14 Records out of 22207 Records

Factors influencing spread of HIV/AIDs among borana women in Sololo division, Moyale district, Kenya

Author: Bule, Tumme Teresa

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Sololo Dvision, Moyale District ; Boran (African people) ; HIV infection ; AIDS (Disease) ; Women ; Epidemiology ; Social life and customs ;

Abstract:

This study was set out to explore the socio aspects which leads to the spread of HIV and AIDS among Borana women aged between15-45, the issues are cultural practices like FGM, wife inheritance, domestic violence and the management of HIV / AIDS. Female genital mutilation and wife inheritance is also very rampant, among Borana community, which leads to the spread of HIV / AIDS. The community practices FGM in order to reduce women sexual argues, to uphold traditions and as a sign of maturity, this is done using crude weapons which are shared among the victims and this can lead to spread of HIV/AIDS. Early marriage is also rampant because the community doesn't value girl child education, therefore access to information, which raises the level of awareness of the respondents in relation to spread and prevention of HIV / AIDS is denied. The study therefore sought to establish social factors which lead to the spread of the disease and recommends remedies like women empowerment through education. Disregard for harmful cultural practices like female genital mutilation and wife inheritance. For this to be achieved the society, Government, churches, NGOs and other stakeholders will work in unity to reduce the rapid spread of HIV / AIDS. The researcher used a total of 196 respondents from Sololo Division, Moyale District. Questionnaires were used in order to get information from the field. Also questionnaires were administered to N GO workers, health workers who assist in the management of HIV/AIDS. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science as it will be presented inform of frequency tables, percentages and cross tabulations which was clearly to show the relationship between the variables. This study established that there was a positive correlation between female genital mutilation, early marriages, wife inheritance, domestic violence and Spread of HIV / AIDS among borana women with wife inheritance influencing the spread of HIV/AIDs most, followed by female genital mutilation, early marriages and domestic violence. This study recommend that the government of Kenya, NGOs and community based organization leaders should come together and create more awareness on vcT and its importance in Moyale District, condemn FGM, early marriages and domestic violence.

The effects of statutory justice approaches on traditional conflict management mechanisms : the case of Borana Community in Upper Eastern Kenya between 1963-2011

Author: Lakicha, Yusuf Ali

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Judicial process ; Customary law ; Conflict resolution ; Alternative dispute resolution ; Boran (African people) ; Pastoralists ; North Eastern Kenya ;

Abstract:

Northern Kenya is an arid part of Kenya, inhabited by the pastoralists who traverse the vast region on seasonal migrations as they seek sufficient pasture and water for their livestock. The harsh weather conditions and the shrinking range resources base has made pastoralists inhabitants of the region go through severe hardships in their survival manoeuvres to protect their lives and that of their livestock from the threats of the drought. This survival manoeuvers has occasionally resulted in conflicts among the communities. The conflicts of late have had numerous casualties, due to proliferation of small arms and weapons from the neighbouring unstable countries like Somalia. Due to the regions marginalization most state institutions are not adequately equipped, staffed or facilitated to handle their respective service delivery to the people. In particular the judiciary is among the least developed state institutions in the region. The courts only exist at district headquarters and are poorly staffed, with cases of one magistrate being shared by two or more districts being common. Hence the judiciary has little effect as deterrence to the perpetrators of conflict. The study sought to establish historical and contemporary factors that has contributed to conflicts among the pastoral communities in North Eastern Kenya and assess how these communities realise justice under customary laws and evaluate the effectiveness of this traditional justice system and how it should be formally included in the national policy to provide for a legal pluralism to ease pressure on the formal justice system and enhance access to justice. This study against all this odds facing the Northern Kenya region shows how the indigenous Borana community has alleviated these conflicts over the range resources through their institutions of range resources conflict management. These institutions which have checks and balances and defined division of roles have been preserved by the community and are active to this day. This is what has made their pastoralism livelihood viable and feasible despite the numerous challenges. The study further demonstrates how the justice regimes of the indigenous community appeals to their socio- political organization and demographic dynamics. Their justice system is restorative and seeks at all times to restore and repair the broken victim, offender and community relationships. The formal justice systems on the other hand is seen as alien to their value systems and does not take into account how the local pastoralist's communities understand and define crime and resolve disputes or conflicts. The study uses the restorative justice theory which builds reconciliation and reintegration and restoration of offender back into the society as opposed to the formal justice system which is retributive, punitive and aimes to make offenders suffer as much as the victim if not more. This study demonstrates analytically the socio-political and socio-legal aspects that characterize the customary and formal justice institutions and shows the existence of tension between them that needs to be addressed through a legal framework that accommodates the two in one that is legal pluralism. This is to allow the effective operations of customary justice systems without fear of contradicting the formal systems, and to have the customary restorative justice systems decisions of conflict resolutions and range resources management as binding upon the state.

The role of the radio in peace building : a case study of the KBC radio service among the Rendille, Borana, Burji and Gabra communities in Marsabit County

Author: Lechet, Lino Timado

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Rendille (African people) ; Boran (African people) ; Burji (African people) ; Gabra (African people) ; Marsabit County ; Radio broadcasting ; Conflict resolution ; Peace ;

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the radio in peace building. It was a case study of the KBC radio service among the Rendille, Borana, Burji and Gabra communities in Marsabit County. The study has found that, the KBC sub-service stations are all rated lowly in terms of attention and coverage of conflict reporting and mobilization for peace. This was assessed in the parameters of frequency of capture of stories related to peace and conflict as well as the air time given to such stories and the number of times such a particular story that find itself in focus is repeated to stress it. From the respondents' responses, it is clear that not much attention is given to coverage of conflict and peace efforts in Marsabit County. It is my hope that as time goes by; restrictive policy framework of KBC will be relaxed to allow the sub-service stations more space in terms of determination of news, coverage and time on air. This may lead them to develop more relevant content for the local vernacular speakers.

The role of traditional clan elders in conflict resolution among the Borana of Marsabit District, Kenya

Author: Adan, Wario Kabelo

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Marsabit District ; Boran (African people) ; Conflict resolution ; Pastoralists ;

Abstract:

This study set out to critically look at the role of clan elders among the Borana ethnic group in the Marsabit district in resolving inter-ethnic conflicts that has over the years led to severe loss of human life and property. Violent conflicts involving pastoralists have become widespread and increasingly severe in the upper Eastern regions of Kenya occupied by the Borana community. Despite the sustained local, state and regional efforts to resolve inter-community conflicts in this region, there has been no success in reducing the frequency and impact of these conflicts. The study was guided by the following specific objectives: 1. To understand the causes of conflict in Marsabit District 2. To investigate the role of clan elders in conflict resolution 3. To assess the effectiveness of the role of elders in conflict resolution among the Borana. 4. To determine alternatives to conflict resolution. This study adopted the theoretical framework based on the theories of Ralf Dahrendorf and that , of Karl Marx to try and understand the persistent conflict in Marsabit district. With regard to the study design, sources of data included both primary and secondary sources. The field research adopted a qualitative approach where the researcher took an active role as an observer and also an evaluative approach in which the researcher attempted to interrogate the contribution of the social value systems in maintaining peace. The data collection methods mainly consisted of case study, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and participant observer. In depth interviews were conducted with select key informants from amongst formal authorities, committee members, NGOs, CSOs, informal authorities, women groups and youth groups. The study found out that pastoralist societies in Kenya's arid lands frequently experience severe conflicts over access to water and pasture. However, the state apparatus in the region is weak and largely unable to prevent, respond or resolve these conflicts. The traditional conflict resolution mechanism by and large worked in the past but it is now facing legal, structural and generational challenges that have rendered it ineffective to resolve conflicts. The study noted the general feeling of powerlessness among the traditional elders to the effect that their role has been taken over or usurped by the provincial administration. The various peace interventions that have taken place among the pastoral communities in the area have given birth to series of peace resolutions and declarations, most of which seem to have worked well initially but faded out with time due to challenges to sustain them. External threats such as the administrative boundaries created by the Government with little regard to communal ways of life, is a major contributor to the ongoing pastoralist to pastoralist conflicts. It is also clear from the study that the institutions that are currently doing peace work in the study district like the government, civil society, faith based organizations and traditional systems are all lacking in terms of coordination and unity of purpose. The study noted the exclusion of both women and youth in the traditional as well as modem peace structures yet the two groups play significant role in conflict escalation. In order to address the above concerns the study recommends that community ownership of the peace processes be promoted. The peace structures should be de-politicized and be inclusive. The various structures should acknowledge their strengths and weakness and work to complement each other instead of undermining the other. The declarations made should be backed by all actors and the state should ensure enforcement of it for instance the modalities of compensation and punishment as stated in the Modogashe declaration. All structures should recognize and respect the role of women and youth and use them to champion peace actions in the area. Finally, according to the current central b

A critical exploration of mission practices of selected Kenyan churches among the unreached peoples of Northern Kenya between 1960 and 2008 : a case study of ACK, AIC, CITAM and KAG ministries in Marsabit

Author: Muchilwa, Bernard Amianda

Awarding University: Africa International University, Kenya

Level : MTh

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: Africa International University Library ;

Subject Terms: Religious organizations ; Evangelism ; Traditions ; Marsabit District ; Anglican Church of Kenya ; Africa Inland Church, Kenya ; Christ is the Answer Ministries (CITAM) ; Kenya Assemblies of God ; Gabra (African people) ; Rendille (African people) ; Boran (African people) ; So ;

Abstract:

With statistics indicating that Northern Kenya is the least reached area of Kenya with the gospel, there is a need to know how Kenyan churches are responding to the challenge. This study sought to critically explore the mission practices of selected Kenyan churches among the unreached peoples of Northern Kenya, Marsabit District, in the period 1960 - 2008. The researcher investigated Anglican Church of Kenya (ACK), Africa Inland Church (AIC), Christ is the Answer Ministries (CITAM), and Kenya Assemblies of God (KAG) ministries. The selected churches' mission theories, activities, and their contextual relevance among the Gabra, Rendile, Borana, and Somali ethnic groups were explored. The researcher used qualitative approach in collecting data with much leaning on ethnographic interviewing and limited participant observation. The sample had forty two informants who were drawn from field missionaries, mission leaders, mission trainers, leaders of mission agencies in Northern Kenya, and indigenous people who represent the communities the churches are serving. The study found that these churches use conventional evangelistic and holistic methods with little contextualization. Practices like 'storying', veterinary camps, and 'performance of miracles' have great impact. Traditional culture, especially the sorio sacrificial system, is strongly embedded in the communities and is a key to reaching these communities. There are numerous infrastructural, security, economic, environmental, cultural, and religious challenges to missions in Northern Kenya. For missions to succeed in this region stake holders must take note of these challenges and equip missionaries and natives to plant contextually relevant churches.

The investigation of the causes of conflicts between Borana and Gabra pastoral communities of northern Kenya and ways of conflicts prevention and reconciliations

Author: Kamau, Patrick Mburu

Awarding University: Africa Nazarene University, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Africa Nazarene University Library ;

Subject Terms: Boran (African people)/Gabra (African people)/Conflict resolution/Conflicts/Northern Kenya/Reconciliation ;

Abstract:

This study carries forward the investigation of the causes of conflicts between the Gabra and Borana pastoral communities of Marsabit in Northern Kenya, and discusses issues and priorities for conflict prevention based on the biblical concepts of reconciliation. Over the years conflicts between Borana and Gabra have become extensively severe. These pastoralist communities roam around Marsabit district driven' by the availability of pastureland and water for their animal's survival. The underlying causes of these conflicts are complex and multi-dimensional, ranging from social economic cultural political factors and others, which have threatened their existence. On the foundation of this investigation various conclusions and recommendations are considered which restrain conflicts and make these tribes compatible. Field research component of this study was conducted over a two week period in Marsabit town in February 2-16,2006. A non-probability sample method was used to collect data. The study purposively selected forty participants from each community as representatives of the population that translated to eighty participants. Questionnaires, Key informants, observation, focused groups' discussions and secondary data were utilized. Quantitative data was grouped into similar categories for analysis. Qualitative ~ Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (simple statistical techniques) in order to determine frequencies and percentages These frequencies and percentages have ~een presented using tables and figBres. Research found seventeen themes that contribute to causes of conflicts between these tribes. These themes are listed here in ascending order of the severity; revenge political incitements, drought, livestock rustling scarcity of pastureland and tribalism; scarcity of Water, current political boundaries infiltration of illegal firearm, cultural scarcity of water, current political boundaries, infiltration of illegal firearms, cultural practices and legal government laxity; favoritism, illiteracy, insecurity, misleading opinion leaders and superiority complex. Efforts that lead to prevention and alleviation of conflicts between Gabra and Borana should address each of the contributing causes of conflicts.

Keeping the 'peace of Borana' : aspects of peace and conflict in shifting 'indigenous' systems of Northern Kenya

Author: Arero, Hassan G W

Awarding University: University of East Anglia, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2002

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Ethnology ; Boran (African people) ; Pastoralists ; Conflict resolution ; Peace ; Gabra (African people) ;

Abstract:

The research is founded on the hypothesis that since 'indigenous' systems are in shifting terms of engagement in many societies in Africa the 'indigenous' conflict resolution methodologies cannot be entirely effective in addressing either the existing or potential conflicts in the war-ravaged continent. Based on research carried out among the Borana and Gabra pastoralists of northern Kenya, it aims at delineating and discussing the notions of peace and conflict within the remit of the dynamic customary concept of Naga Borana - 'peace of Borana'. It also attempts to show 'indigenous' aspects such as peace and conflict as constituencies of customary systems that are dynamically engaged within shifting socio-economic and political realities. In recent times the escalation of conflict situations in many regions of the world encouraged research in the intertwined subject of peace and conflict. Various disciplines used different theoretical and methodological approaches to the problematic notions of peace and conflict. Although anthropological research and focus on the subject is comparatively young, there is a growing interest in the roles played by 'indigenous system' in peace and conflict resolution processes. The emergence of the 'indigenous system' school of thought in the past decade was based on the premise that most conflicts in 'indigenous' social formations, such as those found in Africa, were resolvable using 'home-grown', or precisely, 'indigenous' conflict resolution and peacemaking approaches. The weakness with the 'indigenous' approach is its attempt to negate the shifting engagements experienced within 'indigenous' social formations. The assumption by the 'indigenous system' approach that the societies exist in isolated and unchanging historical realities is faulty and escapist. It in itself creates a major obstacle to any hope for the establishment of an alternative non-western theory and method of research in the needful area of peace and conflict.

The church and the Booran of Northern Kenya : an analysis and evaluation of the traditional Booran culture and religion with a view of the contextualization of the gospel

Author: Waqo, Naomi Jillo

Awarding University: Norweign School of Theology, Norway

Level : Mphil

Year: 2000

Holding Libraries: St. Paul's University Bishop Okullu Memorial Library ; Daystar University Library ;

Subject Terms: Christianity/Boran (African people)/Culture/Religion/Evangelism/Bible/ ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Appropriate development for nomadic pastoralists : a study of the Waso Borana of northern Kenya illustrating the value and meaning of holistic development amongst nomadic peoples.

Author: Hunter, Malcolm Ian

Awarding University: Open University, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1997

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Ethnology/Pastoralists/Rural development/Islam/Catholicism/Boran (African people)/ ;

Abstract:

This study focuses on what is meant by appropriate development for nomadic pastoralists. It is based on the perception that those societies which traditionally live in arid and semi-arid lands with their main livelihood derived from herding animals, have their own objectives and a wealth of indigenous knowledge, both of which must be taken into account when development plans are being made. This premise forms the basis of the method used in conducting the field research, depending chiefly on responses of a semi-nomadic group of pastoralists to the various development projects and interventions which had been attempted on, for and around them. The Southern Borana of Kenya were chosen as a case study as they have been the target group for a range of development efforts. The history and geography of the Borana are discussed as these are important in understanding the recorded responses and possible options for their development as perceived by them to be appropriate. A particular feature of this study is that it addresses the need for inclusion of the spiritual values of nomadic pastoralists when planning with them for development which will be appropriate and therefore most likely to be attractive to them. It will seek to show the need for a broader understanding of holistic or transformational development by looking at all the components or interventions used amongst the Waso Borana. A comparison of the relative appeal of Islam and Roman Catholic Missionary work is made to show their relevance to nomadic pastoralists like the Waso Borana to retain their traditional life style. This perception will lead to a consideration of what is needed for a more appropriate and attractive presentation of Christianity, including the adaptation of the Christian church to be an essential part of holistic development which is most appropriate to nomadic pastoralists.

Current religious practices and generational patterns among the Waso Boorana of Garba Tulla, Kenya

Author: Aguilar, Mario Ignacio

Awarding University: University of London, England

Level : PhD

Year: 1994

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Ethnology ; Religion ; Boran (African people) ; Garba Tulla, Kenya ; Gada system ; Waso Boorana USE Boran (African people) ;

Abstract:

This thesis attempts to describe and analyze the current religious practices of the Waso Boorana of Garba Tulla, Kenya. While the Boorana of Ethiopia and Kenya have all been united by a common language and a traditional system of initiation and organization, known as the gada system, the Waso Boorana have asserted themselves as a Muslim community. Since their arrival in the Waso area in 1932, they have been gradually Islamized. This study describes the current religious practices of the Waso Boorana in two settlements in the town of Garba Tulla. While the Waso Boorana are assumed as Muslims, through the thesis, their religious practices show a syncretic process of integration of Muslim and traditional Boorana religious practices. This syncretism is analyzed in communal and domestic rituals as part of an integrative process of social cohesion, gender differentiation and role specification. This analysis of Waso Boorana religious practices makes use of Karl Mannheim's concept of generations. In Mannheim's theory, each particular generation has an ethos, so that societal processes are the result of the influence exercised through history by each one of the generations. Therefore, the current religious practices of the Waso Boorana are analyzed through the theoretical reconstruction of historical processes in the Waso area through generations and each generation's own spheres of the influence in Garba Tulla today. The thesis puts forward the argument that Waso Boorana religious practices and their traditional beliefs are part of their current understanding of Divinity and the world.