the uptake of PPT technology. The dissemination pathways would be more effective if the target population is well segmented and appropriate pathways utilised for the various farmer segments. The findings of this study contribute to the framework for ICIPE and other research institutions to examine both their human and financial strategies in order to invest in dissemination strategies that are relevant, efficient and effective.

Characteristics of production system, Epidemiology and control of pig parasites in Busia District, Kenya

Author: Kagira, John Maina

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : PhD

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ; University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Busia District/Hogs/Nematoda/Oesophagostomum/Antelaea azadirachta/Carica papaya ;

Abstract:

A study was carried out in Busia District to characterize the pig production system, determine the prevalence and intensity of pig parasites, identify the risk factors associated with occurrence of these parasites and determine the efficacy of pawpaw products and neem oil against Oesophagostomum spp and Haematopinus suis infections in pigs. In order to achieve these objectives, socio-economic studies, slaughter slab and farm surveys and efficacy trials were carried out. For the socio-economic survey, questionnaire data on farm characteristics was collected from 182 farmers selected from the six divisions of Busia District. The mean number of pigs per farm was 3.6, mainly (1781182, 98%) for income generation. The production systems were mainly farrow to weaner (221182, 12%) and weaner to finisher (651182, 36%). The main production constraints as perceived by farmers included pig diseases (1481182,81%) and high cost or lack of feed (1481182,81%). The slaughter slab survey involved a questionnaire survey on 16 butchers and 6 slaughter-slabs in the main urban centres in the District. The average net income per annum for each butcher was Ksh 62,688 (897 USD), while the average profit per slaughtered pig was Ksh. 268 (3.8 USD). The main constraints to butchery business were conflicts with regulatory authorities (16116,100%) and lack of slaughter pigs (15/16, 94%). The study on prevalence and intensity of parasites was carried out at both slaughter slabs (37 pigs) and farms (135 farms, 306 pigs) level in Busia District. The prevalences of nematodes shed by pigs at both the slaughter slab and farm level were:Oesophagostomum spp (100% (37/37), 75% (230/306)), Strongyloides ransomi (16% (6/37), 37% (113/306)), Ascaris suum (19% (7/37), 18% (55/306)), Trichuris suis (3% (1137), 7% (211306)), Metastrongylus spp (54% (20/37), 11% (34/306)) and Physocephalus sexalatus (24% (9/37), 3% (9/306)). The gastrointestinal protozoan parasites in both the slaughtered and farm sampled pigs respectively included: coccidia spp (85% (32/37), 33% (1011306)), Balantidium coli (89% (33/37), 64% (196/306)), Tritrichomonas suis (89% (33/37), 42% (129/306)) and Entamoeba spp (100% (37/37), 87% (266/306)). The ectoparasites observed on slaughtered and farm pigs respectively were Sarcoptes scabiei (63% (21133), 64 (195/306)), Haematopinus suis (85% (28/33), 96% (294/306)), Ixodid ticks (40% (13/33), 30% (92/306)). The prevalence of cysticercosis was 4% (111284). There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between the amount of rainfall in a given Division of sampling and prevalence of all the nematodes except S ransomi. The prevalence of nematodes was associated with age, being highest in adults (Oesophagostomum spp), growers and finishers (A. suum, T suis) and piglets (S ransomi and P. sexalatus, Metastrongylus spp). There was negative correlation between the amount of rainfall in the Division of pig origin and prevalence of coccidia, Tritrichomonas suis, and Entamoeba spp, but a positive correlation with prevalence of B. coli. The prevalence of H suis was significantly (p<0.05) associated with amount of rainfall (negative correlation), class of pigs (highest in finishers) and lack of provision of housing. The prevalence of mange was negatively associated with amount of rainfall (negative correlation) and class (highest in sows) of pigs. Lack of latrines was the only significant (p<0.05) factor associated with the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The efficacy trials evaluated the effectiveness of pawpaw and neem products on Oesophagostomum spp and H suis infections in pigs using in vitro and in vivo tests. Papain and papaya latex were the most effective herbal products against Oesophagostomum spp. In the in vivo tests, levamisole, pawpaw latex, neem, papain, pawpaw powder caused faecal egg count reductions of 84.6%, 57.1%, 56%,43.2%,27.1%, respectively. At in vitro level, neem oil caused 100% mortalities in concentrations above 12.5% while amitraz at

Challenegs facing retired primary school teachers in sustaining their livelihood in Kenya : a case of Busia District

Author: Opiyo, Nicholas

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Busia District ; Educators ; Retirees ; Pensions ; Standard of living ;

Abstract:

The retired teachers in Kenya are living in poor conditions unable to make ends meet as they wait for their monthly pension. These retirees keep on struggling but because of their meager pension pay, it makes them develop stress and die soon after coming out of their active teaching career. There is need therefore to assess the strategies adopted by the teachers service commission (TSC) in responding to the retirement needs of teachers in Kenya. These may include the needs to increase their monthly pension, set up front desk for advising the teachers who are about to retire, setting up better retirement schemes among others to correct the poor state in which retired teachers are living in. This study brings to the fore the challenges facing retired primary school teachers in sustaining their livelihood. Study objectives included: identify challenges facing retired primary school teachers in sustaining their livelihood; investigating strategies used by the government in supporting retired primary school teachers to establish investment and coping mechanism of retired teachers; establish the influence of retired teachers' characteristics on their livelihood sustainability. The researcher assumed that the government and teachers unions are only interested in classroom teachers and once they retire, they were left to themselves. The study design was descriptive survey which was more applicable to this study. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches that were aimed at exploiting and describing the challenges facing retired primary school teachers in sustaining their livelihood. The study purposively sampled 52 out of the 172 male and female retired primary school teachers in four division of the larger Busia District. Snowball sampling method was used to get the desired sample. The data was arranged, edited, coded and analyzed using computer packages. The quantitative data was presented in the form of frequencies, percentages and tables using descriptive statistics and on the other hand qualitative data were presented in a narrative form after capturing the respondent's perception. Out of 52 questionnaires that were distributed all of them were completed and returned. This represented a response rate of 100% snowballing sampling was used where the researcher reached out to the respondents in person are instructions and offered one week within which responses were made and completed questionnaire collected. The age of respondents ranged from 51 years for the youngest to 82 years for the oldest with a mean age of 62.12 years most of respondents had monogamous relationships with children ranging from 3 to 18 ( mean/median) of 8 children each) with a comparable number of dependents. The retirees had served for an average of 32 years prior to retirement earning a median salary of KES 12,500 by the time of retirement and the pension of KES 1676 per month therefore the data collected entirely depended on the indicators of sustainable livelihood such as having bought land for development building a descent house for the family having educated children farming to get enough food for the family and having invested in profitable business enterprise. It was found out that 51.9% respondents did not achieve their goal of buying land for development 69.3% respondents did not carry out farming to get enough food for their families 69.3 % did not invest in any profitable business enterprises 98.1 % retirees did not build descent houses for their families 98.1% retirees are affected by the low pension per month that hinders them to achieve indicators for sustainable livelihood and 75 % retirees reported that un clear policies on retirement contributes great deal to their plights. Results from this study indicate that retired primary school teachers face numerous challenges. In conclusion the major causes of these challenges are the low pension, lack of collateral for loan with the exit of the pay slip and high fami

The effects of community based health education on the knowledge, practices and behaviour change by communities in Busia district with regard to malaria control

Author: Njenga, Ruth Wanja

Awarding University: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Malaria ; Health education ; Disease control ; Busia District ; Bed nets ; Babies ; Children and youth ;

Abstract:

Malaria is a curable and preventable disease yet it imposes a huge burden on the health and economic development of tropical nations. Communities in Kenya have various myths, cultures and misconceptions about its causes, symptoms, prevention and control. Community health education empowers communities to make informed choices regarding their health. The use of skilled-based health education about malaria provides communities with the relevant and accurate knowledge and skills needed to create conditions and adopt behaviors that reduce the risk of contracting and suffering from the effects of malaria. It is therefore important that accurate information on disease control is available at community level. A community based pre - post study design was adopted to evaluate the impact of health education on knowledge, behaviour change and perception with regard to malaria control in Busia District, Kenya. A total of 720 households, 360 at baseline and 360 at post intervention were randomly sampled from the study area. Both semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The intervention strategy consisted of training the communities on various malaria aspects and mass distribution of Insecticide Treated Nets/Long Lasting Insect treated Nets. Ethical clearance was sought from Kenya Medical Research Institute Scientific/Steering and the National Ethical Review Committee. Overall, 72.2% of the households at baseline and 95.6% at post intervention had mosquito nets. There were significant increases in the rates of bed net utilization whereby, in children below five years, a 28% increase was recorded; 23.3% in pregnant women, 12.4% in the household population and 11.4% among the household respondents knowledge of coartem/AL as the first line of anti malarial drug was 46.9% at baseline and 79.2% at post intervention evaluation. The main sources of malaria information after evaluation were from hospital/clinic/health provider (88.9%), chiefs baraza (83.9%) and posters/billboards (76.7%). Intervention with community based health education significantly increased (P < 0.05) knowledge of household respondents on the various malaria aspects. Health education impacted positively on the rate of bed net utilization among children below five years, pregnant women, household respondent and the household population. It also had a positive impact on respondents' knowledge of the various apects on malaria and Coarteml Artemether Lumefantrine as first line antimalarial drug.

Prevalence and risk factors for intimate partner violence among married female adolescents in Busia District in Western Kenya

Author: Murerwa, Rufus Amon

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Busia District ; Domestic violence ; Teenagers ; Women ; Couples ;

Abstract:

For more than a decade, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), also referred to as domestic violence or spouse abuse, has been recognized as major global public health problem, as well as serious human rights abuse. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Married Female Adolescents in Busia District in Western Kenya. To measure the prevalence of IPV, the study questionnaire borrowed from the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) (Straus, 1990; Straus, 1979), which includes questions that ask women whether their current or most recent (if divorced, separated, or widowed) husband/partner ever perpetrated any of a series of behaviourally specific acts of physical or sexual violence. Purposeful sampling was done and both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used. The study revealed that sexual and physical violence is wide spread among married female adolescents in Busia district. 66.5 percent of the sampled population reported having experienced physical and sexual violence or either of the two forms of violence from their spouse within the past 12 months compared to the national prevalence of 39.0 percent (KDRS, 2008) for women between 15-49yrs. A multiplicity of factors at individual, relational, community and societal levels were found to protect or put married female adolescents to a risk of partner violence. At the individual level, respondents' with a slightly higher level of education, those with financial autonomy, those who approved IPV and those who participated in organized social activities were found to be at a higher risk of experiencing IPV. At the relationship level, male partner aggression behaviour in the community and use of alcohol were found to expose their female spouse to violence while communication on family matters between the spouses was found to be a protective factor against IPV. At the community and societal levels, economic inequality between the spouses, male superiority and weak community sanctions for IPV were associated with high IPV prevalence among married female adolescents in Busia District. The study concluded that early marriage as a process in its self sets the stage for married adolescent girls to experience IPV by changing all the known and safe parameters of their life. The loss of protective aspects of family and friends, the expectation to initiate sexual activity, isolatipn and less power to negotiate with their marriage partner a state of affairs with which they can feel safe and comfortable increases their vulnerability to partner violence. The study recommended a series of actions for both immediate response and long term response to IPV experience by married female adolescents. The need for community mobilization, community based prevention, access to services and specific interventions for addressing IPV with specific target groups were recommended in the short run. The study recommends enforcement of legal age at marriage, gender equity promotion, empowerment of women and male engagement as long term strategies in addressing the IPV problem.

Patterns of HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing service uptake : the case of Busia District Hospital

Author: Wamalwa, Wycliffe Masibo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Busia District Hospital/HIV infection/Voluntary counseling and testing/Health services utilization ;

Abstract:

This research project discusses patterns of HIV voluntary counseling and testing service uptake based on a sample size of 4294 of weighted data from Busia district hospital over a three-year period. Unit of analysis include individuals who sought services, disaggregated by sex, age, levels of education, occupation, and marital status notwithstanding referral sources and reasons given for service uptake. Feedback from key informants targeted in the follow up qualitative study at various levels of HIV voluntary counseling and testing service delivery and management were an integral part of unit of analysis as guided by the study goal and specific objectives. Units of observation were patterns of service uptake derived from units of analyses. The research project is grounded in exchange theory with strong leaning on micro-sociological theories like rational choice, theory of reasoned. action, and role theory. The theories state that personal decisions are largely influenced by tendency to calculate risks and rewards li-nked to specific actions and behaviour. Individual decisions are made if rewards linked to specific actions and behaviour override risks. Theoretical conceptualization emphasizes voluntarism anchored in. individual own volition and informed consent. In the context of preceding theories, HIV voluntary counseling and testing service uptake is therefore viewed as an elective. The study adopts a non-experimental design that predominantly incorporates quantitative research methods with follow-up application of a qualitative technique. Secondary quantitative data set of 4294 sample size was purposively sampled due to its convenience and accessibility in? responding to the goal and specific objectives of this study. Generalizability of study findings is limited to service uptake at Busia district hospital over a selected three-year period. Overall the study identifies and discusses service uptake patterns. Follow-up qualitative study undertaken through key informant interviews targeted first line personnel deemed critical to the delivery of HIV voluntary counseling and testing services at Busia district hospital. District, Provincial and. National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services Managers were also interviewed. Results derived from interviews helped to address gaps, explain variations, and discrepancies emanating from analyzed secondary quantitative data hence firming-up overall understanding of the study. Results by specific objectives to derive summary findings are also discussed. Recommendations and challenges are cited. Way forward is stated and conclusion drawn to make future research more rewarding by adding to the body of knowledge.